Comparison of the in vitro safety of intraocular dyes using two retinal cell lines: a focus on brilliant blue G and indocyanine green.


PURPOSE:To compare the in vitro toxicity of brilliant blue G (BBG), indocyanine green (ICG), Trypan blue (TB), and Evans blue (EB) in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) and a murine retinal ganglion/Muller glial (RGC) primary cell culture. DESIGN:In vitro cell biology experimental study. METHODS:The dose-dependent toxicity of the dyes was determined by exposing each dye at four different concentrations to the two cell cultures for a short exposure (three minutes) and a medium exposure (30 minutes). The time-dependent toxicity of the dyes was also determined. All four dyes, each diluted to 1/500th of stock concentration, were applied only to the ARPE-19 cells for a prolonged exposure of two, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell viability was measured via a mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. RESULTS:BBG was the only dye to cause toxicity in the ARPE-19 cell line at short exposure times. BBG and TB demonstrated toxicity at medium exposure times. BBG and ICG demonstrated toxicity at long exposure times and dilute concentrations. At short exposure times, none of the dyes caused toxicity in the RGC mixed primary cultures. In contrast, at medium exposure times, all dyes except ICG demonstrated toxicity that lessened with lower concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:All dyes demonstrated relatively safe viability profiles in both cell lines at surgically relevant concentrations and times. Cell toxicity could be elicited at higher concentrations and longer exposure times. ICG had a favorable viability profile at almost all of the concentrations and times tested.


Am J Ophthalmol


Yuen D,Gonder J,Proulx A,Liu H,Hutnik C




Has Abstract


2009-02-01 00:00:00














  • High magnification direct ophthalmoscopy.

    abstract::The combination of a high minus setting of the ophthalmoscope and an extra positive lens in front of the patient's eye forms a Galilean telescope that increases magnification in direct ophthalmoscopy. The telescope magnification equals the ratio between objective and ocular focal lengths. ...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frisén L

    更新日期:1978-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lower intraocular oxygen tension in diabetic patients: possible contribution to decreased incidence of nuclear sclerotic cataract.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report intraocular oxygen tension in eyes of diabetic and nondiabetic patients. DESIGN:A prospective, interventional consecutive case series. METHODS:Oxygen was measured with an optical oxygen sensor in patients who were undergoing vitrectomy. Before turning on the infusion fluid, intraocular oxygen tensio...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holekamp NM,Shui YB,Beebe D

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Optical coherence tomography enhanced depth imaging of choroidal tumors.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of choroidal tumors imaged using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) technique. DESIGN:Prospective observational case series. METHODS:One tumor each from 23 eyes of 23 patients was included. All the patients underwent clinical fundus phot...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torres VL,Brugnoni N,Kaiser PK,Singh AD

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Beta-ray treatment of malignant epithelial tumors of the conjunctiva.

    abstract::Fifteen patients with malignant epithelial tumors of the conjunctiva were treated with beta-ray ocular applicators filled with radioactive strontium and yttrium (90Sr/90Y). Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis. There were ten squamous cell carcinomas, four carcinomas in situ, and one case of epidermidalizati...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lommatzsch P

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00

  • Acyclovir in the treatment of herpetic stromal disease.

    abstract::Seventeen patients (ten women and seven men, 23 to 72 years old) with stromal herpetic disease were treated with topical and oral acyclovir for 14 days. Of the 12 patients with disciform edema, five showed minimal improvement, four showed no change, and three showed worsening of their disease. Of the five patients wit...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanitato JJ,Asbell PA,Varnell ED,Kissling GE,Kaufman HE

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Laser photocoagulation for choroidal neovascularization associated with sympathetic ophthalmia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To present a case of choroidal neovascularization associated with sympathetic ophthalmia successfully treated with photocoagulation. DESIGN:Interventional case report. METHODS:A 41-year-old man with a history of penetrating injury right eye, as well as sympathetic ophthalmia left eye, developed a classic chor...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borkowski LM,Weinberg DV,Delany CM,Milsow L

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acute rubella retinal pigment epitheliitis in an adult.

    abstract::A 50-year-old man who had been taking betamethasone for 20 days experienced a slight bilateral decrease in visual acuity. There were localized dark-gray atrophic lesions at the posterior pole, accompanied by a diffuse detachment of the sensory retina. The retinal vessels appeared to be normal and only minimal anterior...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi M,Yoshimura N,Kondo T

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • A suction tip for controlled removal of nonmagnetic intraocular foreign bodies.

    abstract::I used a soft-tip suction needle during a vitrectomy procedure to life glass foreign bodies away from the retina so they could be more easily and safely grasped with foreign-body extraction forceps. The use of the instrument reduces the chance of inadvertent scraping of glass fragments or instruments against the retin...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coleman DJ

    更新日期:1978-02-01 00:00:00

  • A dose-response study of piloplex for duration of action.

    abstract::The duration of reduction in intraocular pressure after single-dose administration of three concentrations of piloplex and the vehicle of the drug was evaluated in 12 patients with open-angle glaucoma in a randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Piloplex lowered intraocular pressure in a dose-related fashion, with...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Klein HZ,Lugo M,Shields MB,Leon J,Duzman E

    更新日期:1985-01-15 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for the development and severity of glaucoma in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    abstract::The medical records of 93 patients with pigmentary glaucoma and 18 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome were studied with regard to factors associated with the presence and severity of secondary glaucoma within this population. Male gender, black race, severe myopia, and Krükenberg spindles were identified as pos...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farrar SM,Shields MB,Miller KN,Stoup CM

    更新日期:1989-09-15 00:00:00

  • Low-tension glaucoma.

    abstract::A retrospective study of 45 patients with low-tension glaucoma revealed the mean age at diagnosis to be 66 years. Seventeen patients had follow-up visual field examinations, the average follow-up period being 6.4 years. There was no significant difference in prognosis of the ocular course between patients with Po/C eq...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chumbley LC,Brubaker RF

    更新日期:1976-06-01 00:00:00

  • Uveitis precipitated by nonpenetrating ocular trauma.

    abstract::Although penetrating trauma is a well-recognized cause of uveitis, the role of nonpenetrating trauma in initiating uveitis is not defined. We analyzed the records of 496 patients seen at the uveitis clinic at our institution. Twenty-four of these 496 patients (4.8%) suspected that the cause of their intraocular inflam...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenbaum JT,Tammaro J,Robertson JE Jr

    更新日期:1991-10-15 00:00:00

  • Distribution and determinants of choroidal thickness and volume using automated segmentation software in a population-based study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To objectively quantify choroidal thickness and choroidal volume using fully automated choroidal segmentation software applied to images obtained from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD OCT) in a population-based study; and evaluate the ocular and systemic determinants o...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gupta P,Jing T,Marziliano P,Cheung CY,Baskaran M,Lamoureux EL,Wong TY,Cheung CM,Cheng CY

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Vitrectomy surgery in proliferative sickle retinopathy.

    abstract::Visual loss secondary to vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment can occur in proliferative sickle retinopathy. Severe complications including a high incidence of anterior segment necrosis have been reported in both vitrectomy and scleral buckling operations in patients with this disease. We examined four patients w...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan CM,D'Amico DJ

    更新日期:1987-08-15 00:00:00

  • Ocular deviation after retinal detachment surgery.

    abstract::Thirty patients with untreated rhegmatogenous retinal detachments underwent complete ocular muscle examinations before scleral buckling procedures. The examination was repeated three weeks, six weeks, three months, and six months after surgery. We found a high incidence of heterotropia after surgery; in most cases thi...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mets MB,Wendell ME,Gieser RG

    更新日期:1985-06-15 00:00:00

  • New intraocular lens technology.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To review the current status of phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs), intraocular treatment of presbyopia, and IOLs that filter some blue light. DESIGN:Review of current information on the subject from numerous sources. METHODS:Medline search and Internet search engines on the topics of phakic IOLs, presbyopia or...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Olson RJ,Werner L,Mamalis N,Cionni R

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of collagen shields on epithelial wound healing in rabbits.

    abstract::We evaluated the effect of a collagen shield on epithelial healing in keratectomy wounds in rabbit eyes. Superficial keratectomies 6 mm in diameter were created in 12 eyes of six rabbits. Six eyes received collagen shields every eight hours; six eyes received no treatment (control group). Epithelial healing was signif...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frantz JM,Dupuy BM,Kaufman HE,Beuerman RW

    更新日期:1989-11-15 00:00:00

  • Prognostic factors and outcomes in endogenous Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine risk factors for poor visual acuity outcomes in patients with endogenous Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis. DESIGN:Retrospective case-control study. METHODS:We reviewed all consecutive patients diagnosed with endogenous Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis over 20 years. Data collected inclu...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ang M,Jap A,Chee SP

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Five-Year Postoperative Outcomes of Bilateral Aphakia and Pseudophakia in Children up to 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Comparative evaluation of complications and visual outcomes following bilateral congenital cataract surgery in children up to 2 years of age with and without primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at 5 years follow-up. DESIGN:Randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS:Sixty children (120 eyes) up to 2...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vasavada AR,Vasavada V,Shah SK,Praveen MR,Vasavada VA,Trivedi RH,Rawat F,Koul A

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Accommodation and convergence insufficiency with left middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    abstract::We studied accommodation and vergence eye movements in a patient with a left middle cerebral artery embolism. Accommodation was monitored by an infrared optometer with the accommodative target being controlled by a microcomputer. Computed tomography showed low-density areas in the left cortex, with intact brainstem. T...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohtsuka K,Maekawa H,Takeda M,Uede N,Chiba S

    更新日期:1988-07-15 00:00:00

  • Immunologic aspects of cicatricial pemphigoid.

    abstract::A 56-year-old woman presented with the typical findings of cicatricial pemphigoid: vesicular lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Ocular involvement included symblepharon and dryness. A regimen of 80 mg of oral trimcinolone per day healed the lesions of the skin and mucous membrane. The patient received three inj...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herron BE

    更新日期:1975-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chorioretinal anastomoses after argon laser photocoagulation.

    abstract::Communication between the retinal and the choroidal circulation occurred in one case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and one case of Leber's disease (multiple miliary aneurysms) after argon laser photocoagulation treatment to eliminate abnormal retinal vasculature. In both instances rapid-sequence fluorescein an...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galinos SO,McMeel JW,Trempe CL,Schepens CL

    更新日期:1976-08-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin concentrations in aqueous humor of glaucoma patients.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine whether glaucoma patients exhibit an abnormal melatonin concentration in aqueous humor. DESIGN:Case-controlled study, laboratory investigation. METHODS:Aqueous humor and plasma samples of 28 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and 31 nonglaucoma control patients were collected during surger...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chiquet C,Claustrat B,Thuret G,Brun J,Cooper HM,Denis P

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Histopathology of meibomian gland dysfunction.

    abstract::We conducted a histopathologic study of he meibomian glands of seven patients (all men, ranging in age from 58 to 83 years) who had severe or moderately severe meibomian dysfunction and who were undergoing ectropion or entropion repair. Abnormal features included signs of obstruction and dilatation of ducts, enlargeme...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gutgesell VJ,Stern GA,Hood CI

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Aqueous humor levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and choroidal neovascularization.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the aqueous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in patients with active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pathologic myopia. DESIGN:Pros...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Tong JP,Chan WM,Liu DT,Lai TY,Choy KW,Pang CP,Lam DS

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia presenting as corneal ulcer.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report a case of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia presenting as corneal ulcer. METHOD:Case report of a 28-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of pain, redness, and watering in the right eye. Examination of right cornea revealed deep stromal infiltrate inferonasally. Adjacent to the infiltrate...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sridhar MS,Honavar SG,Vemuganti G,Rao GN

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Natural history of asymptomatic clinical retinal detachments.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the natural history of asymptomatic, clinical rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. DESIGN:Single observer, prospective, consecutive, observational case series. METHODS:Consecutive patients were included who were referred to the author's clinical practice with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment exten...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen SM

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Conventional and wavefront-guided myopic LASIK retreatment.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess the clinical outcomes of conventional and wavefront-guided myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) retreatment. DESIGN:Retrospective, nonrandomized case series. METHODS:The study comprised a cohort of 97 eyes having LASIK retreatment for residual myopia after primary LASIK. The eyes were divided...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jin GJ,Merkley KH

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Optical coherence tomography for evaluating diabetic macular edema before and after vitrectomy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for evaluation of diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME) before and after vitrectomy. DESIGN:Interventional case series. METHODS:A retrospective study was made of 15 consecutive eyes of 13 patients that had vitrectomy for diffuse DME and OCT preoperatively...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Massin P,Duguid G,Erginay A,Haouchine B,Gaudric A

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • The cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome.

    abstract::A 3 1/2-month-old boy with the cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome had low birth weight, microcephaly, microphthalmia, cataracts, blepharophimosis, high nasal bridge, micrognathia, kyphosis, rocker-bottom feet, and a longitudinal foot groove. The product of a consanguineous parentage, he showed marked developmental ...

    journal_title:American journal of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grizzard WS,O'Donnell JJ,Carey JC

    更新日期:1980-02-01 00:00:00