The signaling tool box for tyrosine-based costimulation of lymphocytes.


:Triggering lymphocyte effector functions is controlled by a diverse array of immune cell coreceptors that dampen or potentiate the primary activation signal from antigen receptors. Attenuation of lymphocyte activation has been shown to be accomplished by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs that upon phosphorylation recruit protein or lipid phosphatases. By contrast, a general concept of signal amplification and/or diversification is still out. However, the recent discovery of antigen receptor-intrinsic costimulation by membrane-bound immunoglobulins in class-switched memory B cells identified a consensus phosphorylation motif that can boost antigen-induced signal chains and is also employed by costimulatory receptors on T and Natural Killer cells to provide secondary signals for cellular activation. Here we define a common basis of tyrosine-based lymphocyte costimulation comprising immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT)-like phosphorylation motifs and their proximal effectors, growth factor receptor-bound protein (Grb) 2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) enzymes of class IA.


Curr Opin Immunol


Engels N,Wienands J




Has Abstract


2011-06-01 00:00:00














  • Novel vaccine approaches for protection against intracellular pathogens.

    abstract::Vaccination against intracellular pathogens requires generation of a pool of memory T cells able to respond upon infection and mediate either killing of the infected cell or induce killing mechanisms in the infected cell. T cell-inducing vaccines must aim to target the antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) so tha...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Griffiths KL,Khader SA

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • The yeast two-hybrid screening technique and its use in the study of protein-protein interactions in apoptosis.

    abstract::The yeast two-hybrid technique provides a general approach for cloning cDNAs merely by exploiting the ability of their encoded proteins to bind to a protein of interest. The technique therefore offered a useful access to the analysis of the mechanisms of cell death at the initial stage of their study, when only a few ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wallach D,Boldin MP,Kovalenko AV,Malinin NL,Mett IL,Camonis JH

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cell death in the regulation of immune responses.

    abstract::Cell death is an integral part of the functioning of the immune system. For T cells, potentially autoreactive or 'useless' cells are removed through apoptosis in response to signals (or lack of signals) from their T cell receptor complex. A myriad of proteins that can initiate or protect cells from cell death have rec...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Winoto A

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood allergies and asthma: New insights on environmental exposures and local immunity at the lung barrier.

    abstract::While certain bacteria and respiratory viruses promote local inflammation and disease onset, a more diverse colonization of the different species in the (gut) microbiome may be linked to more regulatory responses and protection against asthma and allergies. These processes are also influenced in part by food intake, b...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smits HH,van der Vlugt LE,von Mutius E,Hiemstra PS

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: new players in asthma and allergy.

    abstract::Two years ago, T helper cells, including Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, were considered to be the most significant sources of cytokine during the orchestration of immune responses in the lung. Following the discovery of innate lymphoid cells, we now know that these previously unappreciated cytokine-secreting cells, includin...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Scanlon ST,McKenzie AN

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Innate-like recognition of microbes by invariant natural killer T cells.

    abstract::Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) express a restricted T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire and they respond rapidly to glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These glycolipid antigens have hexose sugars in alpha-linkage to two types of lipids that can bind to CD1d. Recent work has shown that the respo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kronenberg M,Kinjo Y

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • The gene defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease controls T cell dependent immune surveillance against Epstein-Barr virus.

    abstract::Our understanding of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) has advanced significantly in the past two years. The gene that is aberrant in the condition - SH2D1A/SAP, which encodes SAP (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule [SLAM]-associated protein) - was cloned, the crystal structure of its product was ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Howie D,Sayos J,Terhorst C,Morra M

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Maintenance of small intestinal and colonic tolerance by IL-10-producing regulatory T cell subsets.

    abstract::The intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to harmless exogenous antigens derived from food proteins and microbiota. Continuous surveillance by suppressive regulatory T cells prevents inflammatory responses to these antigens thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The nature of the antigenic pressure varies at ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Veenbergen S,Samsom JN

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Oncolytic viruses and immunity.

    abstract::Initially, direct oncolysis was thought to be the sole mechanism through which oncolytic viruses (OVs) exert their anti-tumor effect, and the immune system was perceived as the major obstacle in oncolytic virotherapy. Over the last decade, there has been a lot of debate on whether the immune system is a friend or foe ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chaurasiya S,Chen NG,Fong Y

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Thymic development and peripheral homeostasis of regulatory T cells.

    abstract::The development and maintenance of regulatory T (T-reg) cells is crucial for determining the level of reactivity in the immune system. Until recently, however, surprisingly little was known about the factors involved in the development of these cells in the thymus or the mechanisms that maintain them in the periphery....

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liston A,Rudensky AY

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Predisposed αβ T cell antigen receptor recognition of MHC and MHC-I like molecules?

    abstract::The diverse αβ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire exhibits versatility in its ability to generate antigen (Ag) receptors capable of interacting with polymorphic Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules and monomorphic MHC-I like molecules, including the CD1 and MR1 families. Collectively, these evolutionarily re...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Eckle SB,Turner SJ,Rossjohn J,McCluskey J

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Development and selection of NKT cells.

    abstract::NKT cells utilize a restricted alphabeta TCR repertoire that recognizes glycolipids in association with CD1d. The recent development of fluorescent CD1d tetramers loaded with the synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosyl-ceramide has led to a clearer definition of NKT-cell subsets as well as important insights into their ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: MacDonald HR

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Protein kinase C-theta;: signaling from the center of the T-cell synapse.

    abstract::The hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC)-theta; plays an important role in T-lymphocyte activation, as indicated by numerous studies in cell lines, was recently confirmed in mice deficient in the expression of this enzyme. In response to TCR stimulation, peripheral T cells lacking PKC-theta; failed to activate NF-ka...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Arendt CW,Albrecht B,Soos TJ,Littman DR

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Self-determinants in autoimmune demyelinating disease: changes in T- cell response specificity.

    abstract::Recent research developments support the following views regarding antigen recognition in autoimmune demyelinating disease: there may be no single autoimmune target protein; diverse peptide self-determinants from multiple myelin proteins can be recognized; target determinant epitopes may differ among individuals; and ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tuohy VK,Fritz RB,Ben-Nun A

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Discordant xenografting: challenges and controversies.

    abstract::The transplantation of organs between individuals of disparate species is being considered as a potential solution to a serious shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantation. We summarize recent papers concerning the immunologic barrier to xenotransplantation, the pathogenesis of hyperacute rejection and repor...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Platt JL,Bach FH

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sensing viral RNAs by Dicer/RIG-I like ATPases across species.

    abstract::Induction of antiviral immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates relies on members of the RIG-I-like receptor and Dicer families, respectively. Although these proteins have different size and domain composition, members of both families share a conserved DECH-box helicase domain. This helicase, also known as a duplex ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Paro S,Imler JL,Meignin C

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular events that regulate alphabeta versus gammadelta T cell lineage commitment: old suspects, new players and different game plans.

    abstract::The divergence of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells from a common precursor in the thymus is regulated by multiple cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors, most of which are not well defined. Recent studies have provided crucial data regarding the precise timing of lineage commitment and some clarification on the ext...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Narayan K,Kang J

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of self-tolerance by CD80/CD86 interactions.

    abstract::Antigen presentation by CD80/CD86-positive 'professional APCs' induces T-cell activation, whereas antigen presentation in the absence of sufficient CD80/CD86 costimulation may induce a form of tolerance. Blocking CD80/CD86 constimulation inhibits autoimmune disease progression in a variety of animal models, but whethe...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lu P,Wang YL,Linsley PS

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Innate receptors and microbes in induction of autoimmunity.

    abstract::Cells of the adaptive immune system (T and B cells) causing autoimmunity require activation signals that are normally provided by the innate immune system. Innate signaling receptors are obvious candidates for participation in the induction of autoimmunity, and the nature of these receptors suggests that microbes coul...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chervonsky A

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Innate recognition of intracellular bacteria.

    abstract::The molecular repertoire for innate recognition of bacterial pathogens has expanded rapidly in the past decade. These immunosensors include Toll-like receptors and the more recently defined NOD-like receptors (NLRs): NODs, NALPs, NAIP and IPAF. Toll-like receptors signal from the cell surface or endosome upon ligand b...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Delbridge LM,O'Riordan MX

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Signaling by type I and II cytokine receptors: ten years after.

    abstract::Discovered during the past ten years, Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription have emerged as critical elements in cytokine signaling and immunoregulation. Recently, knockout mice for all the members of these families have been generated, with remarkably specific outcomes. Equally exciting...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gadina M,Hilton D,Johnston JA,Morinobu A,Lighvani A,Zhou YJ,Visconti R,O'Shea JJ

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • HIV types and testing.

    abstract::The past year has seen the discovery of new isolates which do not readily fit into the established categories HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV, as well as the availability of new assays including the use of the polymerase chain reaction. New combination enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can detect viruses from two or more groups...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dalgleish AG

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • The instructive role of dendritic cells on T cell responses: lineages, plasticity and kinetics.

    abstract::Dendritic cells are responsible for directing different types of T cell responses, from thymic negative selection to the generation of effector and memory cells and the induction of peripheral tolerance. Recent studies indicate that the dendritic cell lineage, the extent of recruitment into inflamed tissues and migrat...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lanzavecchia A,Sallusto F

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Negative co-receptors on lymphocytes.

    abstract::The past year has seen significant advances in our understanding of critical roles of negative immunoregulatory signals delivered through the B7-CD28 superfamily in regulating T cell activation and tolerance. Structural data on CTLA-4 have provided novel insights into the inhibitory functions of CTLA-4. Initial charac...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Greenwald RJ,Latchman YE,Sharpe AH

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Immunogenic cancer cell death: a key-lock paradigm.

    abstract::Physiological cell death, which occurs as a continuous byproduct of cellular turnover, is non-immunogenic or even tolerogenic, thereby avoiding autoimmunity. By contrast, cancer cell death elicited by radiotherapy and some chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines is immunogenic. Recent data suggest that innate a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tesniere A,Apetoh L,Ghiringhelli F,Joza N,Panaretakis T,Kepp O,Schlemmer F,Zitvogel L,Kroemer G

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cell biology of antigen presentation.

    abstract::MHC class I molecules present degradation products derived from intracellular proteins, whereas MHC class II molecules generally present peptides derived from extracellular or surface proteins. Recent insights into the cell biology of MHC class I and II molecules explain this difference. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Neefjes JJ,Momburg F

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells.

    abstract::IL-17-producing T cells have recently been classified as a new effector T-cell subset, termed Th17, which is distinct from Th1, Th2 and Treg subsets. There has been much progress in the past year, leading to identification of the molecular mechanisms that drive differentiation of Th17 T cells. This has helped to clari...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stockinger B,Veldhoen M

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic and immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract::Recent research in systemic lupus erythematosus and animal models of lupus has provided new insight into the pathogenesis of this complex autoimmune disease. Progress has been made towards understanding the genetic contributions to disease susceptibility and induction, as well as towards elucidation of the lymphocyte ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Drake CG,Kotzin BL

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic and epigenetic regulation of IgH gene assembly.

    abstract::Precursor B cells assemble a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes by the process of V(D)J recombination. Assembly of IgH genes is regulated in a tissue- and stage-specific manner via the activation and then the inactivation of distinct regions within the one megabase IgH locus. Recent studies have shown tha...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sen R,Oltz E

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Harnessing immune history to combat influenza viruses.

    abstract::Individuals are exposed to influenza viruses throughout their lifetime. Accumulating evidence shows the first viruses an individual is exposed to leaves an imprint on the antibody response induced by subsequent drifted and novel influenza viral exposures. Imprinted humoral immunity against influenza viruses relies on ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guthmiller JJ,Wilson PC

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00