The pupil.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To give an overview on topics of pupillary function selected according to their relevance in clinical neurology. Mainly publications of the last 3 years have been considered. RECENT FINDINGS:The discovery of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells not serving vision, but serving circadian rhythm and the pupil initiated many studies. There is evidence that pupil reaction to light might be preserved even if all rods and cones are lost. Spontaneous pupillary contractions in darkness occur in sleepy subjects and have been used to quantify the state of alertness. Apraclonidine eye drops have been suggested to diagnose Horner syndrome. Iatrogenic cause and carotid artery dissection are the most frequently reported underlying causes of Horner syndrome. Anti-Hu antibodies may be associated with tonic pupils. SUMMARY:Pupil studies in blind patients may give new insights into the function of the pupillary system. Testing for sleepiness by means of pupillography might be used more frequently. Testing for Horner syndrome still needs to be done with cocaine eye drops. Clinical evaluation has to be focused on detecting additional signs and symptoms. Unknown malignancy is very rare. In the tonic pupil (Adie syndrome) autoantibodies may play a role, in exceptional cases it might represent a paraneoplastic disorder.


Curr Opin Neurol


Wilhelm H




Has Abstract


2008-02-01 00:00:00














  • Recent advances in functional neuroimaging.

    abstract::New functional imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging, promise to allow the noninvasive study of haemodynamic, metabolic and activation parameters during acute migraine attacks in humans. These techniques are currently bei...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cutrer FM,O'Donnell A

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • The growing recognition of immunotherapy-responsive seizure disorders with autoantibodies to specific neuronal proteins.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The concept of epilepsy and seizure disorders caused by autoantibodies to specific neuronal membrane proteins has developed significantly during the past few years. RECENT FINDINGS:Antibodies to cell-surface membrane proteins such as voltage-gated potassium channels or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors,...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vincent A,Irani SR,Lang B

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by exogenous and endogenous ligands improves outcome of brain injury.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The failure of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as a treatment for human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, along with preclinical findings of a persistent hypofunctional state of these receptors after brain injury, resulted in a new focus on NMDAR agonists, specifically those a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Biegon A,Liraz-Zaltsman S,Shohami E

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system.

    abstract::Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is now being implicated in a number of chronic diseases. That the organism can infect vascular endothelium, macrophages and smooth muscle cells suggests that it may play a role in many systemic diseases. The present review focuses on the possibility that the c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yucesan C,Sriram S

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Update on uveomeningoencephalitides.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Uveomeningoencephalitides, commonly known as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, are characterized by chronic bilateral granulomatous panuveitis involving the central nervous, auditory and integumentary systems. Visual prognosis is generally favourable, but outcomes in patients with VKH disease may va...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sheu SJ

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Migraine changes the brain: neuroimaging makes its mark.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes key findings of the current literature on functional neuroimaging in migraine and describes how these studies have changed our view of the disorder. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies have started not only to investigate the global cerebral activation pattern during migraine attack...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sprenger T,Borsook D

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The cause of multiple sclerosis remains elusive. We review recent epidemiological studies of genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to the disease and its clinical course. RECENT FINDINGS:Genetic advances strengthen the association of multiple sclerosis with the human leukocy...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kantarci O,Wingerchuk D

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of inflammation on central nervous system development and vulnerability.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Preterm infants are at high risk for neurological sequelae and cognitive dysfunction. These problems have been attributed to a high occurrence of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but suboptimal brain development appears to be just as important. In this brief review we present the hypothesis that ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hagberg H,Mallard C

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Epilepsy classification: a cycle of evolution and revolution.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review presents the new terms and concepts proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification Commission in 2010 to describe seizures and epilepsies. This is the first major revision in 21 years and reflects the rapid evolution in our understanding of the epilepsies. REC...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

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    authors: Korff CM,Scheffer IE

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Recent years have witnessed the discoveries of several genes causing neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) and subsequently their novel classification scheme was suggested. The first results of treatments with modern chelating drugs are also being published. RECENT FINDINGS:Most recen...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dusek P,Schneider SA

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Update on the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic and often disabling neuropathy, which often responds to immune therapies including corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The reasons for choosing one of these therapies and the fa...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nobile-Orazio E,Gallia F

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cochlear gene therapy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review highlights recent advances in cochlear gene therapy over the past several years. Cochlear gene therapy has undergone tremendous advances over the past decade. Beginning with some groundbreaking work in 2005 documenting hair cell regeneration using virally mediated delivery of the mouse ato...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lustig LR,Akil O

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neurochemistry of cocaine withdrawal.

    abstract::Neural circuits comprised of dopamine-containing and dopamine-receptive neurons are altered functionally after the repeated intermittent administration of cocaine and its withdrawal. The characterization of these neuroadaptive changes at various times after repeated exposure to cocaine is important because they may re...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pilotte NS

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis benefit from revascularization?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize why there are polarized opinions regarding the management of patients with asymptomatic carotid disease and whether it is possible to identify patients who might benefit from carotid interventions. RECENT FINDINGS:Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial and Asympto...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Naylor AR

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • The elusive promise of myostatin inhibition for muscular dystrophy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Recent terminations of clinical trials of myostatin inhibitors in muscular dystrophy have raised questions about the predictiveness of mouse models for this therapeutic strategy. RECENT FINDINGS:A variety of myostatin inhibitors have been developed for preclinical and clinical studies. These inhibito...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wagner KR

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Optic neuritis as a phase 2 paradigm for neuroprotection therapies of multiple sclerosis: update on current trials and perspectives.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In multiple sclerosis as the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease in Western countries, major therapeutic success has been achieved with regard to strategies targeting immunological master switches. These approaches effectively reduce inflammatory disease activity but fail to address ongoing...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aktas O,Albrecht P,Hartung HP

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • MRI in multiple sclerosis: clinical and research update.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Clinical MRI is of paramount importance for multiple sclerosis diagnosis but lacks the specificity to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression. The application of advanced MR sequences allows the characterization of diverse and complex pathological mechanisms, gra...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Inglese M,Petracca M

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Huntington's disease: prospects for neuroprotective therapy 10 years after the discovery of the causative genetic mutation.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Ten years of intensive research are now beginning to bring candidate neuroprotective therapies to clinical trials. This review describes recent progress in basic, preclinical, and clinical research that underlies current and potential neuroprotective trials. RECENT FINDINGS:Basic research continues t...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hersch SM

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle regeneration: molecular aspects and therapeutic implications.

    abstract::With respect to diverse clinical applications for muscle regeneration, this paper discusses the latest markers for identifying skeletal muscle precursor cells in regenerating muscle, the implications of alternative sources of myogenic precursor cells and putative stem cells, and the current status of administration of...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Grounds MD

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  • Neuroimaging of drug resistance in epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Drug resistance is an important clinical problem: it is associated with higher rates of somatic and psychiatric comorbidities and cognitive/memory decline, with seizures being just the 'tip of the iceberg'. This review summarizes recent developments in imaging research, focusing specifically on the fu...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Koepp MJ

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium channel mutations and migraine.

    abstract::An increasing number of mutations in the CACNA1A gene have been identified, which are associated with a broad clinical spectrum, including familial hemiplegic migraine. Transfection studies and mouse model analyses are currently being undertaken to study the correlation between CACNA1A mutations and disease. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kors EE,van den Maagdenberg AM,Plomp JJ,Frants RR,Ferrari MD

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Factors directly affecting impulse transmission in inflammatory demyelinating disease: recent advances in our understanding.

    abstract::Demyelination and inflammation both contribute to the neurological deficits characteristic of multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conduction deficits attributable to demyelination are well known, but it is becoming clear that factors such as nitric oxide, endocaine, cytokines, and antiganglioside antibodie...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smith KJ,Hall SM

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Traumatic brain injury: physiology, mechanisms, and outcome.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review on traumatic brain injury consolidates the substantial current literature available on the pathophysiology, mechanisms, developments, and their subsequent effects on outcome. In particular, it tries to conceptualize why our greatly improved understanding of pathophysiology and neurobiology...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nortje J,Menon DK

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Examining the ocular fundus in neurology.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS:Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodenbeck SJ,Mackay DD

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Paediatric traumatic brain injury: prognostic insights and outlooks.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiol...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Au AK,Clark RSB

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • The changing concepts in the neuropathology of acquired demyelinating central nervous system disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Research on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and therapy is to a large extent driven by results obtained in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This approach provided deep insights into the mechanism of brain inflammation and immune mediated tissue injury and, thus, most of our curren...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lassmann H

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenic mechanisms in inflammatory and paraproteinaemic peripheral neuropathies.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes the major recent developments in understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in inflammatory and paraproteinaemic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS:In the inflammatory neuropathies, there has been a particular focus on antibody-mediated disease affecting the nodal/paranodal regions. Dis...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rinaldi S,Bennett DL

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review provides an overview of recent developments in diagnosis, pathophysiology, neuroimaging and management of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD). RECENT FINDINGS:There has been increasing interest to study the underlying pathophysiology of FMD, which has resulted in a broadened...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Czarnecki K,Hallett M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute stroke.

    abstract::A relatively small number of studies were published on the intra-arterial therapy of stroke in the past year. Those reports, however, do offer strong evidence for the feasibility and safety of this therapeutic approach. Partly on the basis of these data it has become evident that the intra-arterial thrombolytic therap...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abou-Chebl A,Furlan AJ

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • What is new about epidemiology of acute infectious encephalitis?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review aims to describe new features on the epidemiology of encephalitis world-wide. As this neurological presentation is most frequently related to transmitted viruses, surveillance of encephalitis is of major importance to detect their emergence or re-emergence. RECENT FINDINGS:Rabies causes o...

    journal_title:Current opinion in neurology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stahl JP,Mailles A

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00