Advances in memory research: single-neuron recordings from the human medial temporal lobe aid our understanding of declarative memory.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To gain a complete understanding of how the brain functions, both in illness and good health, data from multiple levels of analysis must be integrated. Technical advances have made direct recordings of neuronal activity deep inside the human brain tractable, providing a rare glimpse into cellular processes during long-term memory formation. Recent findings using intracranial recordings in the medial temporal lobe inform current neural network models of memory, and may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of memory-related processes. RECENT FINDINGS:These recordings have shown that cells in the hippocampus appear to support declarative learning by distinguishing novel and familiar stimuli via changes in firing patterns. Some cells with highly selective and invariant responses have also been described, and these responses seem to represent abstract concepts such as identity, rather than superficial perceptual features of items. Importantly, however, both selective and globally responsive cells are capable of changing their preferred stimulus depending on the conscious demands of the task. SUMMARY:Firing patterns of human medial temporal lobe neurons indicate that cells can be both plastic and stable in terms of the information that they code; although some cells show highly selective and reproducible excitatory responses when presented with a familiar object, other cells change their receptive fields in line with changes in experience and the cognitive environment.


Curr Opin Neurol


Viskontas IV




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • Acquired myasthenia gravis in childhood.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review discusses recent studies on myasthenia gravis with onset in childhood (juvenile myasthenia gravis) and neonatal myasthenia gravis. RECENT FINDINGS:The occurrence of myasthenia gravis in childhood is strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Juvenile myasthenia gravis is as...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Evoli A

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • The latest on functional imaging studies of aphasic stroke.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Functional neuro-imaging studies of aphasic stroke offer the potential for a better understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that sustain language recovery. Conclusions, however, have been hampered by a set of unexpected challenges related to experimental design and interpretation. In this review of s...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Price CJ,Crinion J

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chemotherapy of brain tumors.

    abstract::This is a review of chemotherapy options for patients with brain tumors, both at the time of initial diagnosis and at recurrence. Gliomas, the most common malignant brain tumors, represent the main focus of the review; chemotherapeutic options for supratentorial, brain stem, and optic track gliomas are discussed. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Galanis E,Buckner JC

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system germ-cell tumours.

    abstract::Primary germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system are rare neoplasms that are seen primarily in the pediatric age group. Because of their frequent location in the pituitary and suprasellar regions, they present with typical neuro-ophthalmologic and neuroendocrine symptoms. Sophisticated imaging and surgical biops...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hooda BS,Finlay JL

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tuberous sclerosis complex: a brave new world?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC has been recognized for many years as an important cause of severe neurological disease with patients suffering from epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, and psychiatric problems. Duri...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ess KC

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of brain aging and neurodegeneration on cognition: evidence from MRI.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We present an overview of recent concepts in mechanisms underlying cognitive decline associated with brain aging and neurodegeneration from the perspective of MRI. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent findings challenge the established link between neuroimaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration and age-related or di...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Draganski B,Lutti A,Kherif F

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Myasthenia and the neuromuscular junction.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Myasthenic syndromes are distinct disorders at the neuromuscular junction, most often with well characterized autoimmune or genetic pathology. New aspects of the dysfunctions give insight into the normal neuromuscular function in addition to giving therapeutic clues and tailoring the therapy to the pa...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gilhus NE

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • An update on aortic causes of ischemic stroke.

    abstract::In the past few years evidence that atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch is probably an underestimate source of emboli, particularly moving thrombi in the lumen, has accumulated. Pathological studies, and more recently transesophageal echocardiographic studies, have shown that atherosclerotic disease of the aort...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heinzlef O,Cohen A,Amarenco P

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Will improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute spinal cord injury improve the potential for therapeutic intervention?

    abstract::At the dawning of the present decade, deemed appropriately the Decade of the Spine, acute spinal cord injury lingers as a formidable disorder affecting society. The enormous physical, emotional and socioeconomic impact of acute spinal cord injury on society is well known. Consequently, intensive clinical and laborator...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dumont AS,Dumont RJ,Oskouian RJ

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Novel MRI and PET markers of neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Gadolinium-enhancement depicts blood-brain barrier disruption associated with new inflammatory MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is widely used for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. However, earlier and more specific markers of inflammation are urgently needed. RECENT FINDINGS:Susceptibi...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hagens M,van Berckel B,Barkhof F

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mortality in patients with epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Prospective and retrospective incidence cohort studies have been consistent in identifying an increased mortality in patients with epilepsy, although risk ratios vary considerably. Standardized mortality ratios in these populations range from 1.6 to 5.3, but they tend to be higher in studies in select...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jallon P

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Chemotherapy for low-grade glioma: when, for whom, which regimen?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The role of chemotherapy in low-grade glioma has been redefined with the long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9802, which investigated adjuvant procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy, and the results of EORTC trial 22033 in a similar patient population that compa...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van den Bent MJ

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Asymptomatic carotid stenosis: what to do.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis are at increased vascular risk but optimal treatment is controversial. We reviewed the current evidence for medical and surgical intervention in these patients. RECENT FINDINGS:Optimal medical treatment is the most important aspect of management of patients...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Redgrave JN,Rothwell PM

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in the understanding of headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review the most relevant developments in the understanding of headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). RECENT FINDINGS:The phenotype of the typical IIH headache is diverging from the historical thinking of a raised intracranial pressure headache, with the majority being classified a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mollan SP,Hoffmann J,Sinclair AJ

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Update on uveomeningoencephalitides.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Uveomeningoencephalitides, commonly known as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, are characterized by chronic bilateral granulomatous panuveitis involving the central nervous, auditory and integumentary systems. Visual prognosis is generally favourable, but outcomes in patients with VKH disease may va...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sheu SJ

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tension-type headache: the most common, but also the most neglected, headache disorder.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Tension-type headache is the most common type of headache and, in its chronic form, one of the most neglected and difficult types of headache to treat. Recently published data will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS:The prevalence of frequent tension-type headache increased significantly from 1989 to 2001,...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bendtsen L,Jensen R

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Inflammation and ischaemic stroke.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Inflammation is implicated in ischaemic stroke as a general cardiovascular risk factor, a possible immediate trigger, a component (and possible exacerbating factor) of the response to tissue injury, a marker of future risk, and as a therapeutic target. Each aspect is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS:Evidenc...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Muir KW,Tyrrell P,Sattar N,Warburton E

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of early Parkinson's disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes currently available treatment options and treatment strategies, investigational treatments, and the importance of exercise for early Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS:The available treatment options for early Parkinson's disease have changed little in the past decade and inc...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pahwa R,Lyons KE

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Toxic neuropathies and myopathies.

    abstract::This review first considers toxic neuropathies of recent interest, including those caused by antineoplastic and antiretroviral drugs, agents that affect methylation reactions, vitamin and herbal preparations, and certain occupational exposures. The discussion points out the interesting phenomenon of "coasting," the st...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kuncl RW,George EB

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Stem cell transplantation for neurodegenerative diseases.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review recent developments in the application of stem cells for transplantation therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS:Stem cell transplantation has the potential to improve function by replacing cells lost to the disease and reconstructing elements of neural circuitry or by prov...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rosser AE,Zietlow R,Dunnett SB

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Spinocerebellar ataxias: an update.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Here we discuss recent advances regarding the molecular genetic basis of dominantly inherited ataxias. RECENT FINDINGS:Important recent observations include insights into the mechanisms by which expanded polyglutamine causes cerebellar degeneration; new findings regarding how noncoding expansions may...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Soong BW,Paulson HL

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Update on T cells in the virally infected brain: friends and foes.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The present review will outline neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of central nervous system (CNS) infiltrating T cells during viral infections. Evidence demonstrating differential roles for antiviral effector and resident memory T-cell subsets in virologic control and immunopathology in the CNS w...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ai S,Klein RS

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute stroke.

    abstract::A relatively small number of studies were published on the intra-arterial therapy of stroke in the past year. Those reports, however, do offer strong evidence for the feasibility and safety of this therapeutic approach. Partly on the basis of these data it has become evident that the intra-arterial thrombolytic therap...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abou-Chebl A,Furlan AJ

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • The natural history of B cells.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disorder that represents a significant source of disability. B cells have recently emerged as a novel therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. The natural development of B cells is characterized by an antigen-independent phase that occurs in the bone marrow and an antigen-...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Monson NL

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • What is new about epidemiology of acute infectious encephalitis?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review aims to describe new features on the epidemiology of encephalitis world-wide. As this neurological presentation is most frequently related to transmitted viruses, surveillance of encephalitis is of major importance to detect their emergence or re-emergence. RECENT FINDINGS:Rabies causes o...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stahl JP,Mailles A

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropathology of variants of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Neurodegenerative tauopathies, of which progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is one of the most common, are clinically heterogeneous, reflecting differences in distribution and biochemical composition of tau pathology. This review highlights the range of clinical and pathologic presentations of PSP an...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dickson DW,Ahmed Z,Algom AA,Tsuboi Y,Josephs KA

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • MRI monitoring of spinal cord changes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We analyze recent data on technical aspects, clinical indications, and imaging features of spinal cord MRI in multiple sclerosis, and on the value of this examination for assessing the type and extension of spinal cord damage, and for predicting prognosis in patients with this disease. RECENT FINDING...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rovira A,de Stefano N

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium channel mutations and migraine.

    abstract::An increasing number of mutations in the CACNA1A gene have been identified, which are associated with a broad clinical spectrum, including familial hemiplegic migraine. Transfection studies and mouse model analyses are currently being undertaken to study the correlation between CACNA1A mutations and disease. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kors EE,van den Maagdenberg AM,Plomp JJ,Frants RR,Ferrari MD

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • New potential leads in the biology and treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review highlights recent neuroimaging and genetic studies of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder that may inform biologically targeted interventions and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS:The findings suggest that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is characterized by specific learning and c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casey BJ,Nigg JT,Durston S

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Multifocal motor neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    abstract::In multifocal motor or sensorimotor neuropathy with persistent conduction block, most of the recent research has concerned treatment. Open trials show that intravenous immunoglobulin is effective, providing a rapid and often marked clinical improvement, accompanied by a significant reduction of conduction block in som...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Léger JM

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00