Case-control analysis with a continuous outcome variable.

Abstract:

:It is not uncommon for a continuous outcome variable Y to be dichotomized and analysed using logistic regression. Moser and Coombs (Statist. Med. 2004; 23:1843-1860) provide a method for converting the output from a standard linear regression analysis using the original continuous outcome Y to give much more efficient inferences about the same odds-ratio parameters being estimated by the logistic regression. However, these results apply only to prospective studies. This paper follows up Moser and Coombs by providing an efficient linear-model-based solution for data collected using case-control studies. Gains in statistical efficiency of up to 240 per cent are obtained even with small to moderate odds ratios. Differences in design efficiency between case-control and prospective sampling designs are found to be much smaller, however, when linear-model-based analyses are being used than they are when logistic regression analyses are being used.

journal_name

Stat Med

journal_title

Statistics in medicine

authors

Jiang Y,Scott A,Wild CJ

doi

10.1002/sim.3474

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2009-01-30 00:00:00

pages

194-204

issue

2

eissn

0277-6715

issn

1097-0258

journal_volume

28

pub_type

杂志文章
  • A general statistical principle for changing a design any time during the course of a trial.

    abstract::A general method is presented that allows the researcher to change statistical design elements such as the residual sample size during the course of an experiment, to include an interim analysis for early stopping when no formal rule for early stopping was foreseen, to increase or reduce the number of planned interim ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.1852

    authors: Müller HH,Schäfer H

    更新日期:2004-08-30 00:00:00

  • Extensions of net reclassification improvement calculations to measure usefulness of new biomarkers.

    abstract::Appropriate quantification of added usefulness offered by new markers included in risk prediction algorithms is a problem of active research and debate. Standard methods, including statistical significance and c statistic are useful but not sufficient. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) offers a simple intuitive w...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.4085

    authors: Pencina MJ,D'Agostino RB Sr,Steyerberg EW

    更新日期:2011-01-15 00:00:00

  • Nowcasting influenza epidemics using non-homogeneous hidden Markov models.

    abstract::Timeliness of a public health surveillance system is one of its most important characteristics. The process of predicting the present situation using available incomplete information from surveillance systems has received the term nowcasting and has high public health interest. Generally in Europe, general practitione...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.5670

    authors: Nunes B,Natário I,Lucília Carvalho M

    更新日期:2013-07-10 00:00:00

  • Kappa coefficients in medical research.

    abstract::Kappa coefficients are measures of correlation between categorical variables often used as reliability or validity coefficients. We recapitulate development and definitions of the K (categories) by M (ratings) kappas (K x M), discuss what they are well- or ill-designed to do, and summarize where kappas now stand with ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/sim.1180

    authors: Chmura Kraemer H,Periyakoil VS,Noda A

    更新日期:2002-07-30 00:00:00

  • The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test under scrutiny.

    abstract::The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test is often used to compare the means or medians of two independent, possibly nonnormal distributions. For this problem, the true significance level of the large sample approximate version of the WMW test is known to be sensitive to differences in the shapes of the distributions. Base...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.3561

    authors: Fagerland MW,Sandvik L

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Robust fitting for neuroreceptor mapping.

    abstract::Among many other uses, positron emission tomography (PET) can be used in studies to estimate the density of a neuroreceptor at each location throughout the brain by measuring the concentration of a radiotracer over time and modeling its kinetics. There are a variety of kinetic models in common usage and these typicall...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.3510

    authors: Chang C,Ogden RT

    更新日期:2009-03-15 00:00:00

  • An overall strategy based on regression models to estimate relative survival and model the effects of prognostic factors in cancer survival studies.

    abstract::Relative survival provides a measure of the proportion of patients dying from the disease under study without requiring the knowledge of the cause of death. We propose an overall strategy based on regression models to estimate the relative survival and model the effects of potential prognostic factors. The baseline ha...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.2656

    authors: Remontet L,Bossard N,Belot A,Estève J,French network of cancer registries FRANCIM.

    更新日期:2007-05-10 00:00:00

  • Properties of R(2) statistics for logistic regression.

    abstract::Various R(2) statistics have been proposed for logistic regression to quantify the extent to which the binary response can be predicted by a given logistic regression model and covariates. We study the asymptotic properties of three popular variance-based R(2) statistics. We find that two variance-based R(2) statistic...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.2300

    authors: Hu B,Palta M,Shao J

    更新日期:2006-04-30 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the ratio of marginal probabilities in a matched-pair setting.

    abstract::Statistical methods for testing and interval estimation of the ratio of marginal probabilities in the matched-pair setting are considered in this paper. We are especially interested in the situation where the null value is not one, as in one-sided equivalence trials. We propose a Fieller-type statistic based on constr...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.1017

    authors: Nam JM,Blackwelder WC

    更新日期:2002-03-15 00:00:00

  • Boosting for detection of gene-environment interactions.

    abstract::In genetic association studies, it is typically thought that genetic variants and environmental variables jointly will explain more of the inheritance of a phenotype than either of these two components separately. Traditional methods to identify gene-environment interactions typically consider only one measured enviro...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.5444

    authors: Pashova H,LeBlanc M,Kooperberg C

    更新日期:2013-01-30 00:00:00

  • Adjusting for misclassification in a stratified biomarker clinical trial.

    abstract::Clinical trials utilizing predictive biomarkers have become a research focus in personalized medicine. We investigate the effects of biomarker misclassification on the design and analysis of stratified biomarker clinical trials. For a variety of inference problems including marker-treatment interaction in particular, ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.6164

    authors: Liu C,Liu A,Hu J,Yuan V,Halabi S

    更新日期:2014-08-15 00:00:00

  • The many weak instruments problem and Mendelian randomization.

    abstract::Instrumental variable estimates of causal effects can be biased when using many instruments that are only weakly associated with the exposure. We describe several techniques to reduce this bias and estimate corrected standard errors. We present our findings using a simulation study and an empirical application. For th...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.6358

    authors: Davies NM,von Hinke Kessler Scholder S,Farbmacher H,Burgess S,Windmeijer F,Smith GD

    更新日期:2015-02-10 00:00:00

  • Minimum sample size for developing a multivariable prediction model: PART II - binary and time-to-event outcomes.

    abstract::When designing a study to develop a new prediction model with binary or time-to-event outcomes, researchers should ensure their sample size is adequate in terms of the number of participants (n) and outcome events (E) relative to the number of predictor parameters (p) considered for inclusion. We propose that the mini...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.7992

    authors: Riley RD,Snell KI,Ensor J,Burke DL,Harrell FE Jr,Moons KG,Collins GS

    更新日期:2019-03-30 00:00:00

  • Testing the equality of two Poisson means using the rate ratio.

    abstract::In this article, we investigate procedures for comparing two independent Poisson variates that are observed over unequal sampling frames (i.e. time intervals, populations, areas or any combination thereof). We consider two statistics (with and without the logarithmic transformation) for testing the equality of two Poi...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.1949

    authors: Ng HK,Tang ML

    更新日期:2005-03-30 00:00:00

  • Effects and non-effects of paired identical observations in comparing proportions with binary matched-pairs data.

    abstract::Binary matched-pairs data occur commonly in longitudinal studies, such as in cross-over experiments. Many analyses for comparing the matched probabilities of a particular outcome do not utilize pairs having the same outcome for each observation. An example is McNemar's test. Some methodologists find this to be counter...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/sim.1589

    authors: Agresti A,Min Y

    更新日期:2004-01-15 00:00:00

  • Semi-parametric modelling for costs of health care technologies.

    abstract::Cost data that arise in the evaluation of health care technologies usually exhibit highly skew, heavy-tailed and, possibly, multi-modal distributions. Distribution-free methods for analysing these data, such as the bootstrap, or those based on the asymptotic normality of sample means, may often lead to inefficient or ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.2012

    authors: Conigliani C,Tancredi A

    更新日期:2005-10-30 00:00:00

  • Common sense and figures: the rhetoric of validity in medicine (Bradford Hill Memorial Lecture 1999).

    abstract::Austin Bradford Hill was once a friend to The Lancet, but, as occasionally happens, friends fall out. The great legacy of his association with the journal, however, was Principles of Medical Statistics. As each edition was succeeded by another--the first in 1937, the last in 1991--he seemed to shift his view about the...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type:

    doi:10.1002/1097-0258(20001215)19:23<3149::aid-sim617>

    authors: Horton R

    更新日期:2000-12-15 00:00:00

  • Bias resulting from the use of 'assay sensitivity' as an inclusion criterion for meta-analysis.

    abstract::Assay sensitivity has been proposed as a criterion for including psychiatric clinical outcome studies in meta-analyses. The authors assess the performance of assay sensitivity as a method for determining study appropriateness for meta-analysis by calculating expected standard drug vs placebo effect sizes for various c...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.2240

    authors: Gelfand LA,Strunk DR,Tu XM,Noble RE,Derubeis RJ

    更新日期:2006-03-30 00:00:00

  • Methods for proper handling of overrunning and underrunning in phase II designs for oncology trials.

    abstract::Phase II studies in oncology are frequently conducted as two-stage single-arm trials with a binary endpoint indicating tumor response. As a common feature of these designs, the sample sizes of the two stages and the decision rules for the interim and the final analysis have to be pre-specified and adhered to strictly ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.6479

    authors: Englert S,Kieser M

    更新日期:2015-06-15 00:00:00

  • Monitoring potential adverse event rate differences using data from blinded trials: the canary in the coal mine.

    abstract::The development of drugs and biologicals whose mechanisms of action may extend beyond their target indications has led to a need to identify unexpected potential toxicities promptly even while blinded clinical trials are under way. One component of recently issued FDA rules regarding safety reporting requirements rais...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.7129

    authors: Gould AL,Wang WB

    更新日期:2017-01-15 00:00:00

  • Inconsistencies with formulas for the standard error of the standardized mean difference of repeated measures experiments.

    abstract::There are inconsistencies between the formulas for the variance of standardized mean difference (SMD) in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the variance reported in other sources. Instead of the variance appropriate for the SMD of a crossover experiment, the Cochrane Handbook uses the variance appropriat...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 信件

    doi:10.1002/sim.8669

    authors: Kitchenham B,Madeyski L

    更新日期:2020-11-30 00:00:00

  • Bayesian non-response models for categorical data from small areas: an application to BMD and age.

    abstract::We provide a Bayesian analysis of data categorized into two levels of age (younger than 50 years, at least 50 years) and three levels of bone mineral density (normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis) for white females at least 20 years old in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. For the sample, the age...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.1985

    authors: Nandram B,Liu N,Choi JW,Cox L

    更新日期:2005-04-15 00:00:00

  • Measurement error in continuous endpoints in randomised trials: Problems and solutions.

    abstract::In randomised trials, continuous endpoints are often measured with some degree of error. This study explores the impact of ignoring measurement error and proposes methods to improve statistical inference in the presence of measurement error. Three main types of measurement error in continuous endpoints are considered:...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.8359

    authors: Nab L,Groenwold RHH,Welsing PMJ,van Smeden M

    更新日期:2019-11-30 00:00:00

  • A practical approach for the assessment of bioequivalence under selected higher-order cross-over designs.

    abstract::The two-period cross-over design with two sequences of drug administration is a standard experimental design when bioequivalence of one test formulation is to be assessed in comparison with a reference formulation. Previously, an approach based on Fieller's confidence interval has been presented for the assessment of ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0258(19971015)16:19<2229::aid-s

    authors: Vuorinen J

    更新日期:1997-10-15 00:00:00

  • Estimating the sample size for a t-test using an internal pilot.

    abstract::If the sample size for a t-test is calculated on the basis of a prior estimate of the variance then the power of the test at the treatment difference of interest is not robust to misspecification of the variance. We propose a t-test for a two-treatment comparison based on Stein's two-stage test which involves the use ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0258(19990715)18:13<1575::aid-s

    authors: Denne JS,Jennison C

    更新日期:1999-07-15 00:00:00

  • Adaptive increase in sample size when interim results are promising: a practical guide with examples.

    abstract::This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of adaptive sample size re-estimation for phase 3 confirmatory clinical trials. Comparisons are made with more traditional fixed sample and group sequential designs. It is seen that the real benefit of the adaptive approach arises through the ability to invest sample s...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.4102

    authors: Mehta CR,Pocock SJ

    更新日期:2011-12-10 00:00:00

  • On identifying a positive dose-response surface for combination agents.

    abstract::This article concerns construction of a confidence surface for tangential slopes of the dose-response surface of a combination therapy to identify where response increases as a function of drug dosage. This approach extends to the assessment of the effectiveness of the combination therapy. ...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.4780110513

    authors: Hung HM

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Risk-adjusted CUSUM charts under model error.

    abstract::In recent years, quality control charts have been increasingly applied in the healthcare environment, for example, to monitor surgical performance. Risk-adjusted cumulative (CUSUM) charts that utilize risk scores like the Parsonnet score to estimate the probability of death of a patient from an operation turn out to b...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.8104

    authors: Knoth S,Wittenberg P,Gan FF

    更新日期:2019-05-30 00:00:00

  • Binary regression with continuous outcomes.

    abstract::Clinical research often involves continuous outcome measures, such as blood cholesterol, that are amenable to statistical techniques of analysis based on the mean, such as the t-test or multiple linear regression. Clinical interest, however, frequently focuses on the proportion of subjects who fall below or above a cl...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.4780140303

    authors: Suissa S,Blais L

    更新日期:1995-02-15 00:00:00

  • Bivariate random change point models for longitudinal outcomes.

    abstract::Epidemiologic and clinical studies routinely collect longitudinal measures of multiple outcomes, including biomarker measures, cognitive functions, and clinical symptoms. These longitudinal outcomes can be used to establish the temporal order of relevant biological processes and their association with the onset of cli...

    journal_title:Statistics in medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/sim.5557

    authors: Yang L,Gao S

    更新日期:2013-03-15 00:00:00