Restriction of retroviral replication by APOBEC3G/F and TRIM5alpha.


:Pathogenic viral infections have exerted selection pressure on their hosts to evolve cellular antiviral inhibitors referred to as restriction factors. Examples of such molecules are APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F and TRIM5alpha. APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F are cytidine deaminases that are able to strongly inhibit retroviral replication by at least two mechanisms. They are counteracted by the lentiviral Vif protein. TRIM5alpha binds to sensitive, incoming retroviruses via its C-terminal PRY/SPRY domain and rapidly recruits them to the proteasome before significant viral DNA synthesis can occur. Both of these proteins robustly block retroviral replication in a species-specific way. It remains an open but important question as to whether innate restriction factors such as these can be harnessed to inhibit HIV-1 replication in humans.


Trends Microbiol


Trends in microbiology


Huthoff H,Towers GJ




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • Let LuxS speak up in AI-2 signaling.

    abstract::Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that uses small diffusible molecules to coordinate diverse behaviors in response to population density. The only quorum-sensing system shared by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria involves the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The AI-2 synthase L...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Keersmaecker SC,Sonck K,Vanderleyden J

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of microbiota in infectious disease.

    abstract::The intestine harbors an ecosystem composed of the intestinal mucosa and the commensal microbiota. The microbiota fosters development, aids digestion and protects host cells from pathogens - a function referred to as colonization resistance. Little is known about the molecular basis of colonization resistance and how ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stecher B,Hardt WD

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • NODs in defence: from vulnerable antimicrobial peptides to chronic inflammation.

    abstract::Defensins and cathelicidins are prevalent and essential gastrointestinal cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs). However, these defensive peptides are not infallible because certain enteropathogens can overcome their protective function. Furthermore, impaired defensin synthesis has been linked to the occurrence of Cro...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peyrin-Biroulet L,Vignal C,Dessein R,Simonet M,Desreumaux P,Chamaillard M

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • RIG-I-Like Receptors: One STrEP Forward.

    abstract::RIG-I-like receptors detect cytosolic viral RNA and activate an antiviral innate immune response. A new study employs the one STrEP-purification technique and next generation sequencing to characterize physiological ligands in an infected cell. The view of all three RLRs bound to viral RNAs shows specialization, colla...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Lässig C,Hopfner KP

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Fungal Pathogens: Shape-Shifting Invaders.

    abstract::Fungal infections are on the rise due to new medical procedures that have increased the number of immune compromised patients, antibacterial antibiotics that disrupt the microbiome, and increased use of indwelling medical devices that provide sites for biofilm formation. Key to understanding the mechanisms of pathogen...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Min K,Neiman AM,Konopka JB

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid chemotaxis and signal transduction in Myxococcus xanthus.

    abstract::The lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the first chemoattractant to be described for a surface-motile bacterium. In Myxococcus xanthus, the specific activity of PE is determined by its fatty acid components. Two active species have been identified: dilauroyl PE and dioleoyl PE. Excitation to dilauroyl PE requires ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kearns DB,Shimkets LJ

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • CheV: CheW-like coupling proteins at the core of the chemotaxis signaling network.

    abstract::Microbes have chemotactic signaling systems that enable them to detect and follow chemical gradients in their environments. The core of these sensory systems consists of chemoreceptor proteins coupled to the CheA kinase via the scaffold or coupler protein CheW. Some bacterial chemotaxis systems replace or augment CheW...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alexander RP,Lowenthal AC,Harshey RM,Ottemann KM

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Type III secretion à la Chlamydia.

    abstract::Type III secretion (T3S) is a mechanism that is central to the biology of the Chlamydiaceae and many other pathogens whose virulence depends on the translocation of toxic effector proteins to cytosolic targets within infected eukaryotic cells. Biomathematical simulations, using a previously described model of contact-...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Peters J,Wilson DP,Myers G,Timms P,Bavoil PM

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Maturation of the [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    abstract::The high degree of similarity that exists between all the [NiFe] hydrogenase operons and the near universality of hydrogen metabolism among microorganisms suggest that the microbial ability to metabolize hydrogen is of great importance and ancient origin. The large number of genes present in these operons, which are m...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casalot L,Rousset M

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • In Silico Vaccine Strain Prediction for Human Influenza Viruses.

    abstract::Vaccines preventing seasonal influenza infections save many lives every year; however, due to rapid viral evolution, they have to be updated frequently to remain effective. To identify appropriate vaccine strains, the World Health Organization (WHO) operates a global program that continually generates and interprets s...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Klingen TR,Reimering S,Guzmán CA,McHardy AC

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Resource Reallocation in Bacteria by Reengineering the Gene Expression Machinery.

    abstract::Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks to control the activity of transcription and translation, and thus the growth rate, over a range of environmental conditions. Reengineering RNA polymerase and ribosomes allows modifying naturally evolved regulatory networks and thereby profoundly reorganizing the manne...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Jong H,Geiselmann J,Ropers D

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Host-plant invasion by Rhizobium: the role of cell-surface components.

    abstract::Rhizobia are soil bacteria that can become endosymbionts, reducing atmospheric nitrogen within nodules formed on the roots of legume plants. During tissue and cell invasion, bacterial cell-surface components adapt the bacterium to survive as an endophyte without eliciting host-defence responses. The structures of many...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kannenberg EL,Brewin NJ

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial (intramembrane-sensing) histidine kinases: signal transfer rather than stimulus perception.

    abstract::Most membrane-anchored histidine kinases (HKs) of bacterial two-component systems (2CSs) contain an extracellular input domain that is thought to be responsible for sensing an environmental cue. By contrast, intramembrane-sensing HKs (IM-HKs) lack a sensory domain and cannot perceive their stimuli directly. Instead, a...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mascher T

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prospects for new vaccines against tuberculosis.

    abstract::The spectacular failure of the existing bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in recent tuberculosis-control trials has prompted a search for potential replacements. Imaginative approaches currently under development include the modulation of BCG by the production of auxotrophic mutants or cytokine-secreting recombina...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Orme IM

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Science denial: a guide for scientists.

    abstract::Evolution, climate change, and vaccination: in these cases and more, scientists, policymakers, and educators are confronted by organized campaigns to spread doubt, denial, and rejection of the scientific community's consensus on central scientific principles. To overcome these threats, scientists not only need to spre...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenau J

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Flipping the switch: bringing order to flagellar assembly.

    abstract::The bacterial flagellum is a complex self-assembling nanomachine that contains its own type III protein export apparatus. Upon completion of early flagellar structure, this apparatus switches substrate specificity to export late structural subunits, thereby coupling sequential flagellar gene expression with flagellar ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferris HU,Minamino T

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evolution of Wolbachia pipientis transmission dynamics in insects.

    abstract::Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular bacterial parasite of arthropods that enhances its transmission by manipulating host reproduction, most commonly by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility. The discovery of isolates with modified cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotypes and others with novel virulence properties is ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McGraw EA,O'Neill SL

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Involvement of Bacteria Other Than Clostridium difficile in Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea.

    abstract::Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common and unintended consequence of antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious aetiology of AAD; however, only approximately 25% of all AAD cases are associated with C. difficile infection, with the aetiology in the majority of cases remaining undete...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Larcombe S,Hutton ML,Lyras D

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    abstract::Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenz...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tsang TK,Lau LLH,Cauchemez S,Cowling BJ

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • RTX Adhesins are Key Bacterial Surface Megaproteins in the Formation of Biofilms.

    abstract::Gram-negative bacteria produce repeats-in-toxin adhesion proteins (RTX adhesins) to facilitate microbial adhesion. These large, multidomain proteins share a common architecture comprised of four regions. First to emerge from the bacterium, C terminal end leading, is the RTX export sequence that directs the protein thr...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guo S,Vance TDR,Stevens CA,Voets I,Davies PL

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Leeches and their microbiota: naturally simple symbiosis models.

    abstract::Strictly blood-feeding leeches and their limited microbiota provide natural and powerful model systems to examine symbiosis. Blood is devoid of essential nutrients and it is thought that symbiotic bacteria synthesize these for the host. In this review, three distinct leech-microbe associations are described: (i) the m...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Graf J,Kikuchi Y,Rio RV

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Virus-like particles as immunogens.

    abstract::Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins can suffer from poor immunogenicity owing to incorrect folding of the target protein or poor presentation to the immune system. Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a specific class of subunit vaccine that mimic the structure of authentic virus particles. They are recogn...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Noad R,Roy P

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Preparing the way: fungal motors in microtubule organization.

    abstract::Fungal growth, development and pathogenicity require hyphal tip growth, which is supported by polar exocytosis at the expanding growth region. It is assumed that molecular motors transport growth supplies along the fibrous elements of the cytoskeleton, such as microtubules, to the hyphal apex. Recent advances in live-...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steinberg G

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Can β-Lactam Antibiotics Be Resurrected to Combat MRSA?

    abstract::The use of β-lactam antibiotics to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus has been severely compromised by the acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a gene that encodes the β-lactam-insensitive penicillin-binding protein PBP2a. This allows methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to proliferate in the pre...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Foster TJ

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in bacterial flagellins: from sequence to structure.

    abstract::Bacterial motility relies chiefly on the rotation of a molecular propeller, the flagellar filament, which is constructed from the protein flagellin. Here, flagellin sequence conservation and diversity is examined in the light of the recently determined flagellar filament structure. As expected, the surface-exposed dom...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beatson SA,Minamino T,Pallen MJ

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Light-driven ion-translocating rhodopsins in marine bacteria.

    abstract::Microbial rhodopsins are the photoreceptive membrane proteins found in diverse microorganisms from within Archaea, Eubacteria, and eukaryotes. They have a hep-tahelical transmembrane structure that binds to an all-trans retinal chromophore. Since 2000, thousands of proteorhodopsins, genes of light-driven proton pump r...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Inoue K,Kato Y,Kandori H

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination.

    abstract::The recent observation of a surge in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic geographic range of the virus? Research addressing the vir...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reynolds MG,Damon IK

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Viral Carcinogenesis Beyond Malignant Transformation: EBV in the Progression of Human Cancers.

    abstract::Cancer progression begins when malignant cells colonize adjacent sites, and it is characterized by increasing tumor heterogeneity, invasion and dissemination of cancer cells. Clinically, progression is the most relevant stage in the natural history of cancers. A given virus is usually regarded as oncogenic because of ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Elgui de Oliveira D,Müller-Coan BG,Pagano JS

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • The Role of the Fungal Cell Wall in the Infection of Plants.

    abstract::The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors - such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fung...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Geoghegan I,Steinberg G,Gurr S

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • PIP2: choreographer of actin-adaptor proteins in the HIV-1 dance.

    abstract::The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role during the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infection is affected by cellular proteins that influence the clustering of viral receptors or the subcortical actin cytoskeleton. Several of these actin-adaptor proteins are controlled by the second m...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rocha-Perugini V,Gordon-Alonso M,Sánchez-Madrid F

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00