Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in ischemic tolerance of postconditioning in hippocampus of tree shrews to thrombotic cerebral ischemia.


BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of the innate immune response. It significantly contributes to neuroinflammation and may be involved in ischemic tolerance. It is unknown how cerebral ischemia in the cortex and postconditioning might affect inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus or whether TLR4 expression plays a role. OBJECTIVE:This study explored the mechanistic hypothesis that postconditioning modulates TLR4 expression and thus improves inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus. METHODS:Thrombotic focal cerebral ischemia was induced by a photochemical reaction in tree shrews. Four hours after the photochemical reaction onset, ischemic postconditioning was established with three repeated five minute cycles of temporary right carotid artery clipping and a five minute reperfusion. Histological changes were assessed over 72h in hippocampal morphology (hematoxylin-and-eosin), myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression (immunohistochemistry), TLR4 expression (Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry), and TLR4 mRNA expression (semiquantitative RT-PCR). RESULTS:We found extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus that peaked at 24h after cerebral ischemia. This was significantly attenuated after postconditioning. Cerebral ischemia caused a predominant increase in TLR4 protein expression from 4 to 24h (P<0.05). In contrast, postconditioning caused a decrease in TLR4 protein expression from 4 to 24h (P<0.05), which increased at 72h (P<0.05). Hippocampal TLR4 mRNA levels showed the same trends as those observed in protein expression. CONCLUSION:These findings indicated that TLR4 signaling and innate immunity may be involved in the protective mechanisms of postconditioning and ischemic tolerance.


Brain Res


Brain research


Feng R,Li S,Li F




Has Abstract


2011-04-12 00:00:00












  • Expression of c-fos-like immunoreactivity in the feline brainstem in response to isometric muscle contraction and baroreceptor reflex changes in arterial pressure.

    abstract::This study compared whether activation of muscle ergoreceptor afferents caused by isometric muscle contraction, activation of baroreceptor afferents induced by i.v. infusion of phenylephrine, or baroreceptor afferent inactivation, caused by carotid artery occlusion, elicit similar patterns of c-Fos induction in brains...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams CA,Loyd SD,Hampton TA,Hoover DB

    更新日期:2000-01-10 00:00:00

  • In mice, production of plasma IL-1 and IL-6 in response to MPTP is related to behavioral lateralization.

    abstract::1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces dopaminergic neuron death in substantia nigra and dopamine loss in striatum, similar to those observed in Parkinson disease. Given MPTP can also induce alterations in brain cytokines and in peripheral immune parameters, we hypothesize that MPTP can induce an ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shen YQ,Hebert G,Su Y,Moze E,Neveu PJ,Li KS

    更新日期:2005-05-31 00:00:00

  • Inositol trisphosphate-induced calcium release in brain microsomes.

    abstract::The effects of different ionic media on Ca2+ uptake and release in isolated brain microsomes were investigated. KCl (100 mM) provided the best medium for Ca2+ uptake in the presence of ATP. The effect of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) on Ca2+ release was examined and was maximum at 0.2 microM. IP3-induced Ca2+...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shah J,Cohen RS,Pant HC

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differential pulse voltammetry: simultaneous in vivo measurement of ascorbic acid, catechols and 5-hydroxyindoles in the rat striatum.

    abstract::This paper describes carbon fibre electrodes that can simultaneously monitor changes in ascorbic acid, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in vivo in the rat striatum using differential pulse voltammetry. The separation between DOPAC and 5HIAA oxidation is...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crespi F,Sharp T,Maidment NT,Marsden CA

    更新日期:1984-11-19 00:00:00

  • Atrophy of medium spiny I striatal dendrites in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Loss of dopaminergic neurons from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and results in a partial deafferentation to the striatum. Since deafferentation is known to induce transynaptic atrophy of postsynaptic cells, we examined by Golgi impregnation the morph...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McNeill TH,Brown SA,Rafols JA,Shoulson I

    更新日期:1988-07-05 00:00:00

  • The basis and functional role of the late EMG activity in human forearm muscles following wrist displacement.

    abstract::The present paper examines the hypothesis that the long latency EMG activity produced by muscle stretch is the result of long loop reflex pathways involved in the control of limb stiffness. We recorded the cerebral responses and late EMG activity in agonist and antagonist muscles following sudden stretch of the wrist ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodin DS,Aminoff MJ

    更新日期:1992-08-28 00:00:00

  • ADAM17 promotes U87 glioblastoma stem cell migration and invasion.

    abstract::Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to contribute to the diffuse invasiveness of malignant gliomas. Emerging evidence supports a role for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several EGFR-binding ligands, which subsequently activate PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen X,Chen L,Chen J,Hu W,Gao H,Xie B,Wang X,Yin Z,Li S,Wang X

    更新日期:2013-11-13 00:00:00

  • Sleep-awake responses elicited from medial preoptic area on application of norepinephrine and phenoxybenzamine in free moving rats.

    abstract::The study makes an attempt to find out the action of norepinephrine (NE) and phenoxybenzamine (PB), applied at medial preoptic area (mPOA), in altering the sleep-awake responses, in free moving rats, which has not yet been reported. Effects of application of NE during day and PB during night, at mPOA, on sleep-awake r...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohan Kumar V,Datta S,Chhina GS,Gandhi N,Singh B

    更新日期:1984-11-26 00:00:00

  • Sinoaortic denervation prevents enhanced heat loss induced by central cholinergic stimulation during physical exercise.

    abstract::The present study investigated whether the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on thermoregulation during exercise are modulated by arterial baroreceptors. Wistar rats were submitted to sinoaortic denervation (SAD) or sham denervation (SHAM) and then fitted with a chronic guide cannula into the lateral cerebral...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pires W,Wanner SP,Lima MR,Oliveira BM,Guimarães JB,de Lima DC,Haibara AS,Rodrigues LO,Coimbra CC,Lima NR

    更新日期:2010-12-17 00:00:00

  • Vestibular modulation of plasma vasopressin levels in rats.

    abstract::Recent studies, which have shown an increase of plasma vasopressin (VP) in experimental motion sickness and the efficacy of VP antagonists for motion sickness, suggest an important role of VP in the development of vestibulo-autonomic responses. We have recently found evidence of the co-existence of vasopressinergic ne...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horii A,Koike K,Uno A,Uno Y,Kubo T

    更新日期:2001-09-28 00:00:00

  • Induction of the immediate early gene c-jun in human spinal cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with concomitant loss of NMDA receptor NR-1 and glycine transporter mRNA.

    abstract::The aetiology of the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is poorly understood although abnormalities in glutamate and glycine transport have been implicated which both could contribute to a neurodegenerative process mediated through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In this study we have used ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Virgo L,de Belleroche J

    更新日期:1995-04-03 00:00:00

  • Effects of sex, age, and aggressive traits in man on brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding potential measured by PET using [C-11]WAY-100635.

    abstract::Serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors have been implicated in a variety of conditions including, depression, suicidal behavior, and aggression. Post-mortem brain studies and in vivo imaging studies report a variety of age and sex effects on brain 5-HT(1A) binding. Behavioral data from 5-HT(1A) specific pharmacological challen...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parsey RV,Oquendo MA,Simpson NR,Ogden RT,Van Heertum R,Arango V,Mann JJ

    更新日期:2002-11-08 00:00:00

  • Evidence for a differential modulation of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors by angiotensin II in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the spontaneously hypertensive and the Wistar-Kyoto normotensive rats.

    abstract::An interaction between angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors and alpha 2-adrenoceptors was evaluated in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) using quantitative receptor autoradiography and cardiovascular analysis. In the WKY rat, Ang...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fior DR,Yang SN,Ganten U,Ganten D,Fuxe K

    更新日期:1995-05-08 00:00:00

  • Ontogenesis of N-acetyl-aspartate and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in rat brain.

    abstract::The levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) were measured in several regions and in whole brain of rats from 15 days of gestation (DG) to adulthood by means of an isocratic HPLC method. The levels of NAAG in whole brain increased 3-fold between 15 DG and birth, which was 90% of the ad...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koller KJ,Coyle JT

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial acuity of the chicken.

    abstract::Visual acuity was measured by determining the highest spatial acuity at which chickens aged 1-25 days jumped consistently to a physically supported grating instead of to an unsupported homogeneous field. In contrast to the gradual visual development found for kittens, monkeys, and humans, the chicken exhibits asymptot...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Over R,Moore D

    更新日期:1981-05-04 00:00:00

  • Behavioral effects of agents active at the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex in the staircase paradigm.

    abstract::This study examined the behavioral effects of agents active at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor complex in the mouse staircase paradigm. The neuroactivesteroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were compared with the benzodiazepine agonist clonazepam, the non-benz...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weizman R,Paz L,Peter Y,Toren P,Pick CG

    更新日期:2001-05-18 00:00:00

  • Fluoxetine attenuates the DL-fenfluramine-induced increase in extracellular serotonin as measured by in vivo dialysis.

    abstract::Rats with hippocampal dialysis probes were treated with DL-fenfluramine (FEN), fluoxetine, or FEN with fluoxetine pre-treatment. FEN (12.5 mg/kg) increased extracellular serotonin (5-HT) from 0.4 +/- 0.04 to 25.2 +/- 4.16 pg/10 microliters. Fluoxetine (10.0 mg/kg) increased extracellular 5-HT levels from 0.4 +/- 0.05 ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sabol KE,Richards JB,Seiden LS

    更新日期:1992-07-10 00:00:00

  • A study of the kinetic behaviour of glucose based on simultaneous estimates of influx and phosphorylation in brain regions of rats in different physiological states.

    abstract::Results from the application of a procedure that allows simultaneous estimation of the rates of glucose transport from blood and of glucose phosphorylation in discrete regions of the brain are given for groups of rats displaying chemically induced motor disturbances. The procedure is based on sequential injections of ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cremer JE,Ray DE,Sarna GS,Cunningham VJ

    更新日期:1981-09-28 00:00:00

  • Mesenchymal stem cells as cellular vectors for pediatric neurological disorders.

    abstract::Lysosomal storage diseases are a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders characterized by a deficiency in lysosomal function. Although these disorders differ in their etiology and phenotype those that affect the nervous system generally manifest as a profound deterioration in neurologic function with age. Over the...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Phinney DG,Isakova IA

    更新日期:2014-07-21 00:00:00

  • Muscarinic and nicotinic responses in the developing pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN).

    abstract::The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep decreases between 10 and 30 days postnatally in the rat, with the majority occurring between 12 and 21 days. We investigated the possibility that c...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Good CH,Bay KD,Buchanan R,Skinner RD,Garcia-Rill E

    更新日期:2007-01-19 00:00:00

  • Glucocorticoids regulate the synthesis of HSP27 in rat brain slices.

    abstract::Using mild heat shock of rat brain slices as a model for cellular insult, corticosteroid-mediated regulation of protein synthesis has been investigated. Following a single in vivo injection of rats with corticosterone or the Type II glucocorticoid receptor agonist, RU-28362, synthesis of a 28 kDa protein is elevated i...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barr CS,Dokas LA

    更新日期:1999-11-13 00:00:00

  • Substrate specificities of the two genetically distinct human brain beta-galactosidases.

    abstract::The two human brain beta-galactosidases were solubilized and fractionated by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, free from each other. Substrate specificities of the two enzymes were examined for galactosylceramide, lactosyl-[N-stearoyl]ceramide, lactosyl-[N-lignoceroyl]ceramide, galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-stearo...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka H,Suzuki K

    更新日期:1977-02-18 00:00:00

  • Localization of translational components at the ultramicroscopic level at postsynaptic sites of the rat brain.

    abstract::We investigated the localization of components of translational machinery and their regulators in the postsynaptic region. We examined several components, especially those involved in translational regulation: components of (1) MAPK-Mnk-eIF4E, (2) PI3-kinase-PDK-Akt/PKB-FRAP/mTOR-PHAS/4EBP, (3) p70S6K-S6 ribosomal pro...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asaki C,Usuda N,Nakazawa A,Kametani K,Suzuki T

    更新日期:2003-05-16 00:00:00

  • Which kind of transition is important for sound representation? An event-related potential study.

    abstract::Auditory transients (such as sound onset or a frequency transition within a continuous sound) are assumed to parse the auditory input into smaller units enabling the formation of unitary sound representations separately for each segment. This was discovered by using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weise A,Bendixen A,Müller D,Schröger E

    更新日期:2012-06-29 00:00:00

  • Brain injury improves survival of mice following brain ischemia.

    abstract::Minor brain injury was inflicted with a small needle at 4 sites one week before the production of incomplete brain ischemia in the mouse. A bilateral carotid clamp was applied for 60 min under pentobarbital anesthesia, and the number of survivors at one week after the ischemic insult was compared with those in animals...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahata Y,Shimoji K

    更新日期:1986-09-03 00:00:00

  • Intracellular calcium changes associated with cholinergic nicotinic receptor activation in cultured myenteric plexus neurones.

    abstract::Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured explants of myenteric plexus neurones by using the fluorescent calcium indicator Indol in combination with patch-clamp techniques. The basal [Ca2+]i was 94 nM and spontaneous oscillations in the internal free calcium concentration were recorde...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trouslard J,Mirsky R,Jessen KR,Burnstock G,Brown DA

    更新日期:1993-10-08 00:00:00

  • Regional changes in beta1 thyroid hormone receptor immunoreactivity in rat brain after thyroidectomy.

    abstract::Quantitative [125I]protein G-based immunohistochemistry was used to map the distribution of beta1 thyroid hormone receptor (TRbeta1) in normal and thyroidectomized adult rat brain, using a previously characterized polyclonal antibody. The distribution of TRbeta1-like immunoreactivity in normal brain was largely but no...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nobrega JN,Raymond R,Puymirat J,Belej T,Joffe RT

    更新日期:1997-06-27 00:00:00

  • Cortical and hippocampal EEG effects of neurotransmitter agonists in spontaneously hypertensive vs. kainate-treated rats.

    abstract::To analyze mediatory mechanisms underlying attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their association with epilepsy, the electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to various centrally applied neurotransmitter agonists were studied in spontaneously hypertensive (SH), kainate-treated (KA), and normotensive (contro...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vorobyov V,Schibaev N,Kaptsov V,Kovalev G,Sengpiel F

    更新日期:2011-04-06 00:00:00

  • Afferent and efferent innervation patterns of the superior olivary nucleus of the leopard frog.

    abstract::An HRP study of the frog's superior olivary nucleus (SON) revealed that it (1) receives reciprocal tonotopic projections from dorsal medullary nuclei and principal nuclei of the torus semicircularis (TS) bilaterally; (2) receives bilateral projections from caudalis nuclei and brainstem reticular nuclei, and unilateral...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feng AS

    更新日期:1986-01-29 00:00:00

  • Long-term potentiation in slices from subcortically deafferented hippocampi.

    abstract::Long-term potentiation (LTP) can be initiated in CA1, but not in the dentate, region of slices from rats with bilateral subcortical deafferentation at 8 week survival time. At about one week survival time, LTP is present in the CA1 region of all and also in the dentate of about 50% of slices. The results suggest that ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Czéh G,Horváth Z,Czopf J

    更新日期:1990-06-04 00:00:00