Gait analysis in multiple sclerosis: characterization of temporal-spatial parameters using GAITRite functional ambulation system.


BACKGROUND:Gait impairment is a significant problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), leading to decreased activity and limitations in function. However, specific characterization of abnormal gait in MS patients has only been described in small groups of patients, mainly using observational tools. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the current study was to characterize the spatio-temporal gait parameters in MS patients and ascribe them to clinical variables, in order to enable target-oriented management. METHODS:Eighty-one MS patients with relatively short disease duration (5.3; S.E.=0.3) able of independent walking and 25 age-matched healthy subjects were evaluated using the GAITRite Functional Ambulation System. Subjects also underwent a thorough neurological examination to assess their disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Gait parameters were compared between patients and able-bodied controls to characterize the gait impairments in MS. Within the group of patients the correlation of gait parameters with clinical neurological variables was investigated. RESULTS:MS patients demonstrated significant impairments in all spatio-temporal gait parameters compared to able-bodied healthy subjects. MS patients had a mean Functional Ambulation Profile (FAP) score of 83.0 and a mean velocity of 85.5m/s while the controls had a FAP score of 95.0 (p<0.001) and a velocity of 138.6m/s (p<0.001). Cadence was 94.4 steps/min in MS patients and 115.2 in controls (p<0.001). Step length was 45.3 cm in MS patients and 72.1 cm in controls (p<0.001). FAP score negatively correlated with disease duration (p<0.001) and EDSS (p<0.001). The most significant correlations of the FAP were found with the pyramidal (p<0.002), and the cerebellar (p<0.05) functional scores. Specifically, gait velocity, single support time and swing time negatively correlated with the pyramidal functional score, while double support time positively correlated with the pyramidal score. The base support width positively correlated with cerebellar functional score. CONCLUSIONS:Gait parameters were impaired in MS, even in patients with relatively short disease duration. The impaired gait patterns correlated with the associated neurological disability. Specific and accurate assessment of gait can be a useful tool to monitor MS evolution and can be used to advise target-oriented rehabilitative management of MS patients.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Givon U,Zeilig G,Achiron A




Has Abstract


2009-01-01 00:00:00














  • Quantification of upper body movements during gait in older adults and in those with Parkinson's disease: impact of acceleration realignment methodologies.

    abstract::The upper body accelerations of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) measured by inertial measurement units (IMUs) may contribute towards diagnostic algorithms and help track disease progression. Before extracting variables related to upper body motion, acceleration signals require realignment to a global reference; h...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buckley C,Galna B,Rochester L,Mazzà C

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Coordination Disorder, and typical development differ in characteristics of dynamic postural control: A preliminary study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are developmental disorders with distinct definitions and symptoms. However, both conditions share difficulties with motor skills, including impairments in postural control. While studies have explored postural sway variables in chi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller HL,Caçola PM,Sherrod GM,Patterson RM,Bugnariu NL

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • The minimal clinically important difference for the Gait Profile Score.

    abstract::The minimally clinically important difference (MCID) is an important concept for interpreting the results of clinical research. This paper proposes a rationale for defining an MCID for the Gait Profile Score (GPS) based on an analysis of the difference in median GPS for children classified at different levels of the F...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker R,McGinley JL,Schwartz M,Thomason P,Rodda J,Graham HK

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of modifying foot progression angle on the knee loading parameters in healthy participants with different static foot postures.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Studies have found that toe-in gait reduced the peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during early stance, while toe-out gait reduced the peak KAM during late stance. However, some other studies found that toe-in or toe-out gait could reduce the KAM throughout stance phase. There is still a divergence of opinion ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qiu R,Xu R,Wang D,Ming D

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional limits of agreement: a method for assessing agreement between measurements of gait curves.

    abstract::Three dimensional measurements of gait is a widely used tool in clinical gait analysis, and the evaluation of the reliability and reproducibility of the method is a recurring topic in the literature. The reliability of gait curve measurements is often assessed by extraction of single points from the gait curves before...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Røislien J,Rennie L,Skaaret I

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Run kinematics with and without a jogging stroller.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Jogging strollers have become increasingly popular as they allow a parent the freedom to run without having to leave their children. Few studies have examined the effects of running with a stroller and no study to date has examined the effects on joint kinematics. The aim of this study was to compare lower l...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Sullivan R,Kiernan D,Malone A

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Altered joint moment strategy during stair walking in diabetes patients with and without peripheral neuropathy.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate lower limb biomechanical strategy during stair walking in patients with diabetes and patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, a population known to exhibit lower limb muscular weakness. METHODS:The peak lower limb joint moments of twenty-two patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and thir...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Brown SJ,Handsaker JC,Maganaris CN,Bowling FL,Boulton AJ,Reeves ND

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Postural stability and the influence of concurrent muscle activation--Beneficial effects of jaw and fist clenching.

    abstract::Recent studies reported on the potential benefits of submaximum clenching of the jaw on human postural control in upright unperturbed stance. However, it remained unclear whether these effects might also be observed among active controls. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to comparatively examine the in...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ringhof S,Leibold T,Hellmann D,Stein T

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between foot sensation and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between the foot sensations and standing balance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and find out the sensation, which best predicts balance. Twenty-seven patients with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 1-3.5) and 10 healthy volunteers were inc...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Citaker S,Gunduz AG,Guclu MB,Nazliel B,Irkec C,Kaya D

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Modulating active stiffness affects head stabilizing strategies in young and elderly adults during trunk rotations in the vertical plane.

    abstract::Healthy young and elderly adults were asked to actively modulate neck muscle stiffness during random rotations of the trunk in the vertical plane. Angular velocity of head with respect to trunk and myoelectric activity of semispinalis capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were recorded. A MANOVA was performed on gro...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keshner EA

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hip kinetics during gait are clinically meaningful outcomes in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    abstract::Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive proximal to distal muscle weakness. The success of randomized clinical trials for novel therapeutics depends on outcome measurements that are sensitive to change. As the development of motor skills may lead to ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heberer K,Fowler E,Staudt L,Sienko S,Buckon CE,Bagley A,Sison-Williamson M,McDonald CM,Sussman MD

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristic gait kinematics in persons with lumbosacral myelomeningocele.

    abstract::Thirty self-ambulatory children with mid-lumbar to low-sacral myelomeningocele who walked without aids and 21 control children were evaluated by three-dimensional gait analysis. Characteristic kinematic patterns and parameters in the trunk, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle were analyzed with respect to groups with successi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gutierrez EM,Bartonek A,Haglund-Akerlind Y,Saraste H

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    abstract::Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contract...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tabard-Fougère A,Rose-Dulcina K,Pittet V,Dayer R,Vuillerme N,Armand S

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Calcaneus range of motion underestimated by markers on running shoe heel.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The measurement of rearfoot kinematics by placing reflective markers on the shoe heel assumes its motion is identical to the foot's motion. Studies have compared foot and shoe kinematics during running but with conflicting results. The primary purpose of this study was to compare shoe and calcaneus three-dim...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alcantara RS,Trudeau MB,Rohr ES

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Practicing recovery from a simulated trip improves recovery kinematics after an actual trip.

    abstract::The goal of this study was to determine if practicing recovery from a simulated trip improved the ability of older adults to recover from an actual trip. Twelve healthy older adults ranging in age from 63 to 83 years were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. Each group performed one trip bef...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bieryla KA,Madigan ML,Nussbaum MA

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Attentional prioritization in dual-task walking: Effects of stroke, environment, and instructed focus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The impact of high distraction, real-world environments on dual-task interference and flexibility of attentional prioritization during dual-task walking in people with stroke is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION:How does a real-world environment affect dual-task performance and flexible task prioritization during ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plummer P,Altmann L,Feld J,Zukowski L,Najafi B,Giuliani C

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Functional reach test: movement strategies in diabetic subjects.

    abstract::Functional reach (FR) is a clinical measure, defined as the maximum distance one can reach, forward beyond arm's length, able to identify elderly subjects at risk of recurrent falls. Subjects, exhibiting the same FR can perform the motor task in different ways: a kinematic analysis of the FR, task can help to identify...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maranesi E,Ghetti G,Rabini RA,Fioretti S

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Joint kinematics estimate using wearable inertial and magnetic sensing modules.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:In many applications, it is essential that the evaluation of a given motor task is not affected by the restrictions of the laboratory environment. To accomplish this requirement, miniature triaxial inertial and magnetic sensors can be used. This paper describes an anatomical calibration technique fo...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Picerno P,Cereatti A,Cappozzo A

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in walking pattern caused by the possibility of a tripping reaction.

    abstract::This study investigated in 15 young adults whether their walking pattern was altered after forewarning for a possible trip. Such changes might affect tripping reactions and consequently the validity of experimental results. Kinematics and dynamics were measured during overground walking. No changes occurred in walking...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pijnappels M,Bobbert MF,van Dieën JH

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Quantifying individual muscle contribution to three-dimensional reaching tasks.

    abstract::We investigated the individual muscle contribution to arm motion to better understand the complex muscular coordination underlying three-dimensional (3D) reaching tasks of the upper limb (UL). The individual contributions of biceps, triceps, deltoid anterior, medius, posterior and pectoralis major to the control of sp...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vandenberghe A,Bosmans L,De Schutter J,Swinnen S,Jonkers I

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of age on anticipatory postural adjustments in unilateral arm movement.

    abstract::Aging is frequently accompanied by a deterioration in postural control. Accordingly, the elderly adopt postural strategies in order to maintain balance. The purpose of this study was to compare anticipatory postural adjustments in (healthy) 10 young and 10 elderly subjects using electromyography (EMG) and biomechanica...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bleuse S,Cassim F,Blatt JL,Labyt E,Derambure P,Guieu JD,Defebvre L

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Domains and correlates of clinical balance impairment associated with Huntington's disease.

    abstract::This study sought to (a) determine the domains of clinical balance impairments associated with Huntington's disease (HD), and (b) evaluate associations between balance test scores and other disease-related impairments. Eighteen subjects with genetically definite HD and 17 age-matched control subjects were evaluated on...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobs JV,Boyd JT,Hogarth P,Horak FB

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of total ankle replacement on gait disability: analysis of energetic and mechanical variables.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The goal was to evaluate the effect of total ankle replacement (TAR) on gait in terms of mechanical and energetic variables. METHODS:An observational, prospective study was undertaken in 20 patients before and approximately 7 months after unilateral mobile-bearing TAR. The clinical-functional level was assesse...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Detrembleur C,Leemrijse T

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of virtual reality training on gait biomechanics of individuals post-stroke.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate gait biomechanics after training with a virtual reality (VR) system and to elucidate underlying mechanisms that contributed to the observed functional improvement in gait speed and distance. DESIGN:A single blind randomized control study. SETTING:Gait analysis laboratory in a rehabilitation hosp...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mirelman A,Patritti BL,Bonato P,Deutsch JE

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of rigid versus flexible spinal orthosis on the gait pattern of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    abstract::The conventional rigid spinal orthosis and the flexible spinal orthosis, SpineCor, have different treatment principles in the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). These may influence the patients' gait pattern and clinical outcome. In this study, gait analysis on patients with AIS undergoing these two ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Wong MS,Cheng CY,Ng BK,Lam TP,Sin SW,Lee-Shum LF,Chow HK,Tam YP

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of marker size on three-dimensional motion analysis of the foot.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the field of three-dimensional motion analysis of the foot, there is little agreement on the preferred size of markers to record kinematic parameters. Although currently applied marker sizes show a considerable range, there has been no detailed investigation of the effect of marker size on the calculation...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ebrecht F,Sichting F

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Differentiation of young and older adult stair climbing gait using principal component analysis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to reduce the volume of gait data and can also be used to identify the differences between populations. This approach has not been used on stair climbing gait data. Our objective was to use PCA to compare the gait patterns between young and older adults duri...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reid SM,Graham RB,Costigan PA

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Paralysis of the gastrocnemius medial head differentially affects gait patterns and muscle activity during level and stair ascent locomotion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prior studies have analyzed the activity of the gastrocnemius (GCM) medial and lateral heads as a single unit because it is technically challenging to separately analyze the function of each component in vivo. However, functional variation between the medial and lateral heads is expected due to their anatomi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park D,Seong YJ,Woo H,Yoo B,Shim D,Kim ES,Rha DW

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Does additional patella tendon shortening influence the effects of multilevel surgery to correct flexed knee gait in cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aims of this study were to investigate if patellar tendon shortening (PTS) as a part of SEMLS (single event multilevel surgery) is effective for reduction of flexed knee gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and, if PTS leads to stiff knee gait. METHODS:In a randomized controlled study 22 children w...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Klotz MCM,Krautwurst BK,Hirsch K,Niklasch M,Maier MW,Wolf SI,Dreher T

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanical energy efficiency for stepping up and down in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Energetic cost contributes to movement impairments observed during stair negotiation in persons with knee osteoarthritis. Specifically, the intersegmental mechanical energy exchange may be diminished in the presence of pathologies. RESEARCH QUESTION:The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical energ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koyama Y,Tateuchi H,Araki K,Fujita K,Umehara J,Kobayashi M,Ichihashi N

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00