Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders.


:The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation of white matter have been further elucidated via diffusion tensor imaging methods. The emergence of functional MRI techniques led to an enhanced understanding of the neural circuitry of ASDs, demonstrating areas of dysfunctional cortical activation and atypical cortical specialization. These studies have provided evidence of underconnectivity in distributed cortical networks integral to the core impairments associated with ASDs. Abnormalities in the default-mode network during the resting state have also been identified. Overall, structural and functional MRI research has generated important insights into the neurobiology of ASDs. Additional research is needed to further delineate the underlying brain basis of this constellation of disorders.


Brain Res


Brain research


Stigler KA,McDonald BC,Anand A,Saykin AJ,McDougle CJ




Has Abstract


2011-03-22 00:00:00












  • NMDA receptor antagonist blocks the bradycardic but not the pressor response to L-glutamate microinjected into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of unanesthetized rats.

    abstract::In the present study we evaluated the role of NMDA receptors on the pressor and bradycardic responses to L-glutamate (L-Glu) microinjected into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of unanesthetized rats. L-Glu (1 nmol/100 nl) was microinjected into the NTS before and 10 min after microinjection of phosponovaleric aci...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colombari E,Bonagamba LG,Machado BH

    更新日期:1997-02-28 00:00:00

  • Rostral and caudal ventricular infusion of antibodies to dynorphin A(1-17) and dynorphin A(1-8): effects on electrically-elicited feeding in the rat.

    abstract::Lateral ventricular injection of antibodies to dynorphin A(1-13) was previously shown to elevate lateral hypothalamic stimulation frequency threshold for eliciting feeding behavior. The antibodies utilized in that study cross-react completely with dynorphin A(1-17) and, to a lesser extent, dynorphin A(1-8). In the pre...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carr KD,Bak TH

    更新日期:1990-01-22 00:00:00

  • Amygdaloid lesions produced similar contextual fear conditioning disruption in the Carioca high- and low-conditioned freezing rats.

    abstract::Rats selectively bred for high or low levels of emotionality represent an important and powerful tool to investigate the role of genetic variables in the occurrence of different anxiety disorders. In the present study, albino rats were selectively bred for differences in defensive freezing behavior in response to cont...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Castro Gomes V,Landeira-Fernandez J

    更新日期:2008-10-03 00:00:00

  • Neural correlates of successful memory retrieval in aging: Do executive functioning and task difficulty matter?

    abstract::The current experiment aimed to explore age differences in brain activity associated with successful memory retrieval in older adults with different levels of executive functioning, at different levels of task demand. Memory performance and fMRI activity during a recognition task were compared between a young group an...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Angel L,Bastin C,Genon S,Salmon E,Fay S,Balteau E,Maquet P,Luxen A,Isingrini M,Collette F

    更新日期:2016-01-15 00:00:00

  • Opiate effects on rabbit vagus nerve: electrophysiology and radioligand binding.

    abstract::Intracellular recordings were made from rabbit nodose ganglion cells in vitro. Morphine (up to 100 micro M), normorphine (up to 10 micro M) and D-Ala2, Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) (up to 5 micro M) each had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of the cell membrane, except for local anesthetic-like actions at ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shefner SA,North RA,Zukin RS

    更新日期:1981-09-21 00:00:00

  • Enhanced radiation-induced cytotoxic effect by 2-ME in glioma cells is mediated by induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA damage via activation of ATM pathways.

    abstract::Glioblastoma multiform is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, but there remains no effective therapeutic approach. 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, was shown to enhance radiotherapeutic effect in certain tumors; however, whether 2-ME can als...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zou H,Zhao S,Zhang J,Lv G,Zhang X,Yu H,Wang H,Wang L

    更新日期:2007-12-14 00:00:00

  • Expression of c-fos-like immunoreactivity in the feline brainstem in response to isometric muscle contraction and baroreceptor reflex changes in arterial pressure.

    abstract::This study compared whether activation of muscle ergoreceptor afferents caused by isometric muscle contraction, activation of baroreceptor afferents induced by i.v. infusion of phenylephrine, or baroreceptor afferent inactivation, caused by carotid artery occlusion, elicit similar patterns of c-Fos induction in brains...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams CA,Loyd SD,Hampton TA,Hoover DB

    更新日期:2000-01-10 00:00:00

  • Specific spatio-temporal activities in the cerebral ganglion of Incilaria fruhstorferi in response to superior and inferior tentacle nerve stimulation.

    abstract::In terrestrial gastropod mollusks (slugs and snails), olfaction is the dominant sensory modality guiding various kinds of behavior. Anatomical studies indicate that olfactory information is processed in the brain (the cerebral ganglion) in two lobes in particular: the procerebrum (PC) and the metacerebrum (MtC). This ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makinae H,Makino Y,Obara T,Yano M

    更新日期:2008-09-22 00:00:00

  • The retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold interferes with the infectivity of herpes simplex virus.

    abstract::Fluoro-Gold has been used previously to identify those trigeminal ganglion cells that innervate the central cornea. To examine the effects of Fluoro-Gold treatment on infection and spread of HSV in vivo, we measured the number of plaque forming units recovered from trigeminal ganglia 3 or 5 days after corneal scratch ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: LaVail JH,Carter SR,Topp KS

    更新日期:1993-10-15 00:00:00

  • Paraventricular hypothalamic influences on spinal nociceptive processing.

    abstract::Oxytocin properties have been studied in different experimental models in order to obtain evidence for its analgesic properties. The analgesic effect of an oxytocinergic pathway descending from the hypothalamus reaching the dorsal horn of the spinal cord has been studied. In anesthetized rats, we recorded single units...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Condés-Lara M,Rojas-Piloni G,Martínez-Lorenzana G,Rodríguez-Jiménez J,López Hidalgo M,Freund-Mercier MJ

    更新日期:2006-04-07 00:00:00

  • Ectopic discharges and adrenergic sensitivity of sensory neurons after spinal nerve injury.

    abstract::At various times after spinal nerve injury, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) from injured segments were removed with attached dorsal roots and spinal nerves. In an in vitro recording chamber, spontaneously active units were recorded from teased dorsal root fascicles. Sustained spontaneous activity could first be recorded at...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Chung K,Chung JM

    更新日期:1999-12-04 00:00:00

  • Neurotensin injected into the nucleus accumbens blocks the psychostimulant effects of cocaine but does not attenuate cocaine self-administration in the rat.

    abstract::The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) has been shown to modulate mesolimbic dopaminergic activity. Neurotensin injected into the VTA produces motor stimulation and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, when neurotensin is administered into the nucleus accumbens, it produces neuroleptic-like effects su...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robledo P,Maldonado R,Koob GF

    更新日期:1993-09-17 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological correlates of the efficient detection of emotional facial expressions.

    abstract::Behavioral studies have shown that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly and accurately than are neutral expressions. However, the neural mechanism underlying this efficient detection has remained unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during a visual searc...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawada R,Sato W,Uono S,Kochiyama T,Toichi M

    更新日期:2014-04-29 00:00:00

  • An analysis of the mechanisms underlying septal area control of hypothalamically elicited aggression in the cat.

    abstract::This experiment was performed in order to examine several of the underlying mechanisms by which the septal area and adjacent regions regulate quiet biting attack behavior elicited from electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in the cat. The results clearly indicate that stimulation of the septal area and anterior c...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brutus M,Shaikh MB,Siegel HE,Siegel A

    更新日期:1984-09-24 00:00:00

  • Effects of prostaglandin E2, forskolin and cholera toxin on cAMP production and in vitro LH-RH release from the rat hypothalamus.

    abstract::The present study attempts to elucidate the possible role of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the function of the neural luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) apparatus. To this end, in vitro LH-RH release from superfused hypothalamic fragments and cAMP production by hypothal...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim K,Ramirez VD

    更新日期:1986-10-29 00:00:00

  • Regulation of the blood-brain barrier integrity by pericytes via matrix metalloproteinases mediated activation of vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro.

    abstract::The blood-brain barrier consists of the cerebral microvascular endothelium, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. In this study, we analyzed the influence of primary porcine brain capillary pericytes on the barrier integrity of primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells in a species-consistent in vitro coculture ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thanabalasundaram G,Pieper C,Lischper M,Galla HJ

    更新日期:2010-08-06 00:00:00

  • Tonic regulation of the activity of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of the conscious rat studied by dual-probe microdialysis.

    abstract::In the present study, receptor specific compounds were infused via a microdialysis probe in the vicinity of the right locus coeruleus (LC). During the infusion of these compounds, the extracellular content of noradrenaline was recorded in the ipsilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) with a second microdialysis prob...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawahara Y,Kawahara H,Westerink BH

    更新日期:1999-03-27 00:00:00

  • Neurodegeneration caused by expression of human truncated tau leads to progressive neurobehavioural impairment in transgenic rats.

    abstract::Human truncated tau protein is an active constituent of the neurofibrillary degeneration in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have shown that modified tau protein, when expressed as a transgene in rats, induced AD characteristic tau cascade consisting of tau hyperphosphorylation, formation of argyrophilic tangles and s...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hrnkova M,Zilka N,Minichova Z,Koson P,Novak M

    更新日期:2007-01-26 00:00:00

  • Effects of exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on hippocampal long-term potentiation in rat.

    abstract::Modern lifestyle exposes nearly all humans to electromagnetic fields, particularly to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. However, the modulation of synaptic efficiency by ELF-EMFs in vivo is still unclear. In the pr...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Komaki A,Khalili A,Salehi I,Shahidi S,Sarihi A

    更新日期:2014-05-20 00:00:00

  • Anti-nociceptive effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nucleus raphe magnus of rats: an effect attenuated by naloxone.

    abstract::The present study investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on nociception in nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats. CGRP-like immunoreactivity was found at a concentration of 6.0+/-0. 77 pmol/g in NRM tissue of ten samples of rats, suggest...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang Y,Brodda-Jansen G,Lundeberg T,Yu LC

    更新日期:2000-08-04 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA-146a down-regulation correlates with neuroprotection and targets pro-apoptotic genes in cerebral ischemic injury in vitro.

    abstract::MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate target gene expression, and play an important role in cerebral ischemic injury. MiR-146a has been reported to be highly related to cell invasion, metastasis, immunity, inflammation and apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that miR-146a can ei...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou X,Su S,Li S,Pang X,Chen C,Li J,Liu J

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Late development of Zif268 ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex of primates.

    abstract::Zif268 transcription factor is expressed throughout Cebus apella visual cortex at high basal levels. Monocular eyelid suture alters the levels of Zif268 on neurons connected to the deprived eye, revealing ocular dominance columns in the striate cortex of Cebus as previously demonstrated in Old World monkeys (Chaudhuri...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silveira LC,de Mátos FM,Pontes-Arruda A,Picanço-Diniz CW,Muniz JA

    更新日期:1996-09-02 00:00:00

  • Return of ATP/PCr and EEG after 75 min of global brain ischemia.

    abstract::Acute, progressive global brain ischemia was induced in awake or anesthetized rats for 5-75 min. Ischemia was achieved with a subclavian-carotid artery occlusion technique (SCOT). After thoracotomy, both subclavian arteries (proximal to their vertebral branches) were tied-off and carotid artery catheter-snares install...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de la Torre JC,Saunders J,Fortin T,Butler K,Richard M

    更新日期:1991-02-22 00:00:00

  • Effects of inflammation produced by chronic lipopolysaccharide administration on the survival of hypocretin neurons and sleep.

    abstract::The number of hypocretin-containing neurons is markedly decreased in most patients with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. It is presently not known why the loss of hypocretin neurons occurs in these patients. In the present study, we tested the role of inflammation in the degeneration of hypocretin neurons. The proinflam...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerashchenko D,Shiromani PJ

    更新日期:2004-09-03 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of low calcium induced epileptiform discharges in the hippocampus by dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF 38393.

    abstract::The influence of dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF 38393 has been studied in vitro in the model of low calcium spontaneous epileptiform discharges. Application of SKF 38393 (3 microM) to the perfusing medium evoked a decrease in neuronal firing rate of hippocampal CA1 neurons. The effect of SKF 38393 was blocked by pr...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smiałowski A

    更新日期:1990-09-24 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of jaw-closing muscles by electrical stimulation of the ophthalmic division in man.

    abstract::High-intensity stimulation of the supraorbital region elicits, together with a blink reflex, a reflex inhibition of the jaw-closing muscles in normal man. The response differs from the well known inhibition obtained by intra- and perioral stimulation in two main features. Firstly, it consists of a single late silent p...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cruccu G,Agostino R,Lahuerta J,Manfredi M

    更新日期:1986-04-23 00:00:00

  • Nucleotide sequences of two embryonic drebrins, developmentally regulated brain proteins, and developmental change in their mRNAs.

    abstract::Drebrins are developmentally regulated proteins found in chicken brain and are classified into two forms of the embryonic type (E1 and E2) and one form of the adult type (A). Although the time courses of their appearance are different from each other, the structures of the 3 forms are closely related. Two kinds of dre...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kojima N,Kato Y,Shirao T,Obata K

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for excitatory amino acid transmission between mesencephalic nucleus of V afferents and jaw-closer motoneurons in the guinea pig.

    abstract::Previous studies have suggested that monosynaptic transmission between spinal primary afferent fibers and motoneurons is mediated by an excitatory amino acid, most likely glutamate or aspartate. No such comparable studies have been carried out in the trigeminal system. In an attempt to elucidate the neurotransmitter(s...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chandler SH

    更新日期:1989-01-16 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effect of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol against transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-apoptosis in rats.

    abstract::4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA), one of the major active phenolic constituents of Gastrodia elata Blume, a very important traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been shown to be an effective agent against the central and peripheral nervous disorders. In this study, we attempted to explore the possible mechanisms unde...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu SS,Zhao J,Zheng WP,Zhao Y

    更新日期:2010-01-13 00:00:00

  • Comparison of dopamine binding sites in the rat superior cervical ganglion and caudate nucleus.

    abstract::A comparison of morphological and biochemical characteristics of the D1-type dopamine receptor has been assessed in two experimental tissues, the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and caudate nucleus of the rat. Correlation of the distribution of this dopaminergic binding site using in vitro autoradiographic localizati...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ariano MA

    更新日期:1987-09-22 00:00:00