Developing smokeless tobacco products for smokers: an examination of tobacco industry documents.


OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether development of smokeless tobacco products (SLT) is intended to target current smokers. METHODS:This study analysed internal tobacco industry documents to describe research related to the smokeless tobacco market. Relevant documents included those detailing the development and targeting of SLT products with a particular emphasis on moist snuff. RESULTS:Cigarette and SLT manufacturers recognised that shifting demographics of SLT users, as well as indoor smoking restrictions, health concerns and reduced social acceptability of smoking could impact the growth of the SLT market. Manufacturers developed new SLT products to target cigarette smokers promoting dual cigarette and SLT use. CONCLUSIONS:Heavy marketing of new SLT products may encourage dual use and result in unknown public health effects. SLT products have been designed to augment cigarette use and offset regulatory strategies such as clean indoor air laws. In the United States, the SLT strategy may provide cigarette companies with a diversified range of products under the prospect of federal regulation. These products may pose significant challenges to efforts by federal agencies to reduce harm caused by tobacco use.


Tob Control


Tobacco control


Carpenter CM,Connolly GN,Ayo-Yusuf OA,Wayne GF




Has Abstract


2009-02-01 00:00:00














  • The tobacco-free generation proposal.

    abstract::The tobacco-free generation proposal advocates legislation precluding the sale and supply of tobacco to individuals born after a certain year. The measure is aimed at overcoming defects with current youth access laws that suffer from rite-of-passage and mixed signalling effects. Since its introduction in 2010, the pro...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berrick AJ

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    abstract::While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Adminis...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang G

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • The case for Ofsmoke: the potential for price cap regulation of tobacco to raise £500 million per year in the UK.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:A system of price-cap regulation has previously been suggested to address the market failure inherent to the tobacco industry. This would benefit public health directly (eg, by making it extremely difficult for the industry to sell cut-price cigarettes, or use price as a marketing strategy) and indirectly (eg...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Branston JR,Gilmore AB

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Do adult focused anti-smoking campaigns have an impact on adolescents? The case of the Australian National Tobacco Campaign.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine adolescents' awareness of and response to an adult focused anti-smoking advertising campaign. DESIGN AND SETTING:Data were obtained from two cross sectional surveys of adolescents. The first study, a national evaluation study, involved a telephone survey of a randomly selected sample of 400 14-17...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White V,Tan N,Wakefield M,Hill D

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Seven years of progress in tobacco control: an evaluation of the effect of nations meeting the highest level MPOWER measures between 2007 and 2014.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Since WHO released the package of six MPOWER measures to assist nations with implementing the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC), 88 countries adopted at least one highest level MPOWER measure. We estimated the subsequent reduction in smoking-related deaths from all new highest level measures...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levy DT,Yuan Z,Luo Y,Mays D

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Marlboro UltraSmooth: a potentially reduced exposure cigarette?

    abstract:AIM:To compare relative toxic emissions scores (RTE) of the carbon filter cigarette Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS), against regular Marlboro, Holiday, and British Columbian brands. METHOD:MUS cigarettes were purchased in Tampa, Florida; Marlboro regular and Holiday were purchased in Auckland, New Zealand, and all emission...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laugesen M,Fowles J

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn.

    abstract::In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled "Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries," which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not bee...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis RM

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco industry litigation to deter local public health ordinances: the industry usually loses in court.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The tobacco industry uses claims of state preemption or violations of the US Constitution in litigation to overturn local tobacco control ordinances. METHODS:Collection of lawsuits filed or threatened against local governments in the USA; review of previously secret tobacco industry documents; interviews wi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nixon ML,Mahmoud L,Glantz SA

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • E-cigarette users commonly stealth vape in places where e-cigarette use is prohibited.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:'Stealth vaping' is the practice of vaping discreetly in places where electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is prohibited. While anecdotal evidence suggests that stealth vaping is common, there have been no formal studies of the behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine stealth vaping behaviour a...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yingst JM,Lester C,Veldheer S,Allen SI,Du P,Foulds J

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • From glass boxes to social media engagement: an audit of tobacco retail marketing in Indonesia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess tobacco promotion intensity, retailer behaviours and tobacco company efforts to link retailer marketing to online channels. METHODS:We completed an audit of tobacco advertisements and promotions at 1000 randomly selected cigarette retailers in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia that included an observation ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Astuti PAS,Kurniasari NMD,Mulyawan KH,Sebayang SK,Freeman B

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that p...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gardner B,West R

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Estimating the health consequences of replacing cigarettes with nicotine inhalers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A fast acting, clean nicotine delivery system might substantially displace cigarettes. Public health consequences would depend on the subsequent prevalence of nicotine use, hazards of delivery systems, and intrinsic hazards of nicotine. METHODS:A spreadsheet program, DEMANDS, estimates differences in expect...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sumner W 2nd

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese: pooled analysis of three large-scale cohort studies in Japan.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the gender-specific risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease according to smoking status and time since smoking cessation among former smokers in Japan. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:140,026 males and 156,810 females aged 40-79 years who participated in one of three cohort studies cond...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Honjo K,Iso H,Tsugane S,Tamakoshi A,Satoh H,Tajima K,Suzuki T,Sobue T

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of local restaurant smoking regulations on progression to established smoking among youths.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While smoke-free restaurant laws are intended to protect the public from secondhand smoke exposure, they may also discourage smoking among adolescents. There is no evidence from longitudinal studies to test this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE:To examine the effect of local restaurant smoking regulations on progressi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegel M,Albers AB,Cheng DM,Biener L,Rigotti NA

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Estimating the effects of novel on-pack warnings on young adult smokers and susceptible non-smokers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:On-pack tobacco warnings can deter smoking initiation and provide powerful cessation cues. However, these warnings typically feature graphic health images, which many young adults dismiss as irrelevant. We estimated responses to more diverse warnings and examined how these performed relative to each other. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gendall P,Eckert C,Hoek J,Louviere J

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To summarise the evidence on adolescent and young adult prevention and cessation, and provide future directions for research. DATA SOURCES:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two majo...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Backinger CL,Fagan P,Matthews E,Grana R

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. METHODS:We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco com...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Persoskie A,Donaldson EA,Ryant C

    更新日期:2018-05-31 00:00:00

  • Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. DESIGN:A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census reg...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jagoe K,Edwards R,Mugusi F,Whiting D,Unwin N

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang J,Zheng R,Chaloupka FJ,Fong GT,Li Q,Jiang Y

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Compliance with San Francisco's flavoured tobacco sales prohibition.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In June 2018, San Francisco voters upheld the first comprehensive prohibition on sales of flavoured tobacco products (all products including menthol, everywhere in the city with no exceptions). METHODS:This paper used data collected by the San Francisco Department of Public Health as part of its implementat...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vyas P,Ling P,Gordon B,Callewaert J,Dang A,Smith D,Chan B,Glantz S

    更新日期:2020-04-16 00:00:00

  • Variations in state use of antitobacco message themes predict youth smoking prevalence in the USA, 1999-2005.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study tests relationships between the volume of advertisements (ads; public service announcements (PSAs)) employed in state antismoking campaigns, use of different themes and stylistic features in these PSAs, and state youth smoking prevalence between 1999 and 2005. METHODS:We merged commercially availa...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niederdeppe J,Avery R,Byrne S,Siam T

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Acute perceptions of preferred cigarettes when blinded to brand.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Marketing claims often have promoted specific perceptions that users should expect from acutely smoking that cigarette brand. Yet, little controlled study has determined the degree to which actual perceptions are based on the cigarette's tobacco constituents in the absence of knowledge about the brand's iden...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perkins KA,Karelitz JL

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Attitudes and experiences with secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies among subsidised and market-rate multiunit housing residents living in six diverse communities in the USA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Given that higher smoking rates persist among lower socioeconomic populations, multiunit housing (MUH) environments may result in higher secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures among subsidised MUH residents. This cross-sectional assessment compares experiences with SHS and smoke-free policies among subsidised and ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gentzke AS,Hyland A,Kiviniemi M,Travers MJ

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Economic burden of smoking in Korea.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. METHODS:The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang HY,Kim HJ,Park TK,Jee SH,Nam CM,Park HW

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Development of smoking by birth cohort in the adult population in eastern Finland 1972-97.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyse the dynamics of smoking prevalence, initiation, and cessation in relation to sex, age, birth cohort, study year, and educational level. DESIGN:Six independent cross-sectional population surveys repeated every five years between 1972 and 1997. SETTING:The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in e...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laaksonen M,Uutela A,Vartiainen E,Jousilahti P,Helakorpi S,Puska P

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Indoor concentrations of nicotine in low-income, multi-unit housing: associations with smoking behaviours and housing characteristics.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:An analysis of airborne nicotine measurements collected in 49 low-income, multi-unit residences across the Greater Boston Area. METHODS:Nicotine concentrations were determined using passive monitors placed in homes over a one-week sampling period and air exchange rates (AER) were sampled using the perfluoroc...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kraev TA,Adamkiewicz G,Hammond SK,Spengler JD

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Community guide recommendations and state level tobacco control programmes: 1999-2004.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. DESIGN:Longitudinal study. SETTING:United States. PARTICIPANTS:State tobacco control partners, ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmitt CL,Malarcher AM,Clark PI,Bombard JM,Strauss W,Stillman FA

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switchin...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornelius ME,Cummings KM,Fong GT,Hyland A,Driezen P,Chaloupka FJ,Hammond D,O'Connor RJ,Bansal-Travers M

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Marketing to America's youth: evidence from corporate documents.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the claim that the tobacco industry does not market its products to youth. DESIGN:The data for this study come from tobacco industry documents collected from the tobacco industry's document websites, presently linked at The websites were searched using "request for...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Cummings KM,Morley CP,Horan JK,Steger C,Leavell NR

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Public opinions on tax and retail-based tobacco control strategies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While tobacco taxes and smoke-free air regulations have significantly decreased tobacco use, tobacco-related illness accounts for hundreds of thousands of annual deaths. Experts are considering additional strategies to further reduce tobacco consumption. METHODS:We investigated smokers' (n=2118) and non-smo...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farley SM,Coady MH,Mandel-Ricci J,Waddell EN,Chan C,Kilgore EA,Kansagra SM

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00