Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.


:The consensus algorithm for the medical management of type 2 diabetes was published in August 2006 with the expectation that it would be updated, based on the availability of new interventions and new evidence to establish their clinical role. The authors continue to endorse the principles used to develop the algorithm and its major features. We are sensitive to the risks of changing the algorithm cavalierly or too frequently, without compelling new information. An update to the consensus algorithm published in January 2008 specifically addressed safety issues surrounding the thiazolidinediones. In this revision, we focus on the new classes of medications that now have more clinical data and experience.


Diabetes Care


Diabetes care


Nathan DM,Buse JB,Davidson MB,Ferrannini E,Holman RR,Sherwin R,Zinman B,American Diabetes Association.,European Association for Study of Diabetes.




Has Abstract


2009-01-01 00:00:00














  • Lowering of plasma glucose concentrations with bezafibrate in patients with moderately controlled NIDDM.

    abstract::The goal of this study was to investigate whether treatment with bezafibrate improves glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The study included 37 NIDDM patients with HbA1 concentrations greater than 8.5% and normal kidney and liver function who were being treated with diet alone or diet...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Jones IR,Swai A,Taylor R,Miller M,Laker MF,Alberti KG

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neurocognitive functioning in children and adolescents at the time of type 1 diabetes diagnosis: associations with glycemic control 1 year after diagnosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether impairments in neurocognitive functioning are detectable at type 1 diabetes diagnosis and associated with subsequent glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Children/adolescents (N = 147) aged 5-18 years completed neuropsychological testing during their inpatient hospitalization fo...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwartz DD,Axelrad ME,Anderson BJ

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative effectiveness analysis of three continuous glucose monitors.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices in subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Six subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 52 ± 14 years, diabetes duration 32 ± 14 years) each participated in two 51-h closed-loop BG control e...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Damiano ER,El-Khatib FH,Zheng H,Nathan DM,Russell SJ

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes in a northern Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and incidence of major complications, 1986-1988.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and incidence of diabetes, and the incidence of major diabetic complications, in a Chippewa Indian population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The format was a longitudinal population study that used active community and health center-based surveillance. The setting was a North Americ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rith-Najarian SJ,Valway SE,Gohdes DM

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes in a Large Dementia Cohort: Clinical Characteristics and Treatment From the Swedish Dementia Registry.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate the differences in clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment associated with the presence of diabetes in a large cohort of patients with dementia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A cross-sectional registry-based study was conducted using data from the Swedish Dementia Registr...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Secnik J,Cermakova P,Fereshtehnejad SM,Dannberg P,Johnell K,Fastbom J,Winblad B,Eriksdotter M,Religa D

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Normal glucose values are associated with a lower risk of mortality in hospitalized patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Hyperglycemia is a common condition in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between glycemia upon admission and mortality in a heterogeneous group of adult patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The 3-year records released from a general hospital were associated wi...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruno A,Gregori D,Caropreso A,Lazzarato F,Petrinco M,Pagano E

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of glucose intolerance in Asian Indians. Urban-rural difference and significance of upper body adiposity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the prevalence of NIDDM and IGT in the urban and rural areas in southern India. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Two populations of the same ethnic background, but different socioeconomic background were chosen for this study. Nine-hundred urban people and 1038 rural subjects were studied. Fasting and...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramachandran A,Snehalatha C,Dharmaraj D,Viswanathan M

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Need for residential treatment for children with diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Specialists in childhood diabetes in North America were queried about the need for residential facilities for their patients with recurrent hospitalizations and school deficits due to family coping problems. Of 132 respondents, 115 indicated a need for 5-12% of their patients, a total of 530, close to the estimate of ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenbloom AL

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by haptoglobin type in postmenopausal women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Antioxidant trials have not demonstrated efficacy in slowing cardiovascular disease but could not rule out benefit for specific patient subgroups. Antioxidant therapy reduces LDL oxidizability in haptoglobin 1 allele homozygotes (Hp 1-1), but not in individuals with the haptoglobin 2 allele (Hp 2-1 or Hp 2-2)...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Levy AP,Friedenberg P,Lotan R,Ouyang P,Tripputi M,Higginson L,Cobb FR,Tardif JC,Bittner V,Howard BV

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    abstract::OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were ask...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chou CF,Sherrod CE,Zhang X,Barker LE,Bullard KM,Crews JE,Saaddine JB

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in a population-based sample of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and clinical associations of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in a population-based sample of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A validated questionnaire was administered to 656 patients with type 1 diabetes over a 6-month period to deter...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ly TT,Gallego PH,Davis EA,Jones TW

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnic differences in correlates of microalbuminuria in NIDDM. The role of the acute-phase response.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether microalbuminuria is associated with markers of the acute-phase response in NIDDM and whether there are ethnic differences in this association among the three main racial groups in Malaysia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:NIDDM patients of Chinese, Indian, and Malay origin attending a diab...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Islam N,Kazmi F,Chusney GD,Mattock MB,Zaini A,Pickup JC

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Less nocturnal hypoglycemia and better post-dinner glucose control with bedtime insulin glargine compared with bedtime NPH insulin during insulin combination therapy in type 2 diabetes. HOE 901/3002 Study Group.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Available basal insulin formulations do not provide a constant and reliable 24-h insulin supply. We compared the efficacy and safety of glargine (a long-acting insulin analog) and NPH insulins in insulin-naive type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:There w...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Yki-Järvinen H,Dressler A,Ziemen M,HOE 901\/300s Study Group.

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of glargine insulin versus rosiglitazone addition in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients on metformin plus sulfonylurea.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine the mechanisms by which the addition of glargine insulin or rosiglitazone improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects poorly controlled on maximally effective doses of metformin plus sulfonylurea. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Subjects (aged 47 +/- 11 years, BMI 31 +/- 5 kg/m(2),...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Triplitt C,Glass L,Miyazaki Y,Wajcberg E,Gastaldelli A,De Filippis E,Cersosimo E,DeFronzo RA

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte deformability in NIDDM.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the rheological properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The deformability of PMN from 33 NIDDM subjects, 13 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 22 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was st...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pécsvarády Z,Fisher TC,Darwin CH,Fabók A,Maqueda TS,Saad MF,Meiselman HJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Orange juice or fructose intake does not induce oxidative and inflammatory response.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We have previously shown that 300 kcal from glucose intake induces a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding in the circulating mononuclear cells in healthy normal subjects. We hypothesized that the intake of 300 calories as orange juice o...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghanim H,Mohanty P,Pathak R,Chaudhuri A,Sia CL,Dandona P

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Light Therapy on Mood and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Depression: Results From a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Depression is common in patients with type 2 diabetes and adversely affects quality of life and diabetes outcomes. We assessed whether light therapy, an antidepressant, improves mood and insulin sensitivity in patients with depression and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This randomized, double-b...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Brouwer A,van Raalte DH,Nguyen HT,Rutters F,van de Ven PM,Elders PJM,Moll AC,Van Someren EJW,Snoek FJ,Beekman ATF,Bremmer MA

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    abstract::The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20--40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zipf WB,Bacon GE,Spencer ML,Kelch RP,Hopwood NJ,Hawker CD

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep Disturbances and Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We examined the associations of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which was defined as loud snoring, stopping breathing for a while during sleep, and daytime sleepiness, and insomnia with glucose metabolism and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Between 1989 and...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strand LB,Carnethon M,Biggs ML,Djoussé L,Kaplan RC,Siscovick DS,Robbins JA,Redline S,Patel SR,Janszky I,Mukamal KJ

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Increased risk factors for coronary artery disease in Japanese subjects with hyperinsulinemia or glucose intolerance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To understand the interrelationship of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance to prevent and better manage this disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We performed a 100-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2,113 subjects, and we evaluated their p...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamada N,Yoshinaga H,Sakurai N,Shimano H,Gotoda T,Ohashi Y,Yazaki Y,Kosaka K

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Personal and relationship challenges of adults with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative focus group study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Little is known about the psychosocial challenges of adults living with type 1 diabetes or its impact on partner relationships. This qualitative study was undertaken to gain better understanding of these issues. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Four focus groups were held, two with adult type 1 diabetic patients ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trief PM,Sandberg JG,Dimmock JA,Forken PJ,Weinstock RS

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of Type 2 Diabetes and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy on Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In older women, higher levels of estrogen may exacerbate the increased risk for cognitive impairment conveyed by diabetes. We examined whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on cognitive impairment incidence differs depending on type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The Women's Heal...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Espeland MA,Brinton RD,Hugenschmidt C,Manson JE,Craft S,Yaffe K,Weitlauf J,Vaughan L,Johnson KC,Padula CB,Jackson RD,Resnick SM,WHIMS Study Group.

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Age-adjusted diabetes mortality rates vary in local communities in a metropolitan area: racial and spatial disparities and correlates.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Diabetes has held steady as the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. since 2006. While aggregated data provide insights into how the country as a whole, or even as states, is faring with respect to diabetes mortality, disaggregation provides data that may facilitate targeted interventions and community ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt BR,Whitman S,Henry CA

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of race on outcome after kidney and kidney-pancreas transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The racial impact on graft outcome is not well defined in diabetic recipients. The purpose of this study is to analyze our experience with kidney-alone (A) and kidney-pancreas (KP) transplantation in type 1 diabetic recipients and evaluate the impact of racial disparity on outcome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Douzdjian V,Bhaskar SS,Baliga PK,Gugliuzza KK,Rajagopalan PR

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of ezetimibe on hepatic fat, inflammatory markers, and apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant obese subjects on a weight loss diet.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is highly prevalent in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals and is strongly associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation. Weight loss and/or pharmacotherapy are commonly used to correct these abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We performed a 16-week intervention tri...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Chan DC,Watts GF,Gan SK,Ooi EM,Barrett PH

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Medication adherence and racial differences in A1C control.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to examine medication adherence and other self-management practices as potential determinants of higher glycemic risk among black relative to white patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We used a retrospective, longitudinal repeated-measures design to model the contribution of m...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Adams AS,Trinacty CM,Zhang F,Kleinman K,Grant RW,Meigs JB,Soumerai SB,Ross-Degnan D

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • A New Zealand linkage study examining the associations between A1C concentration and mortality.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between A1C concentration and mortality in a New Zealand population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:During a Hepatitis Foundation screening campaign for hepatitis B (1999-2001), participants were offered A1C testing. The participants were anonymously linked to the national mortality coll...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brewer N,Wright CS,Travier N,Cunningham CW,Hornell J,Pearce N,Jeffreys M

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Topical phenytoin in diabetic foot ulcers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The efficacy of topical phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers was evaluated in a controlled inpatient study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Fifty patients were treated with topical phenytoin, and 50 patients matched for age, sex, and ulcer areas, depth, chronicity, and infection were dressed with d...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Muthukumarasamy MG,Sivakumar G,Manoharan G

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Pemafibrate, a Novel Selective PPARα Modulator, on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Type 2 diabetes is frequently complicated with atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemafibrate (K-877) in patients with type 2 diabetes comorbid with hypertriglyceridemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Patients were randomly assigned to three groups and received pl...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Araki E,Yamashita S,Arai H,Yokote K,Satoh J,Inoguchi T,Nakamura J,Maegawa H,Yoshioka N,Tanizawa Y,Watada H,Suganami H,Ishibashi S

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Greater dose-ranging effects on A1C levels than on glucosuria with LX4211, a dual inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2, in patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin monotherapy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the dose-ranging efficacy and safety of LX4211, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 and SGLT2, in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled on metformin were randomly assigned to 75 mg once daily, 200 mg once daily, 200 mg tw...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Rosenstock J,Cefalu WT,Lapuerta P,Zambrowicz B,Ogbaa I,Banks P,Sands A

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00