:The physicochemical properties of melatonin (MT) in propylene glycol (PG) and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HPbetaCD) vehicles were characterized. MT was endothermally decomposed as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Melting point and heat of fusion obtained were 116.9+/-0.24 degrees C and 7249+/-217 cal/mol, respectively. MT as received from a manufacture was very pure, at least 99.9%. The solubility of MT in PG solution increased slowly until reaching 40% PG and then steeply increased. Solubility of MT increased linearly as concentration of 2-HPbetaCD without PG increased (R(2)=0.993). MT solubility in the mixtures of PG and 2-HPbetaCD also increased linearly but was less than the sum of its solubility in 2-HPbetaCD and PG individually. The MT solubility was low in water, simulated gastric or intestinal fluid but the highest in the mixture of PG (40 v/v%) and 2-HPbetaCD (30 w/v%) although efficiency of MT solubilization in 2-HPbetaCD decreased as the concentration of PG increased. MT was degraded in a fashion of the first order kinetics (r(2)>0.90). MT was unstable in strong acidic solution (HCl-NaCl buffer, pH 1.4) but relatively stable in other pH values of 4 approximately 10 at 70 degrees C. In HCl-NaCl buffer, MT in 10% PG was more quickly degraded and then slowed down at a higher concentration. However, the degradation rate constant of MT in 2-HPbetaCD was not changed significantly when compared to the water. The current studies can be applied to the dosage formulations for the purpose of enhancing percutaneous absorption or bioavailability of MT.
journal_nameArch Pharm Res
journal_titleArchives of pharmacal research
authorsLee BJ,Choi HG,Kim CK,Parrott KA,Ayres JW,Sack RL
abstract：Objectives (Background):Risk of dental injury from contact sports can be prevented by the use of mouthguards. Dentists provide excellent information regarding mouthguards. Thus, the aim was to assess the awareness among dentists regarding the same, the level of training in fabricating a mouthguard and whether they regu...
journal_title：Nigerian journal of clinical practice
abstract：:Capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins is increasingly gaining impact in clinical laboratories. During 2003, we compared the fully automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system from Beckman (Paragon CZE 2000) with the method agarose gel electrophoresis Sebia (Hydrasis-Hyris, AGE). This new study focused on...
abstract：:Silages constitute a major component of the feed ration for dairy cows, being a potential source of mycotoxins due to the possible contamination by filamentous fungi capable of producing these toxic compounds. In this study, samples of different kinds of silages collected from farms located in four regions of Spain, w...
abstract：:The authors evaluated the state and behaviour of 18 growth cartilages in 16 patients lengthened by the method of distraction epiphysiolysis in 1974 to 1991 at the Clinic of Child Orthopaedics in Brno. Lengthening was performed in 8 boys and 8 girls in the area of the distal femur and/or proximal or distal tibia. The f...
journal_title：Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
abstract：:The central roles of neurohormonal abnormalities in the pathobiology of heart failure have been defined in recent decades. Experiments have revealed both systemic involvement and intricate subcellular regulation by circulating effectors of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and o...
journal_title：Heart failure clinics
abstract：:En-bloc clamping of the hepatic pedicle is commonly performed during liver resection in order to reduce bleeding during parenchymal transection. Selective vascular clamping of the ipsilateral portal vein branch and artery is considered preferable to avoid ischemia-reperfusion injury to the future liver remnant and the...
journal_title：Acta chirurgica Belgica
abstract：:Agranulocytosis is a rare side effect of antithyroid drugs, it occurs in less than 0.5% of patients, usually during the first few months of treatment. It is considered to be the most serious adverse effect of these medications since it may be complicated by serious, life-threatening infections. Mucormycosis is a sever...
journal_title：Gaceta medica de Mexico
abstract：OBJECTIVES:To study the frequency of negative comments (badmouthing) made by teaching hospital specialists about metropolitan and rural general practitioners (GPs) and by GPs about hospital specialists and the impact of these comments on medical students' intended career choice. In this study badmouthing is defined as ...
journal_title：Australian family physician
abstract：:With the release of the DSM-III, multiaxial assessment, which was a new concept, was introduced to daily clinical practice. This article will review the history and the development of the concept of multiaxial assessment and will focus on the its relationship to the DSM-III. In conclusion I will discuss different crit...
journal_title：History of psychiatry
abstract：:Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using coronary sinus (CS) leads is an established therapy for congestive heart failure in patients with asynchronous ventricular contractions. CRT improves not only exercise tolerance but also the patient's prognosis. Appropriate patient selection for CRT is essential for a succ...
journal_title：Reviews in cardiovascular medicine
abstract：:Copper is essential for normal growth and development of human organisms. The role of copper as a cofactor of important metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome c oxidase, superoxide dismutase, lysyl oxidase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and many others, has been well established. In recent years, new regulatory roles of copp...
journal_title：Current topics in membranes
abstract：BACKGROUND:Apolipoprotein-B/A-1 (apoB/A-R) and total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratios (TC/HDL-R) outperform non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) suggested by Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines for predicting cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the potential effects th...
journal_title：Journal of clinical lipidology
abstract：:Anemia secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important but complex syndrome which directly contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population. The interactions between uremia, bone marrow biology and erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness are of significant interest to improve our b...
abstract：:The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old W...
abstract：AIM:To investigate the effect of minimally invasive approaches on the outcome of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed in 74 hospitalized bilateral chronic subdural hematoma patients from January 2010 to January 2013 in Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital. Pati...
abstract：:NADPH is involved in many basically important anabolic processes. For a long time, pentose phosphate pathway (PPS) was regarded as the most important source of NADPH in fungi. Here we present evidence of a metabolic switch to an alternative NADPH-producing pathway in ageing Penicillium chrysogenum cultures, which invo...
journal_title：Acta biologica Hungarica
abstract：:Sonohysterography is a simple, safe and convenient technique that is easily and rapidly performed in the ultrasound room; yet the technique seems to be underutilized in West Africa. We present two cases that were successfully carried out in our centre followed by detailed description, uses and challenges of the techni...
journal_title：African journal of reproductive health
abstract：:For effective operating room (OR) planning, surgery duration estimation is critical. Overestimation leads to underutilization of expensive hospital resources (e.g., OR time) whereas underestimation leads to overtime and high waiting times for the patients. In this paper, we consider a particular estimation method curr...
journal_title：Health care management science
abstract：BACKGROUND:Evolving norms and complex food environments may require new skill sets and mind-sets to maintain a healthy diet. Food literacy acknowledges the influence of external factors in shaping a person's development and application of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors required for healthy eating. Food literacy a...
journal_title：Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
abstract：:Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma a...
journal_title：Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
abstract：PURPOSE:To compare the fracture toughness (KIc) of tooth-colored restorative materials based on a four-point bending; to assess the effect of distilled water and a resin surface sealant (G-Coat Plus) on the resistance of the materials to fracture. METHODS:Specimens were prepared from six materials: Quix Fil; Dyract (D...
journal_title：American journal of dentistry
abstract：:Urinary incontinence is a problem affecting a significant proportion of the elderly population. It has substantial medical, psychological, social and economic implications. It is to be regarded as a symptom with multifactorial causes. A useful clinical classification of urinary incontinence is by its pathophysiology. ...
journal_title：Singapore medical journal
abstract：:Phenol and its derivatives (alkylphenols, halogenated phenols, nitrophenols) are natural or man-made aromatic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and in human-polluted environments. Many of these substances are toxic and/or suspected of mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Bioremediation of the pollut...
journal_title：Advances in applied microbiology
abstract：:We investigated the immediate effects of a varus knee brace on knee symptoms and knee-joint biomechanics in an individual with predominant lateral tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TFJOA) and valgus malalignment after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A varus unloader brace was prescribed to a 48-year-...
journal_title：Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions
abstract：BACKGROUND:Fresnes prison is one of the largest penitentiary centres in France (around 2300 inmates). Since dermatological consultations are not possible on site, a teledermatology agreement was signed in 2008 between the Kremlin-Bicêtre hospital, used by the Fresnes consultation unit and outpatient care (UCSA) and the...
journal_title：Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie
abstract：:Changes in glutamatergic nervous activities following intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) were studied in rats. The levels of total glutamate, those of glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in extracellular fluid (ECF) of striatum, the activities of glutamine synthetas...
journal_title：Archives of pharmacal research
abstract：:1. There is increasing evidence that depressed clients with and without a family history of depression differ on several clinical features, such as learned resourcefulness, depressed cognitions, and coping capabilities. Subjects reporting a family history of depression do not differ from those with no familial depress...
journal_title：Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services
abstract：BACKGROUND:Telepsychiatry is a new method of medical care, using modern communication technologies and electronic informations. It consists of web pages, containing data about diseases and their treatment in the form of multimedia libraries with video- and audiobooks. This research concerns verification of knowledge an...
abstract：PURPOSE:To evaluate the clinical and radiographic success rates of pulpotomized (formocresol) primary molar teeth restored with a resin-based composite (TPH) or a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract AP) over a 2-year period. METHODS:100 composite and 100 compomer restorations were placed over pulpotomized teeth ...
journal_title：American journal of dentistry
abstract：:Public opinion is increasingly opposed to smoking and more and more smokers wish to stop. This article offers a practical, 10 point strategy for general practitioners to use to identify patients who smoke and to help them overcome their addiction. ...
journal_title：Australian family physician