Unusual topography of bovine rhodopsin promoter-lacZ fusion gene expression in transgenic mouse retinas.


:To define the cis-acting DNA elements required for rhodopsin expression, we generated lines of transgenic mice carrying sequences upstream of the bovine rhodopsin gene fused to the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ). Upstream sequences extending from -2174 to +70 bp, from -734 to +70 bp, and from -222 to +70 bp direct photoreceptor-specific expression. All three -2174 lines demonstrate a superior-temporal to inferior-nasal gradient of expression across the retina, whereas lines carrying the shorter constructs demonstrate either spatially continuous expression across the retina, discrete clusters of expression, or both. As a complementary approach to defining regulatory elements, we compared DNA sequences 5' of the murine, bovine, and human rhodopsin genes. Significant homology between all three species was found just upstream of the transcription start site and at approximately 1.5 kb upstream.






Zack DJ,Bennett J,Wang Y,Davenport C,Klaunberg B,Gearhart J,Nathans J




Has Abstract


1991-02-01 00:00:00
















  • Regulation of releasable vesicle pool sizes by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of SNAP-25.

    abstract::Protein kinase A (PKA) is a key regulator of neurosecretion, but the molecular targets remain elusive. We combined pharmacological manipulations of kinase and phosphatase activities with mutational studies on the exocytotic machinery driving fusion of catecholamine-containing vesicles from chromaffin cells. We found t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagy G,Reim K,Matti U,Brose N,Binz T,Rettig J,Neher E,Sørensen JB

    更新日期:2004-02-05 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a novel protein regulated during the critical period for song learning in the zebra finch.

    abstract::A male zebra finch learns a song by listening to a tutor, but song learning is normally restricted to a critical period in juvenile development. Here we identify an RNA whose expression in the song control circuit is altered during this critical period. The RNA encodes a soluble presynaptic protein that forms a predic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: George JM,Jin H,Woods WS,Clayton DF

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Light-dependent translocation of visual arrestin regulated by the NINAC myosin III.

    abstract::The rhodopsin regulatory protein, visual arrestin, undergoes light-dependent trafficking in mammalian and Drosophila photoreceptor cells, though the mechanisms underlying these movements are poorly understood. In Drosophila, the movement of the visual arrestin, Arr2, functions in long-term adaptation and is dependent ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SJ,Montell C

    更新日期:2004-07-08 00:00:00

  • Growth factor-dependent trafficking of cerebellar NMDA receptors via protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation of NR2C.

    abstract::NMDA receptor subunit composition varies throughout the brain, providing molecular diversity in NMDA receptor function. The NR2 subunits (NR2A-D) in large part dictate the distinct functional properties of NMDA receptors and differentially regulate receptor trafficking. Although the NR2C subunit is highly enriched in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen BS,Roche KW

    更新日期:2009-05-28 00:00:00

  • VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    abstract::The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nicholson-Fish JC,Kokotos AC,Gillingwater TH,Smillie KJ,Cousin MA

    更新日期:2015-12-02 00:00:00

  • Interferon-gamma promotes cholinergic differentiation of embryonic septal nuclei and adjacent basal forebrain.

    abstract::In cultured rat embryonic septal nuclei with adjacent basal forebrain, murine interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) produces a striking increase in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and mRNA. The effect of IFN gamma on cholinergic differentiation is more potent in E14 cultures than in older cultures. IFN gamma does not...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jonakait GM,Wei R,Sheng ZL,Hart RP,Ni L

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Task-guided selection of the dual neural pathways for reading.

    abstract::The visual perception of words is known to activate the auditory representation of their spoken forms automatically. We examined the neural mechanism for this phonological activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a masked priming paradigm. The stimulation sites (left superior temporal gyrus [L-STG...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura K,Hara N,Kouider S,Takayama Y,Hanajima R,Sakai K,Ugawa Y

    更新日期:2006-11-09 00:00:00

  • Reorganization of striatal inhibitory microcircuits leads to pathological synchrony in the Basal Ganglia.

    abstract::Neural synchronization plays an important role in information flow in the nervous system under healthy and pathological conditions. In this issue of Neuron, Gittis et al. show that reorganization of striatal microcircuits promotes synchronous activity and may underlie the pathological network oscillations at the root ...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Belujon P,Grace AA

    更新日期:2011-09-08 00:00:00

  • When good enough is best.

    abstract::In this issue of Neuron, Rinberg et al. show that mice use a speed-accuracy tradeoff in odor discrimination. Shorter sampling results in high performance for easy problems, and enforced longer sampling results in higher accuracy for difficult problems, but mice freely choose intermediate sampling durations and accurac...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kay LM,Beshel J,Martin C

    更新日期:2006-08-03 00:00:00

  • Re-exploring Mechanisms of Exploration.

    abstract::Deciding when to exploit what is already known and when to explore new possibilities is crucial for adapting to novel and dynamic environments. Using reinforcement-based decision making, Costa et al. (2019) in this issue of Neuron find that neurons in the amygdala and ventral-striatum differentially signal the benefit...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Reitich-Stolero T,Aberg KC,Paz R

    更新日期:2019-08-07 00:00:00

  • Intersecting circuits generate precisely patterned retinal waves.

    abstract::The developing retina generates spontaneous glutamatergic (stage III) waves of activity that sequentially recruit neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON and OFF RGCs). This activity pattern is thought to help establish parallel ON and OFF pathways in downstream visual areas. The circuits that pro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akrouh A,Kerschensteiner D

    更新日期:2013-07-24 00:00:00

  • Toward a neural basis for social behavior.

    abstract::Nearly 25 years ago, the shared interests of psychologists and biologists in understanding the neural basis of social behavior led to the inception of social neuroscience. In the past decade, this field has exploded, in large part due to the infusion of studies that use fMRI. At the same time, tensions have arisen abo...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stanley DA,Adolphs R

    更新日期:2013-10-30 00:00:00

  • Aberrant protein s-nitrosylation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    abstract::S-Nitrosylation is a redox-mediated posttranslational modification that regulates protein function via covalent reaction of nitric oxide (NO)-related species with a cysteine thiol group on the target protein. Under physiological conditions, S-nitrosylation can be an important modulator of signal transduction pathways,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nakamura T,Tu S,Akhtar MW,Sunico CR,Okamoto S,Lipton SA

    更新日期:2013-05-22 00:00:00

  • NRG1 and synaptic function in the CNS.

    abstract::Recent genetic evidence indicates that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor erbB4 may be susceptibility genes in schizophrenia, but their function in CNS synaptic transmission and circuitry is not well understood. In this issue of Neuron, studies from Li et al. and Woo et al. show that NRG1 and erbB4 regulate transmis...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Fischbach GD

    更新日期:2007-05-24 00:00:00

  • Engrailed controls glial/neuronal cell fate decisions at the midline of the central nervous system.

    abstract::The molecular mechanisms involved in glial/neuronal fate decisions during embryonic development are largely unknown. Here we show that the segment-polarity gene engrailed, which encodes a homeodomain protein, controls these decisions within an insect CNS lineage. The grasshopper median neuroblast (MNB) generates both ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Condron BG,Patel NH,Zinn K

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction with telencephalin and the amyloid precursor protein predicts a ring structure for presenilins.

    abstract::The carboxyl terminus of presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) binds to the neuron-specific cell adhesion molecule telencephalin (TLN) in the brain. PS1 deficiency results in the abnormal accumulation of TLN in a yet unidentified intracellular compartment. The first transmembrane domain and carboxyl terminus of PS1 form a ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Annaert WG,Esselens C,Baert V,Boeve C,Snellings G,Cupers P,Craessaerts K,De Strooper B

    更新日期:2001-11-20 00:00:00

  • There and back again: the corticobulbar loop.

    abstract::Feedback is a ubiquitous anatomical feature of sensory processing in vertebrates. In this issue of Neuron, two papers (Boyd et al., 2012, and Markopoulos et al., 2012) analyze the features of feedback from olfactory cortex to olfactory bulb. ...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Oswald AM,Urban NN

    更新日期:2012-12-20 00:00:00

  • Parsing Hippocampal Theta Oscillations by Nested Spectral Components during Spatial Exploration and Memory-Guided Behavior.

    abstract::Theta oscillations reflect rhythmic inputs that continuously converge to the hippocampus during exploratory and memory-guided behavior. The theta-nested operations that organize hippocampal spiking could either occur regularly from one cycle to the next or be tuned on a cycle-by-cycle basis. To resolve this, we identi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lopes-Dos-Santos V,van de Ven GM,Morley A,Trouche S,Campo-Urriza N,Dupret D

    更新日期:2018-11-21 00:00:00

  • Revealing Detail along the Visual Hierarchy: Neural Clustering Preserves Acuity from V1 to V4.

    abstract::How primates perceive objects along with their detailed features remains a mystery. This ability to make fine visual discriminations depends upon a high-acuity analysis of spatial frequency (SF) along the visual hierarchy from V1 to inferotemporal cortex. By studying the transformation of SF across macaque parafoveal ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Y,Yin J,Chen Z,Gong H,Liu Y,Qian L,Li X,Liu R,Andolina IM,Wang W

    更新日期:2018-04-18 00:00:00

  • 5-HT modulates protein synthesis and the expression of specific proteins during long-term facilitation in Aplysia sensory neurons.

    abstract::Long-term, but not short-term, facilitation induced by 5-HT in Aplysia sensory neurons is blocked by application of inhibitors of protein synthesis or RNA synthesis during the 1.5 hr training period. These findings suggest that genes and proteins not needed for the short-term process are required for long-term facilit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barzilai A,Kennedy TE,Sweatt JD,Kandel ER

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses.

    abstract::The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow timescales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and the behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by wh...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McGinley MJ,Vinck M,Reimer J,Batista-Brito R,Zagha E,Cadwell CR,Tolias AS,Cardin JA,McCormick DA

    更新日期:2015-09-23 00:00:00

  • Origin and dynamics of extraclassical suppression in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the macaque monkey.

    abstract::In addition to the classical, center/surround receptive field of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), there is an extraclassical, nonlinear surround that can strongly suppress LGN responses. This form of suppression likely plays an important role in adjusting the gain of LGN responses to visual stimuli. We...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alitto HJ,Usrey WM

    更新日期:2008-01-10 00:00:00

  • Presynaptic CaMKII is necessary for synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    abstract::Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multifunctional enzyme that is very critical for synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the role of postsynaptic CaMKII in synaptic plasticity, very little is known about its presynaptic functio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ninan I,Arancio O

    更新日期:2004-04-08 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a target-derived neuronal cholinergic differentiation factor.

    abstract::The sympathetic innervation of rat sweat glands undergoes a target-induced switch from a noradrenergic to a cholinergic and peptidergic phenotype during development. Treatment of cultured sympathetic neurons with sweat gland extracts mimics many of the changes seen in vivo. Extracts induce choline acetyltransferase ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao MS,Landis SC

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Arginase I and polyamines act downstream from cyclic AMP in overcoming inhibition of axonal growth MAG and myelin in vitro.

    abstract::Elevation of cAMP can overcome myelin inhibitors to encourage regeneration of the CNS. We show that a consequence of elevated cAMP is the synthesis of polyamines, resulting from an up-regulation of Arginase I, a key enzyme in their synthesis. Inhibiting polyamine synthesis blocks the cAMP effect on regeneration. Eithe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cai D,Deng K,Mellado W,Lee J,Ratan RR,Filbin MT

    更新日期:2002-08-15 00:00:00

  • The Contribution of Area MT to Visual Motion Perception Depends on Training.

    abstract::Perceptual decisions require the transformation of raw sensory inputs into cortical representations suitable for stimulus discrimination. One of the best-known examples of this transformation involves the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate visual cortex. Area MT provides a robust representation of stimulus motio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu LD,Pack CC

    更新日期:2017-07-19 00:00:00

  • Primary structure and expression of a sodium channel characteristic of denervated and immature rat skeletal muscle.

    abstract::The alpha subunit of a voltage-sensitive sodium channel characteristic of denervated rat skeletal muscle was cloned and characterized. The cDNA encodes a 2018 amino acid protein (SkM2) that is homologous to other recently cloned sodium channels, including a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channel from rat skeletal...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kallen RG,Sheng ZH,Yang J,Chen LQ,Rogart RB,Barchi RL

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Rod photoreceptor development in vitro: intrinsic properties of proliferating neuroepithelial cells change as development proceeds in the rat retina.

    abstract::We describe a reaggregated cell culture system in which retinal neuroepithelial cells from embryonic rats proliferate extensively and give rise to rod photoreceptors on the same schedule in vitro as they do in vivo. Both the proliferative potential of the embryonic neuroepithelial cells and the timing of their differe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe T,Raff MC

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • Nosology of Parkinson's disease: looking for the way out of a quagmire.

    abstract::The discovery of SNCA mutations pathogenic for autosomal-dominant Lewy body Parkinson's disease (PD) in 1997 heralded a revolution in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of PD. Indeed, it now is clear that Lewy body PD is one of many neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders that result from nigrostriatal deg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Forman MS,Lee VM,Trojanowski JQ

    更新日期:2005-08-18 00:00:00

  • Place representation within hippocampal networks is modified by long-term potentiation.

    abstract::In the brain, information is encoded by the firing patterns of neuronal ensembles and the strength of synaptic connections between individual neurons. We report here that representation of the environment by "place" cells is altered by changing synaptic weights within hippocampal networks. Long-term potentiation (LTP)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dragoi G,Harris KD,Buzsáki G

    更新日期:2003-08-28 00:00:00