Humoral immunity to HIV-1: neutralisation and antibody effector functions.


:Several features of HIV have frustrated efforts to develop a vaccine able to induce broadly neutralising antibodies. The enormous genetic diversity of HIV is a major factor, accompanied by the camouflaged nature of the envelope spike, upon which HIV depends for cellular entry and to which antibodies must bind to neutralise. The picture is further complicated by the presence of nonfunctional envelope glycoproteins on the surface of HIV that are immunogenic. Consequently, HIV attracts antibodies that do not directly neutralise the virus but still activate complement and engage Fc receptors, which can both enhance and inhibit infection. The various effects that anti-envelope antibodies have on HIV infection will be reviewed here. Further research is needed to determine if these in vitro-characterised activities have relevance in vivo, and if some of the undesirable effects of non-neutralising antibodies can be avoided or the beneficial effects harnessed.


Trends Microbiol


Trends in microbiology


Willey S,Aasa-Chapman MM




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • The role of microbiota in infectious disease.

    abstract::The intestine harbors an ecosystem composed of the intestinal mucosa and the commensal microbiota. The microbiota fosters development, aids digestion and protects host cells from pathogens - a function referred to as colonization resistance. Little is known about the molecular basis of colonization resistance and how ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stecher B,Hardt WD

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental regulation of rhizobial symbiotic nitrogen fixation genes.

    abstract::Adaptation of rhizobia to a symbiotic life style and synthesis of the nitrogen-fixing apparatus are coordinated with nodule development by the microaerobic conditions prevailing in the central nodule tissue. Sensing and transduction of the "low oxygen' signal involves similar regulatory elements in different rhizobia,...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fischer HM

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metaproteomics: studying functional gene expression in microbial ecosystems.

    abstract::The recent availability of extensive metagenomic sequences from various environmental microbial communities has extended the postgenomic era to the field of environmental microbiology. Although still restricted to a small number of studies, metaproteomic investigations have revealed interesting aspects of functional g...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilmes P,Bond PL

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons.

    abstract::In Gram-negative bacteria, type II secretion (T2S) is one of five protein secretion systems that permit the export of proteins from within the bacterial cell to the extracellular milieu and/or into target host cells. An analysis of numerous sequenced genomes now reveals that T2S genes are common, but by no means unive...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cianciotto NP

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • The rumen microbial ecosystem--some recent developments.

    abstract::The rumen of sheep and cattle represents a mobile, self-sustaining fermentation system for plant material. Analysis of the rumen flora continues to provide fundamental knowledge of anaerobic microbiology and is now yielding microbial genes that have potential in biotechnology. Recent research has provided fascinating ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Flint HJ

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cohabitation of Leishmania amazonensis and Coxiella burnetii.

    abstract::Intracellular pathogens customize the composition and function of the vacuoles they occupy, and can arrest or distort vacuolar maturation. In doubly infected cells, vacuoles that contain two different parasites can be used to test for exclusionary mechanisms, for expression of vacuolar phenotypes that permit or restri...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rabinovitch M,Veras PS

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in bacterial flagellins: from sequence to structure.

    abstract::Bacterial motility relies chiefly on the rotation of a molecular propeller, the flagellar filament, which is constructed from the protein flagellin. Here, flagellin sequence conservation and diversity is examined in the light of the recently determined flagellar filament structure. As expected, the surface-exposed dom...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beatson SA,Minamino T,Pallen MJ

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Virulence mechanisms and host specificity of gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans.

    abstract::Pantoea agglomerans has been transformed from a commensal bacterium associated with many plants into a host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a plasmid-borne pathogenicity island. This pathogenicity island harbors the hrp/hrc gene cluster, in addition to genes encoding type III effector proteins, biosynthesi...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barash I,Manulis-Sasson S

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative sequence analysis and predictions for the envelope glycoproteins of insect endogenous retroviruses.

    abstract::Insect endogenous retroviruses (IERVs) are present in the genome of several species. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the envelope glycoproteins (Envs) and fusion proteins (FPs) of several baculoviruses. We used this sequence similarity to predict fusion domains in the Envs of IERVs. We suggest that ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Misseri Y,Labesse G,Bucheton A,Terzian C

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • RTX Adhesins are Key Bacterial Surface Megaproteins in the Formation of Biofilms.

    abstract::Gram-negative bacteria produce repeats-in-toxin adhesion proteins (RTX adhesins) to facilitate microbial adhesion. These large, multidomain proteins share a common architecture comprised of four regions. First to emerge from the bacterium, C terminal end leading, is the RTX export sequence that directs the protein thr...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guo S,Vance TDR,Stevens CA,Voets I,Davies PL

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Use and Abuse of LexA by Mobile Genetic Elements.

    abstract::The SOS response is an essential process for responding to DNA damage in bacteria. The expression of SOS genes is under the control of LexA, a global transcription factor that undergoes self-cleavage during stress to allow the expression of DNA repair functions and delay cell division until the damage is rectified. Le...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fornelos N,Browning DF,Butala M

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Contact-dependent inhibition: bacterial brakes and secret handshakes.

    abstract::Interbacterial communication can be mediated by soluble secreted factors and direct cell-cell contact. Recently, Aoki et al. identified a new contact-dependent communication pathway by which strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli can inhibit the growth of other microbes within a mixed population. Two novel gene pro...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slechta ES,Mulvey MA

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance.

    abstract::Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Birger RB,Kouyos RD,Cohen T,Griffiths EC,Huijben S,Mina MJ,Volkova V,Grenfell B,Metcalf CJE

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • NF-kappaB signaling modulation by EBV and KSHV.

    abstract::The nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway is pivotal for immune system function. Not surprisingly, pathogenic microorganisms have developed strategies to subvert it. Two examples are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), oncogenic gammaherpesviruses that establish a lifelong latent inf...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Oliveira DE,Ballon G,Cesarman E

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cell invasion by the vertebrate stages of Plasmodium.

    abstract::Protozoans of the genus Plasmodium are the causative agents of malaria; they have a complex life cycle involving vertebrate and arthropod hosts and have three distinct invasive stages. Although the invasive stages probably invade cells using similar mechanisms, each stage has a different host cell specificity and util...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sinnis P,Sim BK

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers.

    abstract::The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the fi...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oremland RS,Stolz JF

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Predictive Modeling of Influenza Shows the Promise of Applied Evolutionary Biology.

    abstract::Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morris DH,Gostic KM,Pompei S,Bedford T,Łuksza M,Neher RA,Grenfell BT,Lässig M,McCauley JW

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Noncoding RNAs: Regulatory Molecules of Host-Microbiome Crosstalk.

    abstract::Recent emerging evidence has revealed that regulatory noncoding RNAs (microRNAs, circular RNAs) modulate host-microbe interactions and they have been proposed as potential biomarkers of the host's response to microbiome-linked pathologies such as cancers, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. Interactions between m...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Malmuthuge N,Guan LL

    更新日期:2021-01-05 00:00:00

  • Small RNAs and their role in biofilm formation.

    abstract::The formation of biofilms is initiated by bacteria transitioning from the planktonic to the surface-associated mode of growth. Several regulatory systems have been described to govern the initiation and subsequent formation of biofilms. Recent evidence suggests that regulatory networks governing the decision of bacter...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chambers JR,Sauer K

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • How does Mycobacterium leprae target the peripheral nervous system?

    abstract::Mycobacterium leprae has the capacity to invade the peripheral nervous system and cause neuropathy. The molecular mechanisms responsible have remained unknown until recently. Identification of the endoneurial laminin-2 isoform and its receptor alpha-dystroglycan as neural targets of M. leprae has not only opened up a ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rambukkana A

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Innate immune detection of microbial nucleic acids.

    abstract::Detection of pathogen-derived nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is essential for the host to mount an appropriate immune response, which for viruses involves the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). By contrast, inappropriate activation of PRRs by self nucleic acids can lead to autoimmunity. Rec...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gürtler C,Bowie AG

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Archaeal CRISPR-based immune systems: exchangeable functional modules.

    abstract::CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based immune systems are essentially modular with three primary functions: the excision and integration of new spacers, the processing of CRISPR transcripts to yield mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), and the targeting and cleavage of foreign nucleic acid. T...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Garrett RA,Vestergaard G,Shah SA

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Application of knockout mice to the experimental analysis of infections with bacteria and protozoa.

    abstract::Knockout mice with distinct gene deletions are valuable tools for in vivo analyses of the immune response against infectious agents. Studies of bacterial and protozoal infections have shown that antimicrobial immunity is generally defective in knockout mice. At one extreme, deletion of just one gene may completely com...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaufmann SH,Ladel CH

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures.

    abstract::Ribosome research has undergone astonishing progress in recent years. Crystal structures have shed light on the functional properties of the translation machinery and revealed how the striking architecture of the ribosome is ingeniously designed as the framework for its unique capabilities: precise decoding, substrate...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bashan A,Yonath A

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cable Bacteria Take a New Breath Using Long-Distance Electricity.

    abstract::Recently, a new group of multicellular microorganisms was discovered, called 'cable bacteria', which are capable of generating and mediating electrical currents across centimetre-scale distances. By transporting electrons from cell to cell, cable bacteria can harvest electron donors and electron acceptors that are wid...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meysman FJR

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Pathogen-Host Interface in Three Dimensions: Correlative FIB/SEM Applications.

    abstract::Pathogens survive and propagate within host cells through a wide array of complex interactions. Tracking the molecular and cellular events by multidimensional fluorescence microscopy has been a widespread tool for research on intracellular pathogens. Through major advancements in 3D electron microscopy, intracellular ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weiner A,Enninga J

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Life on Phosphite: A Metagenomics Tale.

    abstract::Phosphite, a species of phosphorus in a P3+ oxidation state, is believed to have played an important role in the primordial Earth. Figueroa et al. used metagenomics to uncover anaerobic bacterial communities from waste water waste sludge that sustain life from energy provided by phosphite. ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Tapia-Torres Y,Olmedo-Álvarez G

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Maturation of the [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    abstract::The high degree of similarity that exists between all the [NiFe] hydrogenase operons and the near universality of hydrogen metabolism among microorganisms suggest that the microbial ability to metabolize hydrogen is of great importance and ancient origin. The large number of genes present in these operons, which are m...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casalot L,Rousset M

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Staphylococcal biofilm disassembly.

    abstract::Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are a frequent cause of biofilm-associated infections that are a tremendous burden on our healthcare system. Staphylococcal biofilms exhibit extraordinary resistance to antimicrobial killing, limiting the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, and surgical intervention is ...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boles BR,Horswill AR

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Oxygen-dependent anti-Salmonella activity of macrophages.

    abstract::Numerous observations have established a crucial role for phagocytic cells in host resistance to Salmonella. Activated macrophages rely on a complex array of oxygen-dependent antimicrobial molecules to inhibit or kill intracellular Salmonella. An initial oxidative bactericidal phase, which is dependent on the respirat...

    journal_title:Trends in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vazquez-Torres A,Fang FC

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00