Cysteine enhances activity and stability of immobilized papain.


:Immobilization of papain on Sepharose 6B in the presence of different concentrations of cysteine affected the enzyme activity depending on cysteine concentration. The maximum specific activity was observed when papain was immobilized with 200 mM cysteine. The immobilization process brought significant enhancement of stability to temperature and extreme pH values with respect to free papain. After immobilization, the optimum temperature of papain activity increased by 20 degrees C (from 60 to 80 degrees C) and its optimum pH activity shifted from 6.5 to 8.0. Catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) and specific activity of the immobilized enzyme do not significantly change after immobilization. The temperature profile of this form of immobilized papain showed a broad range of activity compared with both free and immobilized form of papain in the absence of cysteine. This significant behavior in terms of activation energy is also discussed.


Amino Acids


Amino acids


Homaei AA,Sajedi RH,Sariri R,Seyfzadeh S,Stevanato R




Has Abstract


2010-03-01 00:00:00












  • L-DOPA: from a biologically inactive amino acid to a successful therapeutic agent.

    abstract::The article traces the development of research on the naturally occurring amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa), from the first synthesis of its D,L racemate in 1911, and the isolation of its L-isomer from seedling of Vicia faba beans to the amino acid's successful application, from 1961 onward, as the most...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Hornykiewicz O

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential associations of circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and cell adhesion molecules with metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease.

    abstract::Metformin, the drug of first choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reduces cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in part independently of improved glycemic control and changes in traditional risk factors. However, there are discordant reports on the effects of metformin on endothelial function in T2DM. Our ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kruszelnicka O,Chyrchel B,Golay A,Surdacki A

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood.

    abstract::The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink, which includes taurine, glucuronolactone, and caffeine amongst the ingredients, were examined over 3 studies in a total of 36 volunteers. Assessments included psychomotor performance (reaction time, concentration, memory), subjective alertness and physical endurance. When compared...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Alford C,Cox H,Wescott R

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis of (E)-δ-hydroxy-β,γ-dehydroα-amino acids, a new class of vinylglycines by the rearrangement ofβ acetoxyallylglycine derivatives.

    abstract::The efficient synthesis ofδ-hydroxy-β,γ-dehydroα-amino acids (1) was achieved by the hybrid process, in which the Pd(II)-assisted rear-rangement ofβ-acetoxyallylglycine ester (6) afforded the corresponding (E)-δ-acetoxyvinylglycine derivatives (7) in a moderate yield. The chemo- and stereo-selective hydrolysis of7 was...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirihata M,Fukuari M,Izukawa T,Ichimoto I

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Diastereoselective Michael reaction of chiral nickel(II) glycinate with nitroalkenes for asymmetric synthesis of β-substituted α,γ-diaminobutyric acid derivatives in water.

    abstract::We have developed the first operationally simple and environmentally benign protocol for the aqueous asymmetric Michael addition reaction of chiral nickel(II) glycinate with nitroalkenes. The reactions proceeded smoothly in the presence of TBAB (tetrabutyl ammonium bromide) in neat water at room temperature and provid...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Ji X,Shi J,Sun H,Jiang H,Liu H

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans.

    abstract::Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4. The aim of this study was to further characterize suggested determinants of the muscle carnosine content (diet, gende...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Everaert I,Mooyaart A,Baguet A,Zutinic A,Baelde H,Achten E,Taes Y,De Heer E,Derave W

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Short peptide constructs mimic agonist sites of AT(1)R and BK receptors.

    abstract::Extracellular peptide ligand binding sites, which bind the N-termini of angiotensin II (AngII) and bradykinin (BK) peptides, are located on the N-terminal and extracellular loop 3 regions of the AT(1)R and BKRB(1) or BKRB(2) G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we synthesized peptides P15 and P13 corresponding to...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lopes DD,Vieira RF,Malavolta L,Poletti EF,Shimuta SI,Paiva AC,Schreier S,Oliveira L,Nakaie CR

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Activity-based proteomics: enzymatic activity profiling in complex proteomes.

    abstract::In the postgenomic era new technologies are emerging for global analysis of protein function. The introduction of active site-directed chemical probes for enzymatic activity profiling in complex mixtures, known as activity-based proteomics has greatly accelerated functional annotation of proteins. Here we review probe...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schmidinger H,Hermetter A,Birner-Gruenberger R

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cell growth in arginine- and ornithine-deprived medium and conversion of glutamate to ornithine and arginine in rat hepatoma cells.

    abstract::A subline growing in medium without arginine and ornithine was established from a rat Reuber hepatoma cell line (R-Y121B·cho). The subline designated R-Y117B·cho was able to grow in glutamine, arginine and ornithine-free, glutamate-supplemented medium. Arginine synthesis from glutamate requires four urea cycle enzymes...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto K,Niwa A

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Preparations ofN, N'-ethylene-bridged dipeptides(eXX) constructed from (S)-methionine, -tryptophan, -tyrosine and-N(ɛ)-benzyloxycarbonyllysine through acid-catalyzed cyclization.

    abstract::N, N'-Ethylene-bridged bis-(S)-methionine[(2S, 7S)-2, 7-bis(2-methyl-thioethyl)-3,6-diazaoctanedioic acid] derived from (S)-methionine and 1,2-dibromoethane was cyclized and esterified simultaneously in boiling ethanol in the presence of an appropriate amount of strong acid such asp-toluenesulfonic acid, affording a c...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamashita T,Takenaka H,Kojima Y

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Biochemical characterization of the catecholaldehyde reactivity of L-carnosine and its therapeutic potential in human myocardium.

    abstract::Oxidative deamination of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase (MAO) generates the catecholaldehydes 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), respectively, and H2O2. Catecholaldehydes are highly reactive electrophiles that have been implicated as cau...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelson MM,Builta ZJ,Monroe TB,Doorn JA,Anderson EJ

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Aminooxy analog of histamine is an efficient inhibitor of mammalian L-histidine decarboxylase: combined in silico and experimental evidence.

    abstract::Histamine plays highlighted roles in the development of many common, emergent and rare diseases. In mammals, histamine is formed by decarboxylation of L-histidine, which is catalyzed by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent histidine decarboxylase (HDC, EC The limited availability and stability of the prot...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castro-Oropeza R,Pino-Ángeles A,Khomutov MA,Urdiales JL,Moya-García AA,Vepsäläinen J,Persson L,Sarabia F,Khomutov A,Sánchez-Jiménez F

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of tryptophan administration on ileum contractility and oxidant status in mice.

    abstract::L-tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor amino acid for the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT). 5-HT is effective both on the food intake and gastrointestinal system contractility. The aim of this study was to search the effects of systemic TRP treatment on 5-HT levels of ileum and searching the effect of ileal contractility an...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ozer C,Gönül B,Ercan ZS,Take G,Erdoğan D

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • N-acetylcysteine reduces inflammation in the small intestine by regulating redox, EGF and TLR4 signaling.

    abstract::This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could affect intestinal redox status, proinflammatory cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and aquaporin-8 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model. Eighteen piglets (35-day-old) were randomly alloc...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou Y,Wang L,Yi D,Ding B,Yang Z,Li J,Chen X,Qiu Y,Wu G

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of glycosylated (2S,4R)-hydroxyproline on the stability and assembly of collagen triple helices.

    abstract::Functionalized collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been widely used in the preparation of collagen-related biomaterials. Among the reported results, the induced noncovalent interactions between the implanted functional groups or moieties were frequently the key elements to promote the self-assembly of small CMPs. In...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang PW,Chang JM,Horng JC

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Adenosine receptor agonists affect taurine release from mouse brain stem slices in ischemia.

    abstract::The release of the inhibitory amino acid taurine is markedly enhanced under ischemic conditions in both adult and developing brain stem, together with a pronounced increase in the release of the neuromodulator adenosine. We now studied the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on [(3)H]taurine release...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saransaari P,Oja SS

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 4-km time trial performance in trained cyclists.

    abstract::Taurine (TAU) has been shown to improve exercise time to exhaustion and 3-km running performance; however, no studies have considered the effect of acute TAU ingestion on short duration cycling time trial (TT) performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single oral acute dose of 1000 mg of TAU...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ward R,Bridge CA,McNaughton LR,Sparks SA

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis, protonation constants and biological activity determination of amino acid-salicylaldehyde-derived Schiff bases.

    abstract::Schiff bases represent a class of molecules widely studied for their importance in organic and coordination chemistry. Despite the large amount of studies on the chemical and biological properties of the Schiff bases, the different experimental conditions prevent a useful comparison to search for a correlation structu...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fattuoni C,Vascellari S,Pivetta T

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Literature review on the role of dietary protein and amino acids in cognitive functioning and cognitive decline.

    abstract::As the population of elderly people is growing rapidly, the number of individuals with dementia and cognitive impairment is also increasing. One of the preventive measures against cognitive decline is diet and different dietary factors have already been investigated. This review provides an overview of studies on diet...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van de Rest O,van der Zwaluw NL,de Groot LC

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ethynylglycine synthon, a useful precursor for the synthesis of biologically active compounds: an update: part I: preparations of ethynylglycine synthon.

    abstract::The ethynylglycine synthon {(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-ethynyloxazolidine} is a chiral compound with valuable synthetic interest. An update on the different routes for its synthesis is reviewed and discussed. ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Benfodda Z,Bénimélis D,Reginato G,Meffre P

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Protein and non-protein biomarkers in melanoma: a critical update.

    abstract::Melanoma is the most malignant type of all skin neoplasms. Its worldwide incidence has steadily increased during the past decades, suggesting a probable melanoma 'epidemic'. Although current clinical, morphologic, and histopathologic methods provide insights into disease behavior and outcome, melanoma is still an unpr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tandler N,Mosch B,Pietzsch J

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptative response of nitrogen metabolism in early endotoxemia: role of ornithine aminotransferase.

    abstract::Arginine (Arg) and glutamine (Gln) utilization is greatly increased during catabolic stress. While the supply of both amino acids has been advocated in this situation, arginine administration is possibly associated with deleterious effects. From a metabolic point of view, these two amino acids are reciprocal precursor...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ventura G,Moinard C,Segaud F,Le Plenier S,Cynober L,De Bandt JP

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomic analysis of apoptosis induction in human lung cancer cells by recombinant MVL.

    abstract::Lung cancer is still difficult to treat by current chemotherapeutic procedures. We recently found that MVL, an anti-HIV lectin from blue-green algae Microcystis viridis, also has antitumor activity. The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis-inducing activity of recombinant MVL (R-MVL) and proteomic chan...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Y,Zhang B,Wang X,Yan H,Chen G,Zhang X

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • The non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in Portuguese cyanobacterial isolates.

    abstract::The tailor made amino acid β-N-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It has been associated with certain forms of progressive neurodegenerative disease, including sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Some different reports of BMAA in cyanobacterial blooms f...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cervantes Cianca RC,Baptista MS,Lopes VR,Vasconcelos VM

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Principal component analysis of the relationship between the D-amino acid concentrations and the taste of the sake.

    abstract::We performed sensory evaluations on 141 bottles of sake and analyzed the relationship between the D-amino acid concentrations, and the taste of the sake using principal component analysis, which yielded seven principal components (PC1-7) that explained 100 % of the total variance in the data. PC1, which explains 33.6 ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okada K,Gogami Y,Oikawa T

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • New antitumoral cyclopeptides.

    abstract::Chlamydocin is a powerfulin vitro antitumoral agent, quickly inactivatedin vivo. A series of cyclic tetrapeptides related to chlamydocin or HC toxin and bearing a bioactive alkylating group on anε-amino-lysyl function have been examined for their antitumoral activity on L1210 and P388 murine leukemia cell lines. One a...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernardi E,Fauchère JL,Atassi G,Viallefont P,Lazaro R

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Solution structure of a novel α-conotoxin with a distinctive loop spacing pattern.

    abstract::α-Pharmacological conotoxins are among the most selective ligands of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with typical cysteine frameworks. They are characterized by the intercysteine loop and classified into various subfamilies, such as α3/5 and α4/7 conotoxins. A novel α-conotoxin, Pu14a (DCPPHPVPGMHKCVCLKTC), with a d...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang B,Huang F,Du W

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-omic approach decodes paradoxes of the triple-negative breast cancer: lessons for predictive, preventive and personalised medicine.

    abstract::Breast cancer epidemic in the early twenty-first century results in around two million new cases and half-a-million of the disease-related deaths registered annually worldwide. A particularly dramatic situation is attributed to some specific patient subgroups such as the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Golubnitschaja O,Filep N,Yeghiazaryan K,Blom HJ,Hofmann-Apitius M,Kuhn W

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Structural analysis of membrane-bound hECE-1 dimer using molecular modeling techniques: insights into conformational changes and Aβ1-42 peptide binding.

    abstract::The human endothelin converting enzyme-1 (hECE-1) is a homodimer linked by a single disulfide bridge and has been identified as an important target for Alzheimer's disease. Structural analysis of hECE-1 dimer could lead to design specific and effective therapies against Alzheimer's disease. Hence, in the present study...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sonawane KD,Barage SH

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of heat shock on amino acid transport and cell volume in 3T3 cells.

    abstract::In 3T3 cells temperatures higher than physiological stimulated amino acid transport activity in a dose-dependent manner up to 44 degrees C. However, the temperature increase did not induce widespread transport increase of all other nutrients tested. The activities of both amino acid transport systems A and ASC were en...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Petronini PG,Caccamo AE,Alfieri RR,Bonelli MA,Borghetti AF

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00