Hepatitis Ain Greenland: importance of specific antibody testing in epidemiologic surveillance.

Abstract:

:An epidemic of viral hepatitis type A in an arctic area is described. From 1970-1974, 4961 clinical cases of hepatitis were reported in Greenland, corresponding to 11 per cent of the total population. Epidemiologic surveillance indicated person-to-person transmission of the disease, apparently by the oralfecal route. The course of the disease was mild, and complications were rare with a case fatality rate of 0.3%. Ninety-three per cent of the cases occurred in individuals 1-25 years of age, suggesting widespread immunity in the adult population presumably due to infection with hepatitis A during a similar epidemic in 1947-1948. The occurrence of antibody to hepatitis A antigen (anti-HA) in healthy Greenlanders, as detected by radioimmunoassay, closely paralleled this observation. Anti-HA was present in 38 (93%) of 41 individuals born before 1948 and in one (3%) of 29 younger persons. Anti-HA also was detected during the epidemic in the sera of 25 randomly selected hepatitis cases. Immunoglobin analysis in three acute-phase sera showed anti-HA reactivity predominantly in the IgM fraction. The epidemic showed no relation to the hepatitis episodes occurring annually in the area, and seroepidemiologic data indicated that the endemic hepatitis may be caused by hepatitis B virus only.

journal_name

Am J Epidemiol

authors

Skinhoj P,Mikkelsen F,Hollinger FB

doi

10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112366

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1977-02-01 00:00:00

pages

140-7

issue

2

eissn

0002-9262

issn

1476-6256

journal_volume

105

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer.

    abstract::With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Poolin...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwj127

    authors: Smith-Warner SA,Spiegelman D,Ritz J,Albanes D,Beeson WL,Bernstein L,Berrino F,van den Brandt PA,Buring JE,Cho E,Colditz GA,Folsom AR,Freudenheim JL,Giovannucci E,Goldbohm RA,Graham S,Harnack L,Horn-Ross PL,Krogh V,L

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Placental abruption and perinatal mortality in the United States.

    abstract::Placental abruption is an uncommon obstetric complication associated with high perinatal mortality rates. The authors explored the associations of abruption with fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, and perinatal survival. The study was based on 7,508,655 singleton births delivered in 1995 and 1996 in the Unite...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/153.4.332

    authors: Ananth CV,Wilcox AJ

    更新日期:2001-02-15 00:00:00

  • Sample size requirements for association studies of gene-gene interaction.

    abstract::In the study of complex diseases, it may be important to test hypotheses related to gene-gene (G x G) interaction. The success of such studies depends critically on obtaining adequate sample sizes. In this paper, the author investigates sample size requirements for studies of G x G interaction, focusing on four study ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/155.5.478

    authors: Gauderman WJ

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Body size and risk of breast cancer.

    abstract::The relation between body size and breast cancer remains uncertain, particularly with regard to differences between pre- and postmenopausal women. The authors examined whether height, weight, body mass index, and weight change were associated with breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women. This population...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009057

    authors: Trentham-Dietz A,Newcomb PA,Storer BE,Longnecker MP,Baron J,Greenberg ER,Willett WC

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    abstract::A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differentia...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113438

    authors: Woolley FR,Schuman KL,Lyon JL

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Applying recursive partitioning to a prospective study of factors associated with adherence to mammography screening guidelines.

    abstract::Although a number of predictors of adherence to mammography screening guidelines have been identified using traditional statistical methods, many women are not screening according to these guidelines. Recursive partitioning may aid in developing novel intervention strategies to promote this screening behavior by ident...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwi337

    authors: Calvocoressi L,Stolar M,Kasl SV,Claus EB,Jones BA

    更新日期:2005-12-15 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of cluster randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa.

    abstract::Cluster randomized controlled trials (CRCTs) are attractive in settings in which individual randomization is difficult or impossible. This issue is common when studying several health problems in developing countries. The authors aimed to assess empirically the extent to which the prerequisite design and analysis aspe...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwg232

    authors: Isaakidis P,Ioannidis JP

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Competing Effects of Indirect Protection and Clustering on the Power of Cluster-Randomized Controlled Vaccine Trials.

    abstract::Power considerations for trials evaluating vaccines against infectious diseases are complicated by indirect protective effects of vaccination. While cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) are less statistically efficient than individually randomized controlled trials (iRCTs), a cRCT's ability to measure direct a...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwy047

    authors: Hitchings MDT,Lipsitch M,Wang R,Bellan SE

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lessons Learned From Past Gene-Environment Interaction Successes.

    abstract::Genetic and environmental factors are both known to contribute to susceptibility to complex diseases. Therefore, the study of gene-environment interaction (G×E) has been a focus of research for several years. In this article, select examples of G×E from the literature are described to highlight different approaches an...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwx230

    authors: Ritz BR,Chatterjee N,Garcia-Closas M,Gauderman WJ,Pierce BL,Kraft P,Tanner CM,Mechanic LE,McAllister K

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of subsequent ischemic heart disease using serial resting electrocardiograms.

    abstract::To test the hypothesis that subtle changes in the resting electrocardiogram can have predictive value for subsequent cardiovascular disease, the authors evaluated serial electrocardiograms from a cohort of initially healthy men and related these to later development of ischemic heart disease. The cohort of 1056 men or...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113739

    authors: Harlan WR,Cowie CC,Oberman A,Mitchell RE,MacIntyre NR

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical hair treatments and adverse pregnancy outcome among Black women in central North Carolina.

    abstract::Several studies suggest that toxic chemicals in hair products may be absorbed through the scalp in sufficient amounts to increase the risks of adverse health effects in women or their infants. This case-control study of 525 Black women from three counties in North Carolina who had delivered a singleton, liveborn infan...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009879

    authors: Blackmore-Prince C,Harlow SD,Gargiullo P,Lee MA,Savitz DA

    更新日期:1999-04-15 00:00:00

  • Family history of cancer and risk of lung cancer among lifetime nonsmoking women in the United States.

    abstract::In a multicenter study of lung cancer in lifetime nonsmokers in the United States, 646 female lung cancer patients and 1,252 population controls were interviewed regarding history of cancer in their first-degree relatives. A 30% increased risk (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.8) was found for a history of respiratory tr...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008783

    authors: Wu AH,Fontham ET,Reynolds P,Greenberg RS,Buffler P,Liff J,Boyd P,Correa P

    更新日期:1996-03-15 00:00:00

  • Poisson regression modeling of temporal variation in incidence of childhood insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and Wielkopolska, Poland, 1970-1985.

    abstract::Contradictory observations have accumulated regarding a secular trend and/or an epidemic pattern in the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus incidence below age 15 years was examined in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and in Wielkopolska, Poland, two area...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115169

    authors: Rewers M,Stone RA,LaPorte RE,Drash AL,Becker DJ,Walczak M,Kuller LH

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Recreational physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a large cohort of US women.

    abstract::Factors that influence circulating sex hormones, such as physical activity, have been proposed to influence ovarian cancer risk; however, results from previous epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. The authors examined the association among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and ovarian cancer risk in the ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwj098

    authors: Patel AV,Rodriguez C,Pavluck AL,Thun MJ,Calle EE

    更新日期:2006-04-15 00:00:00

  • Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research.

    abstract::Observational longitudinal research is particularly useful for assessing etiology and prognosis and for providing evidence for clinical decision making. However, there are no structured reporting requirements for studies of this design to assist authors, editors, and readers. The authors developed and tested a checkli...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwi042

    authors: Tooth L,Ware R,Bain C,Purdie DM,Dobson A

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Travelers' diarrhea among United States Marines in South Korea.

    abstract::A battalion of United States Marines traveling to South Korea in the spring of 1976 was studied to determine the incidence and etiology of gastroenteritis. During the three weeks they visited South Korea, 21% of 694 marines developed diarrhea. Stool and serum specimens collected before, during, and after their stay we...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Echeverria P,Hodge FA,Blacklow NR,Vollet JL,Cukor G,DuPont HL,Cross JH

    更新日期:1978-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Outdoor Temperature, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    abstract::Ambient air pollution and temperature have been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome and its components-abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose concentration, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia-predict cardiovascula...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kww157

    authors: Wallwork RS,Colicino E,Zhong J,Kloog I,Coull BA,Vokonas P,Schwartz JD,Baccarelli AA

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of hepatitis B antibody in prostitutes.

    abstract::The possibility that hepatitis B is transmitted venereally was examined by determining the prevalence of hepatitis B antibody (anti-HB(S)) in populations with different levels of promiscuity. Of 258 prostitutes, 31% were anti-HB(S) positive, compared to 10% of 258 female age-matched blood donors, 10% of 48 nuns living...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112153

    authors: Frösner GG,Buchholz HM,Gerth HJ

    更新日期:1975-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differences between blacks and whites in the epidemiology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    abstract::Racial differences in the incidence and natural history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were evaluated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The yearly incidence rate for whites was approximately 1.5 times that for blacks. The cumulative risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes prior to age 20 was greater for...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114279

    authors: LaPorte RE,Tajima N,Dorman JS,Cruickshanks KJ,Eberhardt MS,Rabin BS,Atchison RW,Wagener DK,Becker DJ,Orchard TJ

    更新日期:1986-04-01 00:00:00

  • Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents.

    abstract::For the first wave of pandemic influenza or a bioterrorist influenza attack, antiviral agents would be one of the few options to contain the epidemic in the United States until adequate supplies of vaccine were available. The authors use stochastic epidemic simulations to investigate the effectiveness of targeted anti...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwh092

    authors: Longini IM Jr,Halloran ME,Nizam A,Yang Y

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Risk indicators for falls in institutionalized frail elderly.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to identify individual predisposing risk indicators for falls in a sample of institutionalized frail elderly in southern Germany. The design was a prospective observational study with a 1-year follow-up (October 1998-September 1999). The study population included 472 long-term-care residents ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwg203

    authors: Kron M,Loy S,Sturm E,Nikolaus T,Becker C

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake.

    abstract::Experimentally, high-carbohydrate diets have been shown to elevate triglycerides, but it has not been established whether this rise is permanent or transient. The authors approached this question by studying 719 boys from worldwide populations with marked differences in long-term carbohydrate intake. Fasting serum tri...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115497

    authors: West CE,Sullivan DR,Katan MB,Halferkamps IL,van der Torre HW

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Endemic bacteremia in Columbia, South Carolina.

    abstract::Between 1977 and 1981, there were 4.9 episodes of community-acquired bacteremia and 5.1 episodes of hospital-acquired bacteremia per 1,000 patients in the four major hospitals of one metropolitan area. Case fatality rates were 30.1 per cent based on deaths due to all causes and 14.7 per cent based on deaths attributed...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114205

    authors: Bryan CS,Hornung CA,Reynolds KL,Brenner ER

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Outward Na-K-Cl cotransport in human red blood cells: a methodological evaluation of method for epidemiologic investigations.

    abstract::The present report evaluates a method for the determination of the maximal velocity of the outward sodium, potassium, chlorine (Na-K-Cl) cotransport in erythrocytes. The loading procedure was carried out using the ionophore nystatin. The technical error for this assay, based on concurrent analysis of randomized blind ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114602

    authors: Trevisan M,Canessa M,Laurenzi M,Di Muro MR,De Colle S,Franzese A,Iacone R,De Chiara F

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • The association of reproductive history, demographic factors, and alcohol and tobacco consumption with the risk of developing nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    abstract::The role of maternal risk factors in the development of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy was studied in a historical cohort of 825 women who gave birth at the University of California (Los Angeles) Medical Center during a one-year period (April 1983-March 1984). The roles of demographic factors, reproductive history, ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114831

    authors: Weigel MM,Weigel RM

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Air pollution and autonomic and vascular dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: interactions of systemic inflammation, overweight, and gender.

    abstract::The authors conducted a 2-year follow-up of 40 cardiovascular disease patients (mean age = 65.6 years (standard deviation, 5.8)) who underwent repeated measurements of cardiovascular response before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics (Beijing, China), when air pollution was strictly controlled. Ambient levels of par...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwr511

    authors: Huang W,Zhu T,Pan X,Hu M,Lu SE,Lin Y,Wang T,Zhang Y,Tang X

    更新日期:2012-07-15 00:00:00

  • What Level of Risk Compensation Would Offset the Preventive Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy? Simulations From the TEMPRANO Trial.

    abstract::Whether risk compensation could offset the preventive effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission remains unknown. Using virological and behavioral data collected 12 months after inclusion in the TEMPRANO randomized trial of early ART (Abidjan, Côte d'I...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kww127

    authors: Jean K,Boily MC,Danel C,Moh R,Badjé A,Desgrées-du-Loû A,Eholié S,Lert F,Dray-Spira R,Anglaret X,Ouattara E

    更新日期:2016-11-15 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with the distribution of fasting plasma glucose in an adult community.

    abstract::The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured in 4170 nondiabetic adult residents of a suburban California community. At all ages the median FPG in men was higher (103-107 mg/dl) than the median FPG in women (96-104 mg/dl). FPG levels correlated weakly with obesity, and male-female differences persisted after adjustme...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113021

    authors: Barrett-Connor E

    更新日期:1980-10-01 00:00:00

  • Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland between 1982 and 1997.

    abstract::In Finland since the 1980s, coronary heart disease mortality has declined more than might be predicted by risk factor reductions alone. The aim of this study was to assess how much of the decline could be attributed to improved treatments and risk factor reductions. The authors used the cell-based IMPACT mortality mod...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwi274

    authors: Laatikainen T,Critchley J,Vartiainen E,Salomaa V,Ketonen M,Capewell S

    更新日期:2005-10-15 00:00:00

  • Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    abstract::Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveil...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwt322

    authors: Nogueira L,Freedman ND,Engels EA,Warren JL,Castro F,Koshiol J

    更新日期:2014-03-15 00:00:00