Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in ischemic tolerance of postconditioning in hippocampus of tree shrews to thrombotic cerebral ischemia.


BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of the innate immune response. It significantly contributes to neuroinflammation and may be involved in ischemic tolerance. It is unknown how cerebral ischemia in the cortex and postconditioning might affect inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus or whether TLR4 expression plays a role. OBJECTIVE:This study explored the mechanistic hypothesis that postconditioning modulates TLR4 expression and thus improves inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus. METHODS:Thrombotic focal cerebral ischemia was induced by a photochemical reaction in tree shrews. Four hours after the photochemical reaction onset, ischemic postconditioning was established with three repeated five minute cycles of temporary right carotid artery clipping and a five minute reperfusion. Histological changes were assessed over 72h in hippocampal morphology (hematoxylin-and-eosin), myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression (immunohistochemistry), TLR4 expression (Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry), and TLR4 mRNA expression (semiquantitative RT-PCR). RESULTS:We found extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus that peaked at 24h after cerebral ischemia. This was significantly attenuated after postconditioning. Cerebral ischemia caused a predominant increase in TLR4 protein expression from 4 to 24h (P<0.05). In contrast, postconditioning caused a decrease in TLR4 protein expression from 4 to 24h (P<0.05), which increased at 72h (P<0.05). Hippocampal TLR4 mRNA levels showed the same trends as those observed in protein expression. CONCLUSION:These findings indicated that TLR4 signaling and innate immunity may be involved in the protective mechanisms of postconditioning and ischemic tolerance.


Brain Res


Brain research


Feng R,Li S,Li F




Has Abstract


2011-04-12 00:00:00












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    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deutsch DG,Schechter N,Brecha N,Quitschke W,Schulman P,Cane M,Gazzaniga MS,Simpson MV

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    journal_title:Brain research

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    authors: Sumitomo I,Takahashi Y,Kayama Y,Ogawa T

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  • Effects of neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate on circadian locomotor rhythm in the rat.

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    journal_title:Brain research

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    authors: Miyabo S,Yamamura I,Ooya E,Aoyagi N,Horikawa Y,Hayashi S

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  • Chronic intracerebral infusions of vasopressin and vasopressin antagonist modulate social recognition in rat.

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    journal_title:Brain research

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    journal_title:Brain research

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    authors: Wahlström G

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  • Angiotensin II and III microinjections into the zona incerta influence drinking behavior.

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    journal_title:Brain research

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    authors: Bagi EE,Fekete E,Lénárd L

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    authors: Marques JF,Canessa N,Siri S,Catricalà E,Cappa S

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    abstract::Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome. Mechanisms suggested to account for this functional improvement include axonal regeneration, remyelination and neuroprotection. OECs transplanted into transected peripheral nerve have been shown to mo...

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    authors: Dombrowski MA,Sasaki M,Lankford KL,Kocsis JD,Radtke C

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  • LRIG1, human EGFR inhibitor, reverses multidrug resistance through modulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2.

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    authors: Krigolson OE,Holroyd CB

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  • Centrifugal fibers to the rat retina from the medial pretectal area and the periaqueductal grey matter.

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    abstract::Dantrolene sodium, a skeletal muscle relaxant, was investigated for its action on single motor units of the peroneus tertius muscle in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone sodium. Motor axons were isolated in ventral root filaments and their muscle units were identified as either fast-fatiguable (FF), fast-resistant...

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  • Contributions of efference copy to limb localization: evidence from deafferentation.

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    authors: Medina J,Jax SA,Brown MJ,Coslett HB

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    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Köhler C,Schwarcz R

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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