Glyoxalase system in yeasts: structure, function, and physiology.


:The glyoxalase system consists of glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal (CH(3)COCHO), a metabolite derived from glycolysis, with glutathione to S-D-lactoylglutathione, while glyoxalase II hydrolyses this glutathione thiolester to D-lactic acid and glutathione. Since methylglyoxal is toxic due to its high reactivity, the glyoxalase system is crucial to warrant the efficient metabolic flux of this reactive aldehyde. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the sole gene (GLO1) encoding the structural gene for glyoxalase I. Meanwhile, this yeast has two isoforms of glyoxalase II encoded by GLO2 and GLO4. The expression of GLO1 is regulated by Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors under highly osmotic stress conditions. The physiological significance of GLO1 expression in response to osmotic stress is to combat the increase in the levels of methylglyoxal in cells during the production of glycerol as a compatible osmolyte. Deficiency in GLO1 in S. cerevisiae causes pleiotropic phenotypes in terms of stress response, because the steady state level of methylglyoxal increases in glo1Δ cells thereby constitutively activating Yap1 transcription factor. Yap1 is crucial for oxidative stress response, although methylglyoxal per se does not enhance the intracellular oxidation level in yeast, but it directly modifies cysteine residues of Yap1 that are critical for the nucleocytoplasmic localization of this b-ZIP transcription factor. Consequently, glyoxalase I can be defined as a negative regulator of Yap1 through modulating the intracellular methylglyoxal level.


Semin Cell Dev Biol


Inoue Y,Maeta K,Nomura W




Has Abstract


2011-05-01 00:00:00














  • DNA replication: failures and inverted fusions.

    abstract::DNA replication normally follows the rules passed down from Watson and Crick: the chromosome duplicates as dictated by its antiparallel strands, base-pairing and leading and lagging strand differences. Real-life replication is more complicated, fraught with perils posed by chromosome damage for one, and by transcripti...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carr AM,Paek AL,Weinert T

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • From ABC genes to regulatory networks, epigenetic landscapes and flower morphogenesis: making biological sense of theoretical approaches.

    abstract::The ABC model postulates that expression combinations of three classes of genes (A, B and C) specify the four floral organs at early stages of flower development. This classic model provides a solid framework to study flower development and has been the foundation for multiple studies in different plant species, as we...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alvarez-Buylla ER,Azpeitia E,Barrio R,Benítez M,Padilla-Longoria P

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium signals and mitochondria at fertilisation.

    abstract::At fertilisation, Ca(2+) signals activate embryonic development by stimulating metabolism, exocytosis and endocytosis, cytoskeletal remodelling, meiotic resumption and recruitment of maternal RNAs. Mitochondria present in large number in eggs have long been thought to act as a relay in Ca(2+) signalling at fertilisati...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dumollard R,Duchen M,Sardet C

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Turning mesoderm into kidney.

    abstract::The intermediate mesoderm is located between the somites and the lateral plate mesoderm and gives rise to renal progenitors that contribute to the three mammalian kidney types (pronephros, mesonephros and metanephros). In this review, focusing largely on murine kidney development, we examine how the intermediate mesod...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davidson AJ,Lewis P,Przepiorski A,Sander V

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • There and back again: An evolutionary perspective on long-distance coordination of plant growth and development.

    abstract::Vascular plants, unlike bryophytes, have a strong root-shoot dichotomy in which the tissue systems are mutually interdependent; roots are completely dependent on shoots for photosynthetic sugars, and shoots are completely dependent on roots for water and mineral nutrients. Long-distance communication between shoot and...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wheeldon CD,Bennett T

    更新日期:2020-06-20 00:00:00

  • SERPINB3 and B4: From biochemistry to biology.

    abstract::Human SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 are evolutionary duplicated serine/cysteine protease inhibitors. Genomic analysis indicates that these paralogous genes were encoded from independent loci arising from tandem gene duplication. Although the two molecules share 92% identity of their amino acid sequences, they are distinct in ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sun Y,Sheshadri N,Zong WX

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • X-chromosome epigenetic reprogramming in pluripotent stem cells via noncoding genes.

    abstract::Acquisition of the pluripotent state coincides with epigenetic reprogramming of the X-chromosome. Female embryonic stem cells are characterized by the presence of two active X-chromosomes, cell differentiation by inactivation of one of the two Xs, and induced pluripotent stem cells by reactivation of the inactivated X...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim DH,Jeon Y,Anguera MC,Lee JT

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • The Sox transcriptional factors: Functions during intestinal development in vertebrates.

    abstract::The intestine has long been studied as a model for adult stem cells due to the life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium through the proliferation of the adult intestinal stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that the formation of adult intestinal stem cells in mammals takes place during the thyroid hormone-d...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fu L,Shi YB

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mito-mice: animal models for mitochondrial DNA-based diseases.

    abstract::We have successfully produced "Mito-mice" harbouring a pathogenic mtDNA mutation. We generated the mice by introducing mitochondria with a 4696 base-pair mtDNA deletion (Delta mtDNA4696) into mouse embryos. This deletion encompasses nucleotides 7759-12 454 and includes six tRNA genes and seven structural genes. In Mit...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakada K,Inoue K,Hayashi JI

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid distribution and transport across cellular membranes.

    abstract::In eukaryotic cells, the membranes of different intracellular organelles have different lipid composition, and various biomembranes show an asymmetric distribution of lipid types across the membrane bilayer. Membrane lipid organization reflects a dynamic equilibrium of lipids moving across the bilayer in both directio...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pomorski T,Hrafnsdóttir S,Devaux PF,van Meer G

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Nacre biomineralisation: A review on the mechanisms of crystal nucleation.

    abstract::The wide diversity of biogenic minerals that is found in nature, each with its own morphology, mechanical properties and composition, is remarkable. In order to produce minerals that are optimally adapted for their function, biomineralisation usually occurs under strict cellular control. This control is exerted by spe...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nudelman F

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Making an escape: development and function of the Drosophila giant fibre system.

    abstract::Flies escape danger by jumping into the air and flying away. The giant fibre system (GFS) is the neural circuit that mediates this simple behavioural response to visual stimuli. The sensory signal is received by the giant fibre and relayed to the leg and wing muscle motorneurons. Many of the neurons in the Drosophila ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Allen MJ,Godenschwege TA,Tanouye MA,Phelan P

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Diverse functions of Polycomb group proteins during plant development.

    abstract::Polycomb group (PcG) proteins play essential roles in animal and plant life cycles by controlling the expression of important developmental regulators. These structurally heterogeneous proteins form multimeric protein complexes that control higher order chromatin structure and, thereby, the expression state of their t...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reyes JC,Grossniklaus U

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the cytoskeleton and molecular motors in endosomal dynamics.

    abstract::The endocytic pathway is essential for processes that define how cells interact with their environment, including receptor signalling, cell adhesion and migration, pathogen entry, membrane protein turnover and nutrient uptake. The spatial organisation of endocytic trafficking requires motor proteins that tether membra...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Granger E,McNee G,Allan V,Woodman P

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • gamma-Secretase in biology and medicine.

    abstract::gamma-Secretase is a membrane-embedded proteolytic complex composed of presenilin and three other subunits. The gamma-secretase complex generates the amyloid beta-peptide of Alzheimer's disease but also plays important roles in normal physiology, especially in signaling from the Notch receptor. How this hydrolytic enz...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wolfe MS

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • A direct look at the dysfunction and pathology of the β cells in human type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::β cells uniquely produce and secrete insulin under the control of several, integrated signals, to maintain blood glucose concentrations within a narrow physiological interval. β cell failure is key to the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes, due to impaired function and reduced mass. In this review we focus on se...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marchetti P,Suleiman M,De Luca C,Baronti W,Bosi E,Tesi M,Marselli L

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Induction and patterning of the metanephric nephron.

    abstract::The functional unit of the mammalian metanephric kidney is the nephron: a complex tubular structure dedicated to blood filtration and maintenance of several important physiological functions. Nephrons are assembled from a nephron-restricted pool of mesenchymal progenitors over an extensive developmental period that is...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: O'Brien LL,McMahon AP

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes.

    abstract::Gene duplication events produce both perfect and imperfect copies of genes. Perfect copies are said to be functionally redundant when knockout of one gene produces no 'scoreable', phenotypic effects. Preserving identical, duplicate copies of genes is problematic as all copies are prone to accumulate neutral mutations ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krakauer DC,Nowak MA

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nerves, H2O2 and Shh: Three players in the game of regeneration.

    abstract::The tight control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels is required during regeneration. H2O2 in particular assumes clear signalling functions at different steps in this process. Injured nerves induce high levels of H2O2 through the activation of the Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, providing an environment that promotes cel...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meda F,Rampon C,Dupont E,Gauron C,Mourton A,Queguiner I,Thauvin M,Volovitch M,Joliot A,Vriz S

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo analysis of progesterone receptor action in the uterus during embryo implantation.

    abstract::In order for a successful pregnancy to occur, the embryo must attach to the luminal epithelial cells and invade into the stroma. Then, the surrounding stromal cells need to undergo decidualization in order to establish the vasculature necessary for survival of the embryo. These events in early pregnancy are tightly re...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Franco HL,Jeong JW,Tsai SY,Lydon JP,DeMayo FJ

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Design and analysis of experiments with high throughput biological assay data.

    abstract::The design and analysis of experiments using gene expression microarrays is a topic of considerable current research, and work is beginning to appear on the analysis of proteomics and metabolomics data by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The literature in this area is evolving rapidly, and commercial software f...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rocke DM

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Experiment, theory, and the keratocyte: An ode to a simple model for cell motility.

    abstract::Lamellipodial locomotion of fish keratocytes is one of the simplest examples of actin-based motility. In the last four decades, fruitful collaborations between experimentalists and theorists have resulted in a detailed mechanistic understanding of the self-organized lamellipodial engine powering keratocyte motility. H...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mogilner A,Barnhart EL,Keren K

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Human in vivo-differentiated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    abstract::When entering tissues, monocytes can differentiate into cells that share morphological and functional features with either dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages. Monocyte-derived DC have been observed in humans at mucosal tissues and in inflammatory settings, where they are usually referred to as «inflammatory DC». In t...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tang-Huau TL,Segura E

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Purposeful patterns of spontaneous calcium transients in embryonic spinal neurons.

    abstract::Embryonic cultured Xenopus spinal neurons generate two types of spontaneous elevation of intracellular calcium that encode developmental information in the frequency with which they are produced. Calcium spikes regulate the appearance of GABA and maturation of potassium current. Calcium waves in growth cones regulate ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spitzer NC,Gu X

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion.

    abstract::Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact nature of the HA c...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blijleven JS,Boonstra S,Onck PR,van der Giessen E,van Oijen AM

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • The interplay of autophagy and enterovirus.

    abstract::Autophagy, an evolutional conserved lysosomal degradation process, has been implicated to play an important role in cellular defense against a variety of microbial infection. Interestingly, numerous studies found that some pathogens, especially positive-single-strand RNA viruses, actually hijacked autophagy machinery ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Huang L,Yue J

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Determinants of tRNA editing and modification: avoiding conundrums, affecting function.

    abstract::In all organisms tRNAs play the essential role of connecting the genetic information found in DNA with the protein synthesis machinery ensuring fidelity during translation. Following transcription tRNAs undergo a number of processing events including numerous post-transcriptional modifications that render a tRNA molec...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Paris Z,Fleming IM,Alfonzo JD

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Links between evolutionary processes and phenotypic robustness in microbes.

    abstract::The costs and benefits of random phenotypic heterogeneity in microbes have been vigorously debated and experimental tested for decades; yet, this conversation is largely independent from discussion of phenotypic robustness in other disciplines. In this review I connect microbial examples of stochasticity with studies ...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Draghi J

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Plasticity of the epigenome during early-life stress.

    abstract::Early life adversity remains a significant risk factor for the development of a host of negative behavioural and pathological outcomes in adulthood long after the stressor is over. Recent evidence indicates that these lasting effects of ELS may occur via alterations in the epigenetic landscape. Here, we review the mai...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burns SB,Szyszkowicz JK,Luheshi GN,Lutz PE,Turecki G

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • A three-tiered mechanism for regulation of planar cell polarity.

    abstract::Some epithelial cells are polarized along an axis orthogonal to their apical-basal axes. Recent studies in Drosophila lead to the view that three classes of signaling molecules govern the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. The first class, or module, functions across whole tissues, providing directional information t...

    journal_title:Seminars in cell & developmental biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tree DR,Ma D,Axelrod JD

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00