Heat--sweat--dehydration--rehydration: a praxis oriented approach.


:In any situation where heat production as a result of physical exercise exceeds heat elimination from the body by radiation and convection, the body will depend on sweat secretion and evaporation for its thermoregulation. Sweat secretion will reach maximal levels at high energy expenditures in the heat but will be limited when exercising in the cold climate. Athletes and their coaches should understand some of the principles of thermoregulation in order to make an adequate decision about optimal fluid and carbohydrate replacement in a specific situation. In general it is advised that the carbohydrate content of rehydration drinks should be low (max 80 g l-1) when sweat loss is maximal, may be intermediate when both carbohydrate availability and moderate dehydration influence performance (up to 110 g l-1), and may be maximal (up to 160 g l-1) when the sweat loss is minimized and carbohydrate is the major determinant of the rate of fatigue development. Sodium should be added to rehydration drinks in order to maximize fluid and carbohydrate absorption. A range of electrolyte values for replacement of sweat induced losses, based on whole body wash down procedure is presented.


J Sports Sci


Brouns F




Has Abstract


1991-07-01 00:00:00








9 Spec No


  • Excessive game playing is associated with musculoskeletal pain among youth athletes: a cross-sectional study in Miyagi prefecture.

    abstract::Youth athletes are known to be at high risk of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. Children in developed countries are increasingly adopting a sedentary lifestyle. Although some risk factors related to sports activities have been reported, the effect of lifestyle (i.e. screen time behaviour) on MSK pain in youth athletes ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sekiguchi T,Hagiwara Y,Momma H,Tsuchiya M,Kuroki K,Kanazawa K,Yabe Y,Yoshida S,Koide M,Itaya N,Itoi E,Nagatomi R

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • The "how" and "why" of the ancient Greek long jump with weights: a five-fold symmetric jump in a row?

    abstract::A plausible explanation for the ancient long jump records from Greek antiquity is sought on the basis of pictorial and written sources, and corroborated with practical tests. Ancient sources report that athletes jumped more than 15 m with weights in their hands, which enabled them to jump further than without these we...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Lenoir M,De Clercq D,Laporte W

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Physical fitness is associated with better technical performance in adolescent alpine ski racers after controlling for practice time: A retrospective regression analysis.

    abstract::In an effort to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning performance in alpine ski racing, researchers have focused on the predictive validity of measures derived from fitness assessments. However, a limitation of this literature is the absence of practice time, since prolonged training may naturally develop specific fitn...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeCouto BS,Fawver B,Taylor T,Williams AM

    更新日期:2020-09-20 00:00:00

  • Perspectives of a new sport-specific Para Shooting classification system for athletes with vision impairment.

    abstract::The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and individual sports federations have established the need to develop evidence-based systems of classification for athletes with vision impairment (VI) that may differ depending on the visual demands of each sport. As a consequence, research has been conducted that led to ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen PM,Mann DL,van der Linde I,Beukes EW

    更新日期:2020-12-15 00:00:00

  • Increased dietary carbohydrate and endurance during single-leg cycling using a limb with normal muscle glycogen concentration.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased availability of blood-borne glucose would improve endurance after carbohydrate loading. A single-leg exercise model was employed, taking advantage of the fact that supercompensation of muscle glycogen occurs only in a previously exercised limb. Endura...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hardman AE,Williams C

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Blocking landing techniques in volleyball and the possible association with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    abstract::The number and type of landings performed after blocking during volleyball matches has been related to the potential risk of ACL injury. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gender affects the frequency of specific blocking landing techniques with potential risk of ACL injury from the perspective of f...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zahradnik D,Jandacka D,Holcapek M,Farana R,Uchytil J,Hamill J

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Tracking of wheelchair rugby players in the 2008 Demolition Derby trial.

    abstract::The kinematics of male wheelchair rugby players (n = 8) during the final match of the 2008 Demolition Derby were assessed using two cameras (10 Hz) and a tracking method based on image-processing techniques. The players' on-court trajectory, total and accumulated distances covered, distances covered during working and...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarro KJ,Misuta MS,Burkett B,Malone LA,Barros RM

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.

    abstract::The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ayala F,De Ste Croix M,Sainz De Baranda P,Santonja F

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sports science for golf: A survey of high-skilled golfers' "perceptions" and "practices".

    abstract::Despite a growing body of evidence on the positive impact of sports science for golf, there is still a paucity of research investigating the "perceptions" and "practices" of high-skilled golfers. Professional Golfers' Association Assistant Professionals (future-qualified coaches; n = 430) were surveyed on their "perce...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wells JET,Langdown BL

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Profiling the sport of stand-up paddle boarding.

    abstract::Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing activity where only anecdotal evidence exists for its proposed health and fitness benefits. The purpose of this study was to profile elite and recreational SUP with respect to anthropometric, physiological and musculoskeletal measurements. A total of 30 SUP participa...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schram B,Hing W,Climstein M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    abstract::The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performe...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Lucas RD,Caputo F,Mendes de Souza K,Sigwalt AR,Ghisoni K,Lock Silveira PC,Remor AP,da Luz Scheffer D,Guglielmo LG,Latini A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments.

    abstract::A regression analysis of competitors' tournament results in relation to their world rankings was proposed to identify the effect of home advantage in international 'grand-slam' tennis and 'major' golf tournaments. The results provided little evidence of home advantage in either the grand-slam tennis or the golf tourna...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nevill AM,Holder RL,Bardsley A,Calvert H,Jones S

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Accelerometer epoch setting is decisive for associations between physical activity and metabolic health in children.

    abstract::When analysing physical activity (PA) levels using accelerometry, the epoch setting is critical to capture intensity-specific PA correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PA intensity signatures related to metabolic health in children using different epoch settings. A sample of 841 Norwegian child...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aadland E,Andersen LB,Anderssen SA,Resaland GK,Kvalheim OM

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.

    abstract::Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Noakes TD,Myburgh KH,Schall R

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Acute sleep hygiene strategy improves objective sleep latency following a late-evening soccer-specific training session: A randomized controlled trial.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep hygiene (SH) education on sleep quality in soccer players after a late-evening small-sided-game (SSG) training session. Twenty-nine non-professional players were recruited and allocated to either an experimental group (EG, n = 17) that received SH education, o...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vitale JA,La Torre A,Banfi G,Bonato M

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of false-start disqualification rules on response-times of elite-standard sprinters.

    abstract::The 100 ms ruling for false start disqualification at athletic competitions governed by the International Association of Athletics Federations has been in force since the early 1990s. Throughout this period, there have been marked changes to the rules that govern the disqualification of athletes from sprint events inc...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brosnan KC,Hayes K,Harrison AJ

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Amino acid arterial concentration and muscle exchange during submaximal arm and leg exercise: the effect of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate.

    abstract::The mixture of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate (DHAP) is an ergogenic aid that enhances muscle glucose extraction during prolonged aerobic exercise. In order to evaluate the effect of DHAP on muscle amino acid extraction during exercise, we measured arterial concentration and muscle exchange of amino acids in 18 untrain...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Stanko RT,Diven WF,Robertson RJ,Spina RJ,Galbreath RW,Reilly JJ Jr,Goss FL

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill.

    abstract::This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop tas...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Smith MR,Zeuwts L,Lenoir M,Hens N,De Jong LM,Coutts AJ

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reference power values for the jump squat exercise in elite athletes: A multicenter study.

    abstract::The present study aimed to provide reference values for lower-limb muscle power assessed during the incremental jump squat (JS) test in elite athletes (i.e., professional athletes competing at international level). We pooled data from all JS tests performed by elite athletes of different sports in two high-performance...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Valenzuela PL,McGuigan M,Sánchez-Martínez G,Torrontegi E,Vázquez-Carrión J,Montalvo Z,Abad CCC,Pereira LA,Loturco I

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Protocol variations in arm position influence the magnitude of waist girth.

    abstract::Waist girth is recognised as a better predictor of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, compared to other measures. Although several protocols for waist girth exist, arm position is either ignored, or not specified in unambiguous terms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if arm position influenc...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lennie SC,Amofa-Diatuo T,Nevill A,Stewart AD

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is there a sweet spot on the foot in Australian football drop punt kicking?

    abstract::In the collision between a striking implement and ball, the term "sweet spot" represents the impact location producing best results. In football kicking, it is not known if a sweet spot exists on the foot because no method to measure impact location in three-dimensional space exists. Therefore, the aims were: (1) deve...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peacock J,Ball K

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Ski jumping boots limit effective take-off in ski jumping.

    abstract::In this study, we measured the vertical and horizontal take-off forces, plantar pressures and activation patterns of four muscles (vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) in 10 ski jumpers in simulated laboratory conditions when wearing either training shoes or ski jumping boots. We found ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Virmavirta M,Komi PV

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Are the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire Scales stable or transient?

    abstract::Body image is an important concept when assessing mental health and, thus, a target for intervention work. The common approach to assess body image is via self-report and, consequently, it is important to assess stability and susceptibility of items to random change. Participants (N = 99, aged: 18-30 years) completed ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nevill AM,Lane AM,Duncan MJ

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Stability of the K4b² portable metabolic analyser during rest, walking and running.

    abstract::This study investigated the stability of the measurement of respiratory variables during rest, walking and running using the K4b(2) portable metabolic analyser in ten active males (age 31 ± 11 years; VO₂ peak 42.1 ± 2.6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)). Following a 10 min rest, participants completed three discontinuous increme...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howe CC,Matzko RO,Piaser F,Pitsiladis YP,Easton C

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Kinematic comparison of the preferred and non-preferred foot punt kick.

    abstract::Kicking with the non-preferred leg is important in Australian Football and becoming important in the rugby codes. The aim of this study was to examine differences between preferred and non-preferred leg kicking in the drop punt kick. Seventeen elite Australian Football players performed kicks with the preferred and no...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ball KA

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    abstract::We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palomäki S,Heikinaro-Johansson P,Huotari P

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of different types of exercise on the expression of haem oxygenase-1 in leukocytes.

    abstract::Haem-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant stress protein that is mainly induced by reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and hyperthermia. We assessed the influence of different types of exercise on HO-1 expression in leukocytes of the peripheral blood in three groups of male participants: a short exhaustive...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Fehrenbach E,Niess AM,Passek F,Sorichter S,Schwirtz A,Berg A,Dickhuth HH,Northoff H

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Expertise and talent development in rugby refereeing: an ethnographic enquiry.

    abstract::We explore how expertise is obtained in the domain of rugby refereeing. The research data are qualitative and are drawn from an 18 month period working in collaboration with the Rugby Football Union Elite Referee Unit. Adopting an ethnographic mode of enquiry, the study combined long-term participant observation with ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ollis S,Macpherson A,Collins D

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of a concentric warm-up exercise on eccentrically induced soreness and loss of function of the elbow flexor muscles.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine the effect of concentric warm-up exercise on eccentrically induced changes in muscle strength, range of motion, and soreness of the elbow flexors. Ten resistance-exercise naive participants performed intermittent incremental eccentric actions (42 in total) of the elbow flexor muscl...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ingham SA,van Someren KA,Howatson G

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of weighted skates on ice-skating kinematics, kinetics and muscular activity.

    abstract::Sport-specific resistance training, through limb loading, can be a complimentary training method to traditional resistance training by loading the working muscles during all phases of a specific movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of skating with an additional load on the skate, using ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mavor MP,Hay DC,Graham RB

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00