Solubility and stability of melatonin in propylene glycol and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin vehicles.


:The physicochemical properties of melatonin (MT) in propylene glycol (PG) and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HPbetaCD) vehicles were characterized. MT was endothermally decomposed as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Melting point and heat of fusion obtained were 116.9+/-0.24 degrees C and 7249+/-217 cal/mol, respectively. MT as received from a manufacture was very pure, at least 99.9%. The solubility of MT in PG solution increased slowly until reaching 40% PG and then steeply increased. Solubility of MT increased linearly as concentration of 2-HPbetaCD without PG increased (R(2)=0.993). MT solubility in the mixtures of PG and 2-HPbetaCD also increased linearly but was less than the sum of its solubility in 2-HPbetaCD and PG individually. The MT solubility was low in water, simulated gastric or intestinal fluid but the highest in the mixture of PG (40 v/v%) and 2-HPbetaCD (30 w/v%) although efficiency of MT solubilization in 2-HPbetaCD decreased as the concentration of PG increased. MT was degraded in a fashion of the first order kinetics (r(2)>0.90). MT was unstable in strong acidic solution (HCl-NaCl buffer, pH 1.4) but relatively stable in other pH values of 4 approximately 10 at 70 degrees C. In HCl-NaCl buffer, MT in 10% PG was more quickly degraded and then slowed down at a higher concentration. However, the degradation rate constant of MT in 2-HPbetaCD was not changed significantly when compared to the water. The current studies can be applied to the dosage formulations for the purpose of enhancing percutaneous absorption or bioavailability of MT.


Arch Pharm Res


Lee BJ,Choi HG,Kim CK,Parrott KA,Ayres JW,Sack RL




Has Abstract


1997-12-01 00:00:00










  • Dentists' Attitudes and perceptions toward protective mouthguards.

    abstract:Objectives (Background):Risk of dental injury from contact sports can be prevented by the use of mouthguards. Dentists provide excellent information regarding mouthguards. Thus, the aim was to assess the awareness among dentists regarding the same, the level of training in fabricating a mouthguard and whether they regu...

    journal_title:Nigerian journal of clinical practice

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raghavan S,Dayal P,Philip K,Gahlot MS

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a capillary zone electrophoresis system versus a conventional agarose gel system for routine serum protein separation and monoclonal component typing.

    abstract::Capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins is increasingly gaining impact in clinical laboratories. During 2003, we compared the fully automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system from Beckman (Paragon CZE 2000) with the method agarose gel electrophoresis Sebia (Hydrasis-Hyris, AGE). This new study focused on...

    journal_title:Clinical laboratory

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roudiere L,Boularan AM,Bonardet A,Vallat C,Cristol JP,Dupuy AM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mycotoxins occurrence and fungal populations in different types of silages for dairy cows in Spain.

    abstract::Silages constitute a major component of the feed ration for dairy cows, being a potential source of mycotoxins due to the possible contamination by filamentous fungi capable of producing these toxic compounds. In this study, samples of different kinds of silages collected from farms located in four regions of Spain, w...

    journal_title:Fungal biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez-Blanco M,Ramos AJ,Sanchis V,Marín S

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • [The importance of age in patients for the subsequent state of the growth cartilage lengthened by distraction epiphysiolysis].

    abstract::The authors evaluated the state and behaviour of 18 growth cartilages in 16 patients lengthened by the method of distraction epiphysiolysis in 1974 to 1991 at the Clinic of Child Orthopaedics in Brno. Lengthening was performed in 8 boys and 8 girls in the area of the distal femur and/or proximal or distal tibia. The f...

    journal_title:Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Janovec M,Jochymek J

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Time and technology will tell: the pathophysiologic basis of neurohormonal modulation in heart failure.

    abstract::The central roles of neurohormonal abnormalities in the pathobiology of heart failure have been defined in recent decades. Experiments have revealed both systemic involvement and intricate subcellular regulation by circulating effectors of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and o...

    journal_title:Heart failure clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reed BN,Street SE,Jensen BC

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Right hepatectomy: Mishaps of extra-hepatic portal vein division.

    abstract::En-bloc clamping of the hepatic pedicle is commonly performed during liver resection in order to reduce bleeding during parenchymal transection. Selective vascular clamping of the ipsilateral portal vein branch and artery is considered preferable to avoid ischemia-reperfusion injury to the future liver remnant and the...

    journal_title:Acta chirurgica Belgica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landen S,Boleslawski E

    更新日期:2021-01-26 00:00:00

  • [Case report of mucormycosis in a patient with secondary methimazole-induced agranulocytosis].

    abstract::Agranulocytosis is a rare side effect of antithyroid drugs, it occurs in less than 0.5% of patients, usually during the first few months of treatment. It is considered to be the most serious adverse effect of these medications since it may be complicated by serious, life-threatening infections. Mucormycosis is a sever...

    journal_title:Gaceta medica de Mexico

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramírez C,Hernández AF,Méndez V,Trejo S,Contreras R,Espinosa de los Monteros AL,Gómez LM,Mercado M

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Doctors badmouthing each other. Does it affect medical students' career choices?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To study the frequency of negative comments (badmouthing) made by teaching hospital specialists about metropolitan and rural general practitioners (GPs) and by GPs about hospital specialists and the impact of these comments on medical students' intended career choice. In this study badmouthing is defined as ...

    journal_title:Australian family physician

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamien BA,Bassiri M,Kamien M

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • The multiaxial assessment and the DSM-III: a conceptual analysis.

    abstract::With the release of the DSM-III, multiaxial assessment, which was a new concept, was introduced to daily clinical practice. This article will review the history and the development of the concept of multiaxial assessment and will focus on the its relationship to the DSM-III. In conclusion I will discuss different crit...

    journal_title:History of psychiatry

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Bronschtein E

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Implementing cardiac resynchronization therapy in routine clinical practice: preoperative considerations and implantation techniques.

    abstract::Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using coronary sinus (CS) leads is an established therapy for congestive heart failure in patients with asynchronous ventricular contractions. CRT improves not only exercise tolerance but also the patient's prognosis. Appropriate patient selection for CRT is essential for a succ...

    journal_title:Reviews in cardiovascular medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nägele H,Castel MA

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of copper transporters in human cells.

    abstract::Copper is essential for normal growth and development of human organisms. The role of copper as a cofactor of important metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome c oxidase, superoxide dismutase, lysyl oxidase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and many others, has been well established. In recent years, new regulatory roles of copp...

    journal_title:Current topics in membranes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hasan NM,Lutsenko S

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Potential effects on clinical management of treatment algorithms on the basis of apolipoprotein-B/A-1 and total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratios.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Apolipoprotein-B/A-1 (apoB/A-R) and total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratios (TC/HDL-R) outperform non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) suggested by Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines for predicting cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the potential effects th...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vodnala D,Bard RL,Krishnan SM,Jackson EA,Rubenfire M,Brook RD

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Nocturnal home hemodialysis and its impact on erythropoietin responsiveness.

    abstract::Anemia secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important but complex syndrome which directly contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population. The interactions between uremia, bone marrow biology and erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness are of significant interest to improve our b...

    journal_title:Clinical nephrology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rioux JP,Chan CT

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons.

    abstract::The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old W...

    journal_title:Animal behaviour

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fitzpatrick CL,Altmann J,Alberts SC

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Minimally Invasive Approach in Bilateral Chronic Subdural Hematomas: Surgical Selection and Outcome in 74 Cases.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the effect of minimally invasive approaches on the outcome of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed in 74 hospitalized bilateral chronic subdural hematoma patients from January 2010 to January 2013 in Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital. Pati...

    journal_title:Turkish neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Min X,Bo Y,Cunzu W,Xun Z,Xiaofeng L,Pin C,Hengzhu Z

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • A novel aspect of NADPH production in ageing Penicillium chrysogenum.

    abstract::NADPH is involved in many basically important anabolic processes. For a long time, pentose phosphate pathway (PPS) was regarded as the most important source of NADPH in fungi. Here we present evidence of a metabolic switch to an alternative NADPH-producing pathway in ageing Penicillium chrysogenum cultures, which invo...

    journal_title:Acta biologica Hungarica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Varecza Z,Emri T,Pusztahelyi T,Pócsi I

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sonohysterography: time to step up its use in gynaecologic imaging in West Africa.

    abstract::Sonohysterography is a simple, safe and convenient technique that is easily and rapidly performed in the ultrasound room; yet the technique seems to be underutilized in West Africa. We present two cases that were successfully carried out in our centre followed by detailed description, uses and challenges of the techni...

    journal_title:African journal of reproductive health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Badu-Peprah A,Odoi AT,Dassah ET,Amo-Wiafe Y

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • A robust estimation model for surgery durations with temporal, operational, and surgery team effects.

    abstract::For effective operating room (OR) planning, surgery duration estimation is critical. Overestimation leads to underutilization of expensive hospital resources (e.g., OR time) whereas underestimation leads to overtime and high waiting times for the patients. In this paper, we consider a particular estimation method curr...

    journal_title:Health care management science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kayış E,Khaniyev TT,Suermondt J,Sylvester K

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Challenges, Opportunities, and Motivators for Developing and Applying Food Literacy in a University Setting: A Qualitative Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Evolving norms and complex food environments may require new skill sets and mind-sets to maintain a healthy diet. Food literacy acknowledges the influence of external factors in shaping a person's development and application of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors required for healthy eating. Food literacy a...

    journal_title:Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malan H,Watson TD,Slusser W,Glik D,Rowat AC,Prelip M

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.

    abstract::Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma a...

    journal_title:Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davoudi ET,bin-Noordin MI,Javar HA,Kadivar A,Sabeti B

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of aging on the fracture toughness of esthetic restorative materials.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the fracture toughness (KIc) of tooth-colored restorative materials based on a four-point bending; to assess the effect of distilled water and a resin surface sealant (G-Coat Plus) on the resistance of the materials to fracture. METHODS:Specimens were prepared from six materials: Quix Fil; Dyract (D...

    journal_title:American journal of dentistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bagheri R,Azar MR,Tyas MJ,Burrow MF

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Urinary incontinence in the elderly.

    abstract::Urinary incontinence is a problem affecting a significant proportion of the elderly population. It has substantial medical, psychological, social and economic implications. It is to be regarded as a symptom with multifactorial causes. A useful clinical classification of urinary incontinence is by its pathophysiology. ...

    journal_title:Singapore medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee KS,Owen RE,Choo PW,Jayaratnam FJ

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Catabolism of Phenol and Its Derivatives in Bacteria: Genes, Their Regulation, and Use in the Biodegradation of Toxic Pollutants.

    abstract::Phenol and its derivatives (alkylphenols, halogenated phenols, nitrophenols) are natural or man-made aromatic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and in human-polluted environments. Many of these substances are toxic and/or suspected of mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Bioremediation of the pollut...

    journal_title:Advances in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nešvera J,Rucká L,Pátek M

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of a varus unloader brace for lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis and valgus malalignment after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a single case study.

    abstract::We investigated the immediate effects of a varus knee brace on knee symptoms and knee-joint biomechanics in an individual with predominant lateral tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TFJOA) and valgus malalignment after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A varus unloader brace was prescribed to a 48-year-...

    journal_title:Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hart HF,Ackland DC,Schache AG,Pandy MG,Collins NJ,Crossley KM

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • [Teledermatology in a prison setting: A retrospective study of 500 expert opinions].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fresnes prison is one of the largest penitentiary centres in France (around 2300 inmates). Since dermatological consultations are not possible on site, a teledermatology agreement was signed in 2008 between the Kremlin-Bicêtre hospital, used by the Fresnes consultation unit and outpatient care (UCSA) and the...

    journal_title:Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khatibi B,Bambe A,Chantalat C,Resche-Rigon M,Sanna A,Fac C,Bagot M,Guibal F

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of I.C.V. administration of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) on the central glutamatergic nervous systems in rats.

    abstract::Changes in glutamatergic nervous activities following intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A) were studied in rats. The levels of total glutamate, those of glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in extracellular fluid (ECF) of striatum, the activities of glutamine synthetas...

    journal_title:Archives of pharmacal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma Y,Lim DK

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Potential sequelae of family history of depression. Identifying family members at risk.

    abstract::1. There is increasing evidence that depressed clients with and without a family history of depression differ on several clinical features, such as learned resourcefulness, depressed cognitions, and coping capabilities. Subjects reporting a family history of depression do not differ from those with no familial depress...

    journal_title:Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zauszniewski JA

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Telepsychiatry in Polish patients' and doctors' opinion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Telepsychiatry is a new method of medical care, using modern communication technologies and electronic informations. It consists of web pages, containing data about diseases and their treatment in the form of multimedia libraries with video- and audiobooks. This research concerns verification of knowledge an...

    journal_title:Psychiatria Danubina

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wojtuszek M,Kachnic J,Krysta K,Wutke J

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical performance of pulpotomized primary molars restored with resin-based materials. 24-month results.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the clinical and radiographic success rates of pulpotomized (formocresol) primary molar teeth restored with a resin-based composite (TPH) or a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract AP) over a 2-year period. METHODS:100 composite and 100 compomer restorations were placed over pulpotomized teeth ...

    journal_title:American journal of dentistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cehreli ZC,Cetinguc A,Cengiz SB,Altay AN

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Helping patients to stop smoking.

    abstract::Public opinion is increasingly opposed to smoking and more and more smokers wish to stop. This article offers a practical, 10 point strategy for general practitioners to use to identify patients who smoke and to help them overcome their addiction. ...

    journal_title:Australian family physician

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Copeman D,Del Mar C,Swannell R

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00