Disorders of cognition.


:Cognitive complaints are common in any adult neurology practice, and may present in a variety of ways other than classic "memory loss." In this article, the author reviews a simple approach to a symptom-based differential diagnosis, including recognition of impairment in several key cognitive domains as well as associated symptoms such as motor disorders, psychosis, and sleep disturbance. Standard evaluation and management strategies of the most common presentations of cognitive decline in an outpatient setting are reviewed.


Semin Neurol


Seminars in neurology


Woodruff BK




Has Abstract


2011-02-01 00:00:00












  • Rasmussen Encephalitis: An Update.

    abstract::Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare, devastating, progressive pediatric epilepsy. First described 60 years ago, RE continues to present challenges in diagnosis and management. RE causes a unilateral focal epilepsy in children that typically becomes medically refractory, results in significant hemiparesis, and causes...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cay-Martinez KC,Hickman RA,McKhann Ii GM,Provenzano FA,Sands TT

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment and prevention of primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

    abstract::Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which constitutes 10 to 15% of all strokes and affects approximately 65,000 people each year in the United States, has the highest mortality rate of all stroke subtypes. Hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation underlie the majority of cases of ICH. Warfarin not on...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Towfighi A,Greenberg SM,Rosand J

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Freud and consciousness: the first one hundred years of neuropsychodynamics in theory and clinical practice.

    abstract::Psychoanalysis emerged out of Freud's neuropsychologic studies of consciousness and cognition. This article describes the historical development of neuropsychodynamic theories of consciousness and personality, and traces their application to several neuropsychiatric syndromes of intense contemporary clinical interest....

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Miller L

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric brain death determination.

    abstract::Clinical guidelines for the determination of brain death in children were first published in 1987. These guidelines were revised in 2011 under the auspices of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Child Neurology Society, and provide the minimum standards that must be satis...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mathur M,Ashwal S

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic testing in mitochondrial disease.

    abstract::Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases with variable expression that often pose diagnostic dilemmas. Although definitive diagnosis of these disorders usually requires a muscle biopsy and mtDNA and enzymatic testing, standard metabolic studies including organic ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dougherty FE

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome: a review for clinicians.

    abstract::Syndromes characterized by persistent fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, and subjective cognitive impairment have been common problems in clinical practice for decades. The chronic fatigue syndrome case definition was created to standardize the patient population in research studies and to foster a syst...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goshorn RK

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Listeria and atypical presentations of Listeria in the central nervous system.

    abstract::Listeria monocytogenes infection of the central nervous system is often not recognized and treated appropriately in the crucial early stages of the disease. Most consider patients with underlying disease or immunocompromised states to be at risk, although healthy individuals may present with a neurologic syndrome caus...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bartt R

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Natalizumab therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::Natalizumab is a monoclonal therapeutic antibody that inhibits migration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking integrins. Several clinical trials have shown an excellent efficacy in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. This efficacy is also underlined by postmarketing dat...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Derfuss T,Kuhle J,Lindberg R,Kappos L

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Parkinson's Disease.

    abstract::Botulinum toxin (BoNT) therapy is frequently employed in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms. It can effectively ameliorate the symptoms of cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, sialorrhea, and hyperactive bladder. It is increasingly being used for additional PD-related indications including limb dystonia, ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wagle Shukla A,Malaty IA

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Poststroke upper limb recovery.

    abstract::Upper limb recovery after a stroke is suboptimal. Only a few individuals achieve full functional use of the hemiparetic arm. Complex primary and secondary impairments may affect recovery of upper limb function in stroke survivors. In addition, multiple personal, social, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tsu AP,Abrams GM,Byl NN

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    abstract::Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is common, and can be associated with many medical conditions. The majority of the patients with SFN suffer from painful paresthesia which can negatively impact their quality of life. Skin biopsy with intraepidermal nerve fiber density evaluation is the gold standard diagnostic test. Auton...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhou L

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical anatomy and imaging of the cranial nerves and skull base.

    abstract::Evaluation of patients with cranial neuropathies requires an understanding of brainstem anatomy and nerve pathways. Advances in neuroimaging, particularly high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have enabled visualization of these tiny structures and their related pathology. This review provides an a...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jha RM,Klein JP

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical Presentation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    abstract::Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive head impacts (RHI), such as those received in contact/collision sports, blast injury in military veterans, and domestic violence. Currently, CTE can only be diagnosed following death. Although the clinical features of form...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mariani M,Alosco ML,Mez J,Stern RA

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Postresuscitative intensive care: neuroprotective strategies after cardiac arrest.

    abstract::Cardiac arrest is a common disease in the United States, and many patients will die as a result of the neurological damage suffered during the anoxic period, or will live in a neurologically debilitated state. When cardiopulmonary-cerebral resuscitation results in the return of spontaneous circulation, intensive care ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wright WL,Geocadin RG

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Myasthenia gravis: diagnosis.

    abstract::The clinical history and neurological examination provide the most important data on which the diagnosis of autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is based. MG produces symptomatic weakness that predominates in certain muscle groups and typically fluctuates in response to effort and rest. The diagnosis of MG therefore depe...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meriggioli MN,Sanders DB

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Organic delusional syndrome.

    abstract::Delusions may be the most prominent manifestations of brain dysfunction, and a host of medical and neurologic conditions can present with or produce delusions. Recognition of the underlying disorder frequently aids in successful treatment. Comparison of organic delusional syndromes with schizophrenia suggests that lim...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gorman DG,Cummings JL

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Perioperative Consultation for Patients with Preexisting Neurologic Disorders.

    abstract::As the population ages, the prevalence of many neurologic diseases is increasing. At the same time, older patients are undergoing more surgical procedures. This confluence of events puts neurohospitalists in a unique position to provide both pre- and postoperative guidance to minimize complications, improve clinical o...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hudson KA,Greene JG

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Autoimmune Encephalitides and Rapidly Progressive Dementias.

    abstract::Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) or cognitive decline is a common presenting complaint in neurology. While primary dementia is often a concern, other forms of reversible dementia must be thoroughly considered. This article focuses on the growing field of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as it pertains to the differentia...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wesley SF,Ferguson D

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Autoantibody testing in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy.

    abstract::A recent development in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy patients has been the identification of autoantibodies directed against various peripheral nerve antigens. For some conditions, assay for the antibodies can be very helpful in confirming a diagnosis. In others, an antibody may be associated with clinical ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kissel JT

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Imbalance and vertigo: the aging human vestibular periphery.

    abstract::Dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance are likely the most common presenting complaints among patients 75 years and older in office practices. Although the cause of falls among the aging population is multifactorial, several studies have implicated senescence of the vestibular periphery. It is imperative that clinicians co...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishiyama G

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromusculoskeletal syndromes in wheelchair athletes.

    abstract::With the growth of wheelchair athletics at both grassroots and national levels, there has been an increased incidence of sports-related and overuse syndromes in the wheelchair-user population. This article provides an overview of the available literature on the incidence, prevalence, evaluation, prevention, and rehabi...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Groah SL,Lanig IS

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Percutaneous vertebroplasty: an emerging therapy for vertebral compression fractures.

    abstract::Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that occurs in epidemic proportions in Western societies and has a large economic impact. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is successful in alleviating subacute and chronic pain caused by osteoporotic compression fractures and pathological vertebral fractures from tumor infiltration. ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ng PP,Caragine LP Jr,Dowd CF

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromyelitis optica: a new perspective.

    abstract::The traditional view of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as a monophasic inflammatory disorder that affects both the optic nerves and the spinal cord is expanding. Over the last decade, a combination of clinical, radiological, pathological, and serological findings have resulted in evolving definitions of NMO and the apprec...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pittock SJ

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Spasticity and intrathecal baclofen.

    abstract::Severe spastic tone and/or spastic hypertonia can be the most disabling consequences of a neurologic insult, resulting from an excess of muscle tone. Baclofen, a GABA-B agonist, is one of the most widely used drugs in treating abnormal or disabling spastic tone. However, the effectiveness of baclofen taken orally is o...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Furr-Stimming E,Boyle AM,Schiess MC

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    abstract::Fungal central nervous system infections present in a myriad of clinical manifestation and remain a significant diagnostic challenge. Presenting symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, conventional fungal serum markers and imaging correlates of disease are seldom sensitive or specific; fungal culture growth or histopa...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jia DT,Thakur K

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Stroke in Pregnancy.

    abstract::Pregnancy and the postpartum period confer an increased risk of stroke. The risk appears to be increased for all strokes during the puerperium and for hemorrhagic strokes during pregnancy. During pregnancy, physiologic systems are under increased stress to accommodate the growing fetus, which results in substantial he...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sells CM,Feske SK

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Carotid endarterectomy.

    abstract::Carotid endarterectomy is an established surgical procedure to prevent stroke. The indications, preoperative evaluation, surgical timing, technical details, complications, and special circumstances for the use of this operation are reviewed. Future developments in the surgical reconstruction of the extracranial caroti...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pritz MB

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Optic neuropathies for the neurologist.

    abstract::Before embarking on expensive ancillary testing, it is crucial for the neurologist to distinguish visual loss due to optic nerve dysfunction from other causes of visual loss. This can usually be accomplished based on specific features of the history and bedside examination. Once it has been established that a patient ...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Purvin VA

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The optic nerve.

    abstract::The optic nerve is our most important cranial nerve. As it courses from the eyeball to the brain, it is divided into four segments: intraocular, intraorbital, intracanalicular, and intracranial. Four tests are primarily used to assess its functional integrity and detect optic nerve disorders. These tests are described...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Selhorst JB,Chen Y

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Alphabet soup: making sense of genetic testing in CMT.

    abstract::The diagnosis of inherited neuropathies can be challenging in several ways. First, a hereditary neuropathy must be suspected. Although some family histories are clear with multiple members affected, other families require directed inquiry. Second, even when a hereditary neuropathy is clear, it can be difficult to make...

    journal_title:Seminars in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lawson V,Gharibshahi S

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00