Endocrine parameters and phenotypes of the growth hormone receptor gene disrupted (GHR-/-) mouse.


:Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR-/-) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR-/- mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans.


Endocr Rev


Endocrine reviews


List EO,Sackmann-Sala L,Berryman DE,Funk K,Kelder B,Gosney ES,Okada S,Ding J,Cruz-Topete D,Kopchick JJ




Has Abstract


2011-06-01 00:00:00














  • Sphingolipids, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease: new insights from in vivo manipulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    abstract::Obesity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Sphingolipids such as ceramide and glucosylceramides, while being a relatively minor component of the lipid milieu in most tissues, may be among the most pathogenic lipids in the onset of the sequelae assoc...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Holland WL,Summers SA

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • The neurobiology of preovulatory and estradiol-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone surges.

    abstract::Ovarian steroids normally exert homeostatic negative feedback on GnRH release. During sustained exposure to elevated estradiol in the late follicular phase of the reproductive cycle, however, the feedback action of estradiol switches to positive, inducing a surge of GnRH release from the brain, which signals the pitui...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Christian CA,Moenter SM

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Implications of Nonphysiological Ovarian Primordial Follicle Activation for Fertility Preservation.

    abstract::In recent years, ovarian tissue cryopreservation has rapidly developed as a successful method for preserving the fertility of girls and young women with cancer or benign conditions requiring gonadotoxic therapy, and is now becoming widely recognized as an effective alternative to oocyte and embryo freezing when not fe...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grosbois J,Devos M,Demeestere I

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of membrane glycoprotein plasma cell antigen 1/ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and related abnormalities.

    abstract::Insulin resistance is a major feature of most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A number of laboratories have observed that PC-1 (membrane [corrected] glycoprotein plasma cell antigen 1; also termed [corrected] ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 or ENPP1) [corrected] is either overexpressed...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goldfine ID,Maddux BA,Youngren JF,Reaven G,Accili D,Trischitta V,Vigneri R,Frittitta L

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To summarize controlled trials examining the effect of calcium on bone density and fractures in postmenopausal women. DATA SOURCE:We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 1998 and the Cochrane Controlled Register up to 2000, and we examined citations of relevant articles and proceedings of international meetings...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Shea B,Wells G,Cranney A,Zytaruk N,Robinson V,Griffith L,Ortiz Z,Peterson J,Adachi J,Tugwell P,Guyatt G,Osteoporosis Methodology Group and The Osteoporosis Research Advisory Group.

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin degradation: progress and potential.

    abstract::Insulin degradation is a regulated process that plays a role in controlling insulin action by removing and inactivating the hormone. Abnormalities in insulin clearance and degradation are present in various pathological conditions including type 2 diabetes and obesity and may be important in producing clinical problem...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Duckworth WC,Bennett RG,Hamel FG

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin regulation of bone remodeling in health and disease.

    abstract::Osteoclasts and osteoblasts dictate skeletal mass, structure, and strength via their respective roles in resorbing and forming bone. Bone remodeling is a spatially coordinated lifelong process whereby old bone is removed by osteoclasts and replaced by bone-forming osteoblasts. The refilling of resorption cavities is i...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kearns AE,Khosla S,Kostenuik PJ

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses.

    abstract::Independently, endocrinology, radiology, and nuclear medicine can not optimally differentiate the etiology of the incidental adrenal mass. Rather, the insight necessary for this task must be contributed by all three disciplines. Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are being detected at an increasing rate. This tren...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kloos RT,Gross MD,Francis IR,Korobkin M,Shapiro B

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adiposity, the metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer in African-American and white American women.

    abstract::Breast cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in American women, varies substantially in incidence and mortality according to race and ethnicity in the United States. Although the overall incidence of breast cancer among African-American (AA) women is lower than in white American women, this can...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rose DP,Haffner SM,Baillargeon J

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Bile acid regulation of gene expression: roles of nuclear hormone receptors.

    abstract::Bile acids derived from cholesterol and oxysterols derived from cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways are signaling molecules that regulate cholesterol homeostasis in mammals. Many nuclear receptors play pivotal roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. Bile acids activate the farnesoid X...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chiang JY

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Natriuretic peptides, their receptors, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent signaling functions.

    abstract::Natriuretic peptides are a family of structurally related but genetically distinct hormones/paracrine factors that regulate blood volume, blood pressure, ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, fat metabolism, and long bone growth. The mammalian members are atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic pepti...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Potter LR,Abbey-Hosch S,Dickey DM

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • 11β-HSD1 in Human Fetal Membranes as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Preterm Birth.

    abstract::Human parturition is a complex process involving interactions between the myometrium and signals derived from the placenta, fetal membranes, and fetus. Signals originating from fetal membranes are crucial components that trigger parturition, which is clearly illustrated by the labor-initiating consequence of membrane ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang W,Chen ZJ,Myatt L,Sun K

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • The mammalian tribbles homolog TRIB3, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular diseases.

    abstract::Insulin signaling plays a physiological role in traditional insulin target tissues controlling glucose homeostasis as well as in pancreatic β-cells and in the endothelium. Insulin signaling abnormalities may, therefore, be pathogenic for insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, endothelial dysfunction, and even...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prudente S,Sesti G,Pandolfi A,Andreozzi F,Consoli A,Trischitta V

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Androgens and bone.

    abstract::Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androge...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vanderschueren D,Vandenput L,Boonen S,Lindberg MK,Bouillon R,Ohlsson C

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Realizing a Closed-Loop (Artificial Pancreas) System for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

    abstract::Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" that is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lal RA,Ekhlaspour L,Hood K,Buckingham B

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Animal models of nonthyroidal disease.

    abstract::Rats bearing transplantable Walker 256 carcinoma provide an opportunity to assess thyroid function and activity during an interval of time when the tumor has not affected growth rate. Rats with tumor have decreased serum T4 and T3 concentration and decreased serum FT4 and FT3 as well. These changes are due to a decrea...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tibaldi JM,Surks MI

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration.

    abstract::During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European countries. These ob...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Parent AS,Teilmann G,Juul A,Skakkebaek NE,Toppari J,Bourguignon JP

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • From discovery to function: the expanding roles of long noncoding RNAs in physiology and disease.

    abstract::Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a relatively poorly understood class of RNAs with little or no coding capacity transcribed from a set of incompletely annotated genes. They have received considerable attention in the past few years and are emerging as potentially important players in biological regulation. Here we di...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sun M,Kraus WL

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Endometriosis.

    abstract::Pelvic endometriosis is a complex syndrome characterized by an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory process that affects primarily pelvic tissues, including the ovaries. It is caused when shed endometrial tissue travels retrograde into the lower abdominal cavity. Endometriosis is the most common cause of chronic pe...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bulun SE,Yilmaz BD,Sison C,Miyazaki K,Bernardi L,Liu S,Kohlmeier A,Yin P,Milad M,Wei J

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of platelet-derived growth factors in the testis.

    abstract::Normal development and function of the testis are controlled by endocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are growth factors that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in various tissues during normal and abnormal processes such as embryo development, wound healing, tiss...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Basciani S,Mariani S,Spera G,Gnessi L

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pregnancy: challenges in disease detection and treatment.

    abstract::Pregnancy dramatically affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to increased circulating cortisol and ACTH levels during gestation, reaching values in the range seen in Cushing's syndrome (CS). The cause(s) of increased ACTH may include placental synthesis and release of biologically active CRH and ACTH...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lindsay JR,Nieman LK

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • The ways in which hormones change cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunits, and how such changes affect cell behavior.

    abstract::Hormones and cytokines regulate many cellular functions by activating the ubiquitous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase) system. Newly synthesized cAMP molecules bind to regulatory (R) subunits in A kinase holoenzymes, causing them to release their catalytic (C) subunits. These free C subunits then phosphorylate ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Spaulding SW

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • The matrix metalloproteinase system: changes, regulation, and impact throughout the ovarian and uterine reproductive cycle.

    abstract::The ovary and uterus undergo extensive tissue remodeling throughout each reproductive cycle. This remodeling of the extracellular environment is dependent upon the cyclic hormonal changes associated with each estrous or menstrual cycle. In the ovary, tissue remodeling is requisite for growth and expansion of the folli...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Curry TE Jr,Osteen KG

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin.

    abstract::Cells from the chorionic girdle of the equine trophoblast invade the maternal endometrium at day 36 of gestation and become established as secretory elements known as the endometrial cups. These structures, which persist for 40-60 days, produce a gonadotropin which can be found in circulation until about day 130 of ge...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy BD,Martinuk SD

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease.

    abstract::The endocrine functions of the adipose organ are widely studied at this stage. The adipose organ, and in particular adipocytes, communicate with almost all other organs. Although some adipose tissue pads assume the functions as distinct "miniorgans," adipocytes can also be present in smaller numbers interspersed with ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Trujillo ME,Scherer PE

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of cell cycle progression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathways.

    abstract::Many hormones, growth factors, and cytokines regulate proliferation of their target cells. Perhaps the most universal signaling cascades required for proliferative responses are those initiated by transient rises in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). The major intracellular receptor for Ca(2+) is calmodulin (CaM). CaM is...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kahl CR,Means AR

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Endocrine Toxicity of Cancer Immunotherapy Targeting Immune Checkpoints.

    abstract::Immune checkpoints are small molecules expressed by immune cells that play critical roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. Targeting the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) with inhibitory antibodies has demonstrated effective and durable antitumor ac...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang LS,Barroso-Sousa R,Tolaney SM,Hodi FS,Kaiser UB,Min L

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Potential Clinical Error Arising From Use of HbA1c in Diabetes: Effects of the Glycation Gap.

    abstract::The glycation gap (GGap) and the similar hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) define consistent differences between glycated hemoglobin and actual glycemia derived from fructosamine or mean blood glucose, respectively. Such a disparity may be found in a substantial proportion of people with diabetes, being >1 U of glycate...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nayak AU,Singh BM,Dunmore SJ

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha): transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator.

    abstract::Investigations of biological programs that are controlled by gene transcription have mainly studied the regulation of transcription factors. However, there are examples in which the primary focus of biological regulation is at the level of a transcriptional coactivator. We have reviewed here the molecular mechanisms a...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Puigserver P,Spiegelman BM

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Growth Hormone's Links to Cancer.

    abstract::Several components of the GH axis are involved in tumor progression, and GH-induced intracellular signaling has been strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in genome-wide association studies. In the general population, high IGF-I levels and low IGF-binding protein-3 levels within the normal range are as...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boguszewski CL,Boguszewski MCDS

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00