Risk factors for human papillomavirus exposure and co-factors for cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean.


:The incidence of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is among the highest in the world. Because there are major demographic shifts happening in LAC countries (population growth, urbanization and ageing) cervical cancer incidence and mortality will likely continue to be a significant public health problem. Overall human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the LAC general population has been found to be 2-fold higher than the average worldwide prevalence. The large HPV and cancer burden may be explained by the highly prevalent HPV variants of HPV types -16 and 18, which have an increased oncogenic potential. Given the major mode of transmission of genital HPV is sexual, certain, patterns of sexual behaviour (early age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners and sexual behaviour of the partner) are associated with an increased risk of HPV genital acquisition. Although HPV infection is necessary for carcinogenesis, certain co-factors (high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) help in the progression from infection to cancer. Many studies that have contributed to this evidence have been carried out in LAC and are reviewed and summarised in this article. Since HPV vaccines will likely take years to implement, and many more years to show impact on disease, cervical cancer screening programmes remain as the key intervention to control disease in LAC in the years to come.






Almonte M,Albero G,Molano M,Carcamo C,García PJ,Pérez G




Has Abstract


2008-08-19 00:00:00










26 Suppl 11




  • Persistence of anti-HBs in children vaccinated against viral hepatitis B in the first year of life: follow-up at 5 and 10 years.

    abstract::The persistence of anti-HBs protective levels in groups of children who had been immunized against Hepatitis B 5 and 10 years earlier, in their first year of life, has been studied. The results were analyzed according to the type of vaccine (both plasma-derived and DNA recombinant) and the number of doses administered...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Da Villa G,Peluso F,Picciotto L,Bencivenga M,Elia S,Pelliccia MG

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • It's not all about autism: The emerging landscape of anti-vaccination sentiment on Facebook.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Due in part to declining vaccination rates, in 2018 over 20 states reported at least one case of measles, and over 40,000 cases were confirmed in Europe. Anti-vaccine posts on social media may be facilitating anti-vaccination behaviour. This study aimed to systematically characterize (1) individuals known to...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffman BL,Felter EM,Chu KH,Shensa A,Hermann C,Wolynn T,Williams D,Primack BA

    更新日期:2019-04-10 00:00:00

  • Prothymosin alpha enhances protective immune responses induced by oral DNA vaccination against pseudorabies delivered by Salmonella choleraesuis.

    abstract::Previously, we showed that vaccination with the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of pseudorabies virus (PrV) delivered by Escherichia coli induced protective immune responses. In this study, we report that oral DNA vaccination with attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis carrying the PrV gD gene conferred protective immunity in mi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shiau AL,Chen YL,Liao CY,Huang YS,Wu CL

    更新日期:2001-07-16 00:00:00

  • Protective responses against experimental Mycobacterium leprae infection in mice induced by recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin over-producing three putative protective antigen candidates.

    abstract::The components of Ag85 (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) are putative protective antigen candidates against mycobacterial infection. A recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) over-producing Ag85A, Ag85B, and MPB51 (rBCG/BA51) was constructed. rBCG/BA51 could secrete these antigens at levels more than f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohara N,Matsuoka M,Nomaguchi H,Naito M,Yamada T

    更新日期:2001-02-28 00:00:00

  • Induction of pulmonary mucosal immune responses with a protein vaccine targeted to the DEC-205/CD205 receptor.

    abstract::It is of great interest to develop a pneumonic plague vaccine that would induce combined humoral and cellular immunity in the lung. Here we investigate a novel approach based on targeting of dendritic cells using the DEC-205/CD205 receptor (DEC) via the intranasal route as way to improve mucosal cellular immunity to t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Do Y,Didierlaurent AM,Ryu S,Koh H,Park CG,Park S,Perlin DS,Powell BS,Steinman RM

    更新日期:2012-10-05 00:00:00

  • Comparison of DNA application methods to reduce BRSV shedding in cattle.

    abstract::We compared the protection afforded by three different DNA application methods against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in cattle. A synthetic gene that codes for the G protein of BRSV was inserted into a eukaryotic vector and was used in the vaccine. Intradermal (i.d.) application with a needleless...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schrijver RS,Langedijk JP,Keil GM,Middel WG,Maris-Veldhuis M,Van Oirschot JT,Rijsewijk FA

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mucosal and systemic HIV-1 Env-specific CD8(+) T-cells develop after intragastric vaccination with a Salmonella Env DNA vaccine vector.

    abstract::CD8(+) T-cell responses provide beneficial antiviral immunity against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we show that intragastric vaccination with a Salmonella HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine vector generates Env-specific CD8(+) T-cells, both in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissue. By contrast, intramuscul...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shata MT,Reitz MS Jr,DeVico AL,Lewis GK,Hone DM

    更新日期:2001-11-12 00:00:00

  • Partial efficacy of a VSV-SIV/MVA-SIV vaccine regimen against oral SIV challenge in infant macaques.

    abstract::Despite antiretroviral medications, the rate of pediatric HIV-1 infections through breast-milk transmission has been staggering in developing countries. Therefore, the development of a vaccine to protect vulnerable infant populations should be actively pursued. We previously demonstrated that oral immunization of newb...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marthas ML,Van Rompay KK,Abbott Z,Earl P,Buonocore-Buzzelli L,Moss B,Rose NF,Rose JK,Kozlowski PA,Abel K

    更新日期:2011-04-12 00:00:00

  • Peripherally administered sera antibodies recognizing amyloid-β oligomers mitigate Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline in aged 3× Tg-AD mice.

    abstract::Active and passive immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) may be the most promising strategy to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, immunization with the recombinant 6Aβ15-T antigen generated robust anti-Aβ serum antibodies that strongly recognized Aβ42 oligomers in different mice, markedly reduced ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang HC,Yu YZ,Liu S,Zhao M,Xu Q

    更新日期:2016-04-04 00:00:00

  • Revaccination with pneumococcal vaccine of elderly persons 6 years after primary vaccination.

    abstract::We vaccinated 15 persons, age 56 to 79 years, with 14-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and revaccinated them with 23-valent vaccine 6 years later to assess adverse reactions and booster responses of anticapsular antibodies. No systemic reactions occurred after administration of either vaccine. After booster ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mufson MA,Hughey DF,Turner CE,Schiffman G

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Arguments and sources on Italian online forums on childhood vaccinations: Results of a content analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite being committed to the immunization agenda set by the WHO, Italy is currently experiencing decreasing vaccination rates and increasing incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Our aim is to analyze Italian online debates on pediatric immunizations through a content analytic approach in order to qua...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fadda M,Allam A,Schulz PJ

    更新日期:2015-12-16 00:00:00

  • A malaria vaccine for travelers and military personnel: Requirements and top candidates.

    abstract::Malaria remains an important health threat to non-immune travelers with the explosive growth of global travel. Populations at high risk of acquiring malaria infections include once semi-immune travelers who visit friends and relatives, military forces, business travelers and international tourists with destinations to...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teneza-Mora N,Lumsden J,Villasante E

    更新日期:2015-12-22 00:00:00

  • Construction and cellular immune response induction of HA-based alphavirus replicon vaccines against human-avian influenza (H5N1).

    abstract::Several approaches are being taken worldwide to develop vaccines against H5N1 viruses; most of them, however, pose both practical and immunological challenges. One potential strategy for improving the immunogenicity of vaccines involves the use of alphavirus replicons and VP22, a herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) protein....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang SG,Wo JE,Li MW,Mi FF,Yu CB,Lv GL,Cao HC,Lu HF,Wang BH,Zhu H,Li LJ

    更新日期:2009-12-09 00:00:00

  • Immunosuppressive drugs impairs antibody response of the polysaccharide and conjugated pneumococcal vaccines in patients with Crohn's disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a higher risk of infectious diseases including pneumococcal infections, and the risk increases with immunotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the specific antibody response to two pneumococcal vaccines in CD patients with and without immunosu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Kantsø B,Halkjær SI,Thomsen OØ,Belard E,Gottschalck IB,Jørgensen CS,Krogfelt KA,Slotved HC,Ingels H,Petersen AM

    更新日期:2015-10-05 00:00:00

  • Attenuation and immunogenicity in primates of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing human interleukin-2.

    abstract::Vector-directed lymphokine expression represents a novel approach to the attenuation of live recombinant viruses which might be used as vaccines. Expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by recombinant vaccinia virus has been shown to significantly attenuate virus virulence in rodent species without diminishing immunogenici...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flexner C,Moss B,London WT,Murphy BR

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • An E2 sub-unit marker vaccine does not prevent horizontal or vertical transmission of classical swine fever virus.

    abstract::An experimental infection with classical swine fever (CSF) virus in E2 sub-unit marker vaccine vaccinated gilts was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of vaccination on virus transmission and course of the disease. Therefore, clinical signs as well as horizontal and vertical virus transmission were monitored in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dewulf J,Laevens H,Koenen F,Mintiens K,de Kruif A

    更新日期:2001-10-12 00:00:00

  • Neutralization epitopes on the antigenic domain II of the Orientia tsutsugamushi 56-kDa protein revealed by monoclonal antibodies.

    abstract::Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) reactive with the authentic Orientia tsutsugamushi 56-kDa protein were generated. MoAb FS10 and FS15 showed in vitro, as well as, in vivo neutralizing activity upon O. tsutsugamushi infection. Deletion mutants of the gene for 56-kDa protein of O. tsutsugamushi Boryong were expressed to ma...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seong SY,Kim MK,Lee SM,Odgerel Z,Choi MS,Han TH,Kim IS,Kang JS,Lim BU

    更新日期:2000-08-15 00:00:00

  • The impact of key amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin of influenza A (H3N2) viruses on vaccine production and antibody response.

    abstract::Influenza H3N2 viruses have recently drifted from A/Wisconsin/67/05-like to A/Brisbane/10/07-like viruses. The effect of key amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein on the replication, antigenicity and immunogenicity of cold-adapted, live attenuated vaccine strains was examined. A/Brisbane/10/07 egg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen Z,Zhou H,Jin H

    更新日期:2010-05-28 00:00:00

  • Clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in men: California Men's Health Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among approximately 40,000 community-dwelling men aged 45 years and older in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS) cohort. METHODS:All participants completed an extensive questionnaire at baseline (2002-2003) and were followed for t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hechter RC,Chao C,Jacobsen SJ,Slezak JM,Quinn VP,Van Den Eeden SK,Tseng HF

    更新日期:2012-08-17 00:00:00

  • Immune response to two different dosing schedules of the anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) vaccine.

    abstract::A pilot study compared the immune response of regular (0, 3, 6, 32 weeks) and extended (0, 10, 13, 32 weeks) schedules of the UK anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine precipitated, AVP). Concentrations of antibodies to protective antigen (PA) were higher (p<0.05) among recipients of the extended (n=7) versus regular schedu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hepburn MJ,Hugh Dyson E,Simpson AJ,Brenneman KE,Bailey N,Wilkinson L,Hornby R,Mateczun AJ,Bell MG,Baillie LW

    更新日期:2007-08-10 00:00:00

  • Estimating the effect of measles vaccination on child growth using 191 DHS from 65 low- and middle-income countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood vaccinations reduce morbidity and mortality and are highly cost-effective. They may also protect children from malnutrition and lead to improved child growth. Stunting, wasting and underweight are targets used to monitor progress towards the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bogler L,Jantos N,Bärnighausen T,Vollmer S

    更新日期:2019-08-14 00:00:00

  • Human papillomavirus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Maharashtra, India.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Frequency and distribution of HPV types in HIV-infected women with and without cervical neoplasia and their determinants have not been widely studied in India. We report and discuss HPV prevalence and type distribution in HIV-infected women. METHODS:HPV genotyping was done using cervical samples from 1109...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joshi S,Babu JM,Jayalakshmi D,Kulkarni V,Divate U,Muwonge R,Gheit T,Tommasino M,Sankaranarayanan R,Pillai MR

    更新日期:2014-02-19 00:00:00

  • Maternal immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine: rationale and experience.

    abstract::Inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for routine use in high-risk individuals in the United States, including women who will be in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. The basis for this recommendation is the high risk of exposure and disease due to influenza viruses in pregnant women, as well as the i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Englund JA

    更新日期:2003-07-28 00:00:00

  • Chimeric flagellin as the self-adjuvanting antigen for the activation of immune response against Helicobacter pylori.

    abstract::Helicobacter pylori infection can cause gastritis, peptic ulcer and can lead to gastric cancer. Lengthy antibiotic therapy does not protect the host against reinfection. H. pylori evolved to evade the recognition of the immune response by modifying several of its components whose orthologous proteins from other bacter...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mori J,Vranac T,Smrekar B,Cernilec M,Serbec VČ,Horvat S,Ihan A,Benčina M,Jerala R

    更新日期:2012-08-31 00:00:00

  • Nucleic acid immunization of chimpanzees as a prophylactic/immunotherapeutic vaccination model for HIV-1: prelude to a clinical trial.

    abstract::Vaccine development strategies have often utilized recombinant envelope glycoproteins which usually generate strong humoral immune responses but which do not generate strong cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A recent novel experimental vaccination approach involves the technology known as nucleic acid immunization in whi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ugen KE,Boyer JD,Wang B,Bagarazzi M,Javadian A,Frost P,Merva MM,Agadjanyan MG,Nyland S,Williams WV,Coney L,Ciccarelli R,Weiner DB

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Priority allocation of pandemic influenza vaccines in Australia - Recommendations of 3 community juries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pandemic planning has historically been oriented to respond to an influenza virus, with vaccination strategy being a key focus. As the current COVID-19 pandemic plays out, the Australian government is closely monitoring progress towards development of SARS-CoV2 vaccines as a definitive intervention. However,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Degeling C,Williams J,Carter SM,Moss R,Massey P,Gilbert GL,Shih P,Braunack-Mayer A,Crooks K,Brown D,McVernon J

    更新日期:2021-01-08 00:00:00

  • The fight against rabies in Africa: From recognition to action.

    abstract::As a follow-up to the first AfroREB meeting, held in Grand Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire) in March 2008, African rabies experts of the AfroREB network met a second time to complete the evaluation of the rabies situation in Africa and define specific action plans. About 40 French speaking rabies specialists from northern, west...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dodet B,Africa Rabies Bureau (AfroREB).

    更新日期:2009-08-13 00:00:00

  • The Global Meningococcal Initiative: recommendations for reducing the global burden of meningococcal disease.

    abstract::The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is composed of an international group of scientists, clinicians and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal immunology, epidemiology and prevention. The primary goal of the GMI is the promotion of the global prevention of invasive meningococcal disease through ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrison LH,Pelton SI,Wilder-Smith A,Holst J,Safadi MA,Vazquez JA,Taha MK,LaForce FM,von Gottberg A,Borrow R,Plotkin SA

    更新日期:2011-04-18 00:00:00

  • Long-term follow-up: no effect of therapeutic vaccination with HIV-1 p17/p24:Ty virus-like particles on HIV-1 disease progression.

    abstract::Long-term effects of therapeutic vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected subjects with HIV-1 p17/p24:Ty virus-like particles (p24-VLP) on progression to AIDS, death, a CD4 cell count


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Lindenburg CE,Stolte I,Langendam MW,Miedema F,Williams IG,Colebunders R,Weber JN,Fisher M,Coutinho RA

    更新日期:2002-05-22 00:00:00

  • Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with adenoviral vector and protein nanoparticles induces both Th1 and Th2 responses against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    abstract::The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a highly pathogenic and zoonotic virus with a fatality rate in humans of over 35%. Although several vaccine candidates have been developed, there is still no clinically available vaccine for MERS-CoV. In this study, we developed two types of MERS-CoV vacci...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung SY,Kang KW,Lee EY,Seo DW,Kim HL,Kim H,Kwon T,Park HL,Kim H,Lee SM,Nam JH

    更新日期:2018-06-07 00:00:00