Causative factors in cerebral palsy.


:Causative factors in cerebral palsy (CP) vary to some degree according to gestational age group and clinical CP subtype. Such catastrophes of birth as placental abruption, cord prolapse, and uterine rupture sharply heighten risk of CP. These conditions are fortunately uncommon, and are sometimes not survived; individually and collectively they account for only a small proportion of CP. Among other factors associated with increased risk of CP are prematurity, intrauterine exposure to infection or maternal fever in labor, ischemic stroke, congenital malformations, atypical intrauterine growth (restricted or excessive for gestational age), and complications of multiple gestations. Although any 1 factor, if severe, may be sufficient to cause CP, more often it is the presence of multiple risk factors that overwhelms defense mechanisms and leads to CP. The contribution of genetic vulnerabilities that interact with environmental stressors is an emerging aspect of our understanding of causative factors in CP.


Clin Obstet Gynecol


Nelson KB




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • Sexual pain.

    abstract::Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boardman LA,Stockdale CK

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Current aims and challenges associated with cervical cancer prevention.

    abstract::This chapter will review the current modalities available to the clinician to screen for premalignant and malignant cervical lesions, which cast a broad net. The majority who test positive are not destined to suffer from or die from cervical cancer. Many who undergo screening and are triaged are young and subsequently...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lonky NM,Penner KR,Diedrich JT

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive decision-making and determinants of contraceptive use in HIV-infected women.

    abstract::Perinatal transmission and reproductive decisions of HIV-infected women can be categorized in statistical and epidemiological terms. These reports and figures, however, do little to fully explain the complexities of human relationships, life experiences, personal and cultural influences, and situational and environmen...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Williams HA,Watkins CE,Risby JA

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • The eye in pregnancy: ophthalmologic and neuro-ophthalmologic changes.

    abstract::A variety of changes in the eye can occur during pregnancy. These can be physiological, pathologic related to the pregnancy, or pathologic unrelated to the pregnancy. Pregnancy also can affect preexisting conditions. Pregnant women often discuss changes in their health first with their obstetrician; therefore, knowled...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Grant AD,Chung SM

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Subclinical thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

    abstract::There is compelling data and a rationale for embarking on screening to identify pregnant women with some of the multiple classes of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. However, the evidence to support such screening and treatment is lacking. Several important trials are underway or undergoing peer review that may provide...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casey BM

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for fetal aneuploidy: is maternal age relevant?

    abstract::The process of genetic screening has evolved from a simple notation of maternal age to a complex algorithm incorporating age, maternal serum screening, and sonographic findings. The extent to which each of these variables should contribute to the overall screening result is much debated and deserves continued research...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hawk AF,Saller DN

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Operative vaginal delivery: a cause of birth injury or is it?

    abstract::Operative vaginal delivery has been maligned since the days of W.J. Little with the word "forceps" becoming nearly synonymous with "Birth Injury" and "Cerebral Palsy." However in his presentation to the Obstetrical Society of London in 1861, Little's emphasis was on difficult labors being the culprit in subsequent dis...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Towner DR,Ciotti MC

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombophilia and adverse maternal-perinatal outcome.

    abstract::A recent review of the literature on thrombophilia and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) reveals contradictory findings. We have limited our review of literature mostly to the most recent decade. On the basis of our review, screening for thrombophilias with a history of APO (preeclampsia, abruptio placenta, intrauterine...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stella CL,Sibai BM

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Norgestimate.

    abstract::Norgestimate (NGM) is one of a class of newer, more selective progestins. The authors describe its structure and biologic activity, contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, metabolic effects, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation factors, and clinical side effects. NGM-containing oral contraceptives (OC), either a...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Corson SL

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of first and second trimester aneuploidy risk assessment.

    abstract::Counseling regarding the options for aneuploidy risk assessment is complicated and requires thorough counseling with the patient. Second trimester serum risk assessment has been the gold standard because of widespread availability, low cost, and vast experience with counseling and performance. First trimester risk ass...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reddy UM,Wapner RJ

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Risk Management in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    abstract::This article will review the basic principles of risk management, the role of the risk manager, and the importance of risk management in the patient safety movement as it pertains to obstetrics and gynecology. Several tools that are used by risk managers including risk assessments and root cause analyses will be used ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Klein VR

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Infection control and postexposure prophylaxis for the pregnant healthcare worker.

    abstract::Pregnant health care workers (HCW) may be exposed to pathogens during routine patient care duties. Although they do not seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with nonpregnant HCW, certain infections can be associated with increased maternal morbidity, mortality, and adverse perinatal outcomes. Primary preve...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bazan JA,Mangino JE

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: diagnosis, complications, and management.

    abstract::Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause for maternal mortality. Because of the increase risk for thromboembolism in pregnancy and the postpartum period, the clinician must be on high alert for the signs and symptoms and use appropriate diagnostics in a timely manner so that prompt anticoagulation therapy can be init...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown HL,Hiett AK

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal programming of insulin secretion in intrauterine growth restriction.

    abstract::Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs insulin secretion in humans and in animal models of IUGR. Several underlying mechanisms have been implicated, including decreased expression of molecular regulators of β-cell mass and function, in some cases shown to be due to epigenetic changes initiated by an adverse fe...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gatford KL,Simmons RA

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta Spectrum.

    abstract::The purpose of this review was to assist obstetricians and gynecologists in considering the most appropriate conservative treatment option to manage women with placenta accreta spectrum according to their individual need and local expertise of the heath care team. The issue is challenging, as the quality of evidence w...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sentilhes L,Kayem G,Silver RM

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause.

    abstract::Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a collection of exam findings and bothersome symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency involving changes to the labia, introitus, clitoris, vagina, urethra, and bladder. Vulvovaginal atrophy is a component of GSM. GSM is a highly prevalent medical condition with a...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shifren JL

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Other causes of fetal death.

    abstract::Although perinatal mortality rates have fallen considerably in the past several decades, the fetal component of this statistic has not decreased as rapidly as the neonatal portion. Syphilis, a significant cause of fetal death at the beginning of this century, has been eliminated and other conditions such as erythrobla...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kochenour NK

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for osteoporosis.

    abstract::Determining which women should undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing should be based on rational screening criteria. Screening tests should be simple to perform, readily available, and very sensitive. Clinical risk factors have been proposed by numerous professional societies as a way to screen women for fu...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Helmrich G

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Atosiban.

    abstract::The role of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in preterm labor is perhaps more prominent than once thought. The blockade of oxytocin and/or oxytocin receptors has both a theoretical and clinical aspect. Initial trials with the oxytocin antagonist atosiban have been encouraging with respect to efficacy and side effect pr...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shubert PJ

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    abstract::In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Artal R

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pruritus in pregnancy.

    abstract::Diagnosis of the cause of pruritus in a pregnant patient should be approached systematically, beginning with a detailed history (especially drug exposure) and physical examination. Systemic diseases must be excluded. Liver function tests and hepatitis screen are in order if symptoms suggest liver dysfunction. Stool ex...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dacus JV

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic management of the adnexal mass.

    abstract::Ovarian neoplasms are common in women of all ages. As many as 10% of women in the United States will undergo surgical removal of an adnexal mass sometime in their lifetime. Gynecologic surgeons have pioneered laparoscopic surgery, developing what was originally a diagnostic tool into a safe and effective approach to m...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hilger WS,Magrina JF,Magtibay PM

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Removal of adnexa at the time of vaginal hysterectomy.

    abstract::Removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries at the time of vaginal hysterectomy is a skill that must be acquired if one is to be a competent vaginal surgeon. Various techniques have been described and will be reviewed in this chapter. A single technique or series of steps often must be modified depending on the descent...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shepherd JP,Zyczynski HM

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Increasing Utilization of Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy.

    abstract::Once the decision to perform a hysterectomy has been made, the type and route of hysterectomy must be chosen, and efforts made to accomplish the surgery as safely as possible. Hysterectomy can be performed vaginally, abdominally with laparoscopic or robotic assistance, or open. The main goal of gynecologic surgeons sh...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walters MD,Ridgeway BM

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrasound evaluation of the postdate pregnancy.

    abstract::In summary, ultrasound plays an important role in the evaluation of the postterm pregnancy, and its use should be considered in the following situations: 1) estimation of fetal weight in the potentially macrosomic infant before vaginal delivery is attempted; 2) frequent evaluation for oligohydramnios using the amnioti...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodriguez MH

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • MRI: is there a role in obstetrics?

    abstract::Magnetic resonance imaging has a complementary role in obstetrical imaging to ultrasound (US). Although US has advantages as an initial imaging technique, there are significant numbers of patients who cannot be adequately evaluated for a variety of reasons including calvarial calcification, oligoanhydramnios, or simpl...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hibbeln JF,Shors SM,Byrd SE

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Obstetric hemorrhage: recent advances.

    abstract::Hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal mortality worldwide, and represents the third most common obstetrical cause of maternal death in the United States. Although uterine atony was previously a major cause of peripartum hemorrhage, more recently, it appears that abnormal placentation is the leading etiology ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Saad A,Costantine MM

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for the Prevention of Placenta-mediated Pregnancy Complications.

    abstract::During the past decade, prophylactic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have been suggested to decrease the risk of placental-mediated complications. Herein, we review the prospective randomized trials that addressed the usefulness of LMWH in preventing placental-mediated complications in high-risk women. In...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haddad B,Lecarpentier E,Touboul C,Sibai BM

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Viral infections in pregnancy.

    abstract::The responsibility of the physician for viral infections in pregnancy has changed dramatically in the last 15 years. Genital herpes infections have become much more frequent, and the recognition of these infections in women near term is particularly important. Cytomegaloviruses have been found to be the most commom ca...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sever JL

    更新日期:1978-06-01 00:00:00

  • Thalassemia in pregnancy.

    abstract::The responsibility of the obstetrician is to identify during the first trimester women who are carriers for thalassemia. When she has been identified, the father of the baby should be screened and if he is also a carrier, the couple should be offered prenatal diagnosis. In the majority of cases, prenatal diagnosis can...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kilpatrick SJ,Laros RK

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00