Cerebral palsy: comprehensive review and update.


:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common pediatric disorder occurring in about 2 to 2.5 per 1000 live births. It is a chronic motor disorder resulting from a non-progressive (static) insult to the developing brain. CP is the clinical presentation of a wide variety of cerebral cortical or sub-cortical insults occurring during the first year of life. The commonest cause of CP remains unknown in 50% of the cases; prematurity remains the commonest risk factor. Children with CP suffer from multiple problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. Screening for these conditions should be part of the initial assessment. The child with CP is best cared for with an individualized treatment plan that provides a combination of interventions. This requires the provision of a number of family-centered services that make a difference in the lives of these children and their families. Management of spasticity can be challenging with a wide variety of possible therapeutic interventions. The treatment must be goal oriented, such as to assist with mobility, reduce or prevent contractures, improve positioning and hygiene, and provide comfort. Each member of the child's multidisciplinary team, including the child and both parents, should participate in the serial evaluations and treatment planning.


Ann Saudi Med


Annals of Saudi medicine


Jan MM




Has Abstract


2006-03-01 00:00:00












  • Linkage and haplotype analysis for chemokine receptors clustered on chromosome 3p21.3 and transmitted in family pedigrees with asthma and atopy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Genomic scan analyses have suggested that the chemokine receptor cluster (CCR2, CCR3, CCR5 <300 kb span) on the short arm of chromosome 3 may contribute to susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and to the expression of a number of inflammatory diseases. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) an...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Abdulhadi SA,Al-Rabia MW

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of chronic renal injury from melamine-associated pediatric urolithiasis: an eighteen-month prospective cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The illegal use of melamine in powdered baby formula resulted in a widespread outbreak of melamine-associated pediatric urolithiasis and kidney damage in China in 2008. We conducted this study because more needs to be known about the long-term effects of melamine-associated urolithiasis and kidney damage. O...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao J,Wang F,Kuang X,Chen R,Rao J,Wang B,Li W,Liu H,Shen Q,Wang X,Xu H

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Jordanian patients: A prospective study.

    abstract::Endoscopy within 24 hours from the onset of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding was carried out on 853 Jordanian patients. Lesions as a bleeding source were identified in 799 (93.7%) patients. Radioactively tagged red blood cell (RBC) scan, angiography and upper gastrointestinal follow-through radiography were compl...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shennak MM

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • A guideline for the inpatient care of children with pyelonephritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Febrile urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis are common in children and frequently lead to hospitalization for management, especially in the child who appears toxic. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) practice parameter on the diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the initial uri...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引,评审


    authors: Chishti AS,Maul EC,Nazario RJ,Bennett JS,Kiessling SG

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Benign disorders of the prostate: A histopathological study.

    abstract::Although the medical literature contains adequate accounts of the pathophysiology of various benign prostatic disorders, it is often necessary to revisit these lesions, to reexamine the relationships between known benign lesions and more sinister, malignant disorders, in the light of new advances in our understanding ...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anim JT,Ebrahim BH,Sathar SA

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changing pattern of hepatitis viral infection in Saudi Arabia in the last two decades.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Information on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and A in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has accumulated over the last two decades. We review the changing epidemiology of these infections and suggest possible strategies for eradication. METHODS:We screened Saudi medical journals and Medline for re...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Faleh FZ

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Morbihan disease and extrafacial lupus miliaris disseminatus faceie: a case report.

    abstract::Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is characterized by discrete dome-shaped papules on the bilateral face and neck. We report the first case of LMDF with a widespread distribution of extrafacial papules and concomitant bilateral eyelid edema. A unique case of a 30-year-old man presented with nonpruritic, painle...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kou K,Chin K,Matsukura S,Sasaki T,Nozawa A,Aihara M,Kambara T

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Myxopapillary ependymoma masquerading as subcutaneous sacrococcygeal non-healing ulcer: case report.

    abstract::Ependymomas outside the confines of the cranium and spinal cord are rare. The occurrence of these tumors in an extradural, sacrococcygeal, or subcutaneous location may prove challenging, particularly in the absence of any obvious central nervous system connection. The origin of these tumors from sub.cutaneous sacrococ...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaidi SN,AlKhalidi H,Al-Rikabi AC

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple brain abscesses at King Khalid University Hospital.

    abstract::The authors reviewed six cases of multiple brain abscesses that were treated at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) over an eight year period. This represented 22% of the total brain abscesses treated during the same period. The series is unusual in that the infective pathogens were fungi (Fonsecaea pedrosoi) in tw...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jamjoom A,Jamjoom ZA,Shameena A,Al-Hedaithy S,Tahan A,Ur Rahman N

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gastric cancer in southern Saudi Arabia.

    abstract::A total of 84 cases of primary gastric cancer were diagnosed in the histopathology laboratory of Asir Central Hospital over a five year period (1987 to 1991). Seventy-two patients (86%) were Saudis and 12 cases (14%) were non-Saudis. The mean age of the patients included in this study was 60 years with a range of 22 t...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamdi J,Morad NA

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative study of different treatments of hemorrhoids.

    abstract::Hemorrhoid is a common anal problem in our country that is currently treated by many different methods. Three modalities were assessed in a randomized prospective trial in which 848 patients with a second-degree hemorrhoid were treated by rubber band ligation (470 patients), injection sclerotherapy (280 patients), or ...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jamjoom AM,Jamal YS

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Venoarterial modified ultrafiltration versus conventional arteriovenous modified ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Different types of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) systems evaluated showed that none of the MUF techniques adhered to the normal venous to arterial blood flow dynamics. This study compared a conventional arteriovenous modified ultrafiltration (AVMUF) system to a custom- designed venoarterial m...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mohanlall R,Adam J,Nemlander A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Primary breast lymphoma: a pooled analysis of prognostic factors and survival in 93 cases.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Primary breast lymphoma is a rare disease. The small number of patients and the paucity of data make large-series studies difficult. We conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factors in patients with primary breast lymphoma. METHODS:In a search of PUBMED and MEDLINE we ...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu MT,Hsieh CY,Wang AY,Pi CP,Chang TH,Huang CC,Huang CY

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Malaria in children - experience from Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    abstract::During a five year period, 233 cases of malaria (2.4%) were diagnosed among 9259 children with fever and hepatosplenomegaly seen in Asir Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia. The majority of these were below four years of age and came from Tihama, a hot, humid valley area in the Asir region. The infection was seasonal...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Annobil SH,Okeahialam TC,Jamjoom GA,Bassuni WA

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of pediatric neoplasms.

    abstract::A series of fine-needle aspiration biopsies performed in 635 children were reviewed. The diagnosis rendered in these patients included malignant lymphoma in 139 (21.9%), Hodgkin's disease, 25 (3.9%); neuroblastoma, 58 (9.1%); Wilms' tumor, 37 (5.8%); Ewing's sarcoma, 32 (5.0%); rhabdomyosarcoma, 25 (3.9%); retinoblast...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akhtar M,Ali MA,Burgess A,Huq M,Bakry M

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Experience at a major hospital in Riyadh.

    abstract::Over a period of 14 years, 1246 patients had emergency gastroscopy because of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) bleeding. The endoscopic findings in these patients showed duodenal ulcer disease (DUD) in 364 (29.2%) was the most common followed by esophageal varices in 302 (24.2%), erosive gastritis in 198 (15.9%), g...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al Karawi MA,Ghandour Z,Mohamed Ael S

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: techniques, interpretation, indications and reporting.

    abstract::Myocardial perfusion single photon emission-computed tomography (MPS) has been one of the most important and common non-invasive diagnostic cardiac test. Gated MPS provides simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and function with only one study. With appropriate attention to the MPS techniques, appropriate cl...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fathala A

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates in Egypt.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder which causes neonatal jaundice in most cases, and under certain conditions, can cause a spectrum of hemolytic manifestations. OBJECTIVE:To determine the local prevalence of G6PD deficiency in newborns. DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETT...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elella SA,Tawfik M,Barseem N,Moustafa W

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antenatal screening for syphilis at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Routine serologic screening for syphilis is recommended for all pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. This study examined the results of routine antenatal syphilis screening at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The results of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were compiled for in 3270 pregnan...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shakoor Z

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Secondary metabolic syndrome: the frequency of factors which may underlie the parameters of metabolic syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Each of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance) may arise from an underlying disease or factors such as hormonal or pharmacological factors. These components arising seconda...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oguz A,Mesci B,Sagun G,Kilic DC,Yetkin DO,Akalin A

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • A novel splice-site mutation in the ASPM gene underlies autosomal recessive primary microcephaly.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Patients with MCPH exhibit reduced occipito-frontal head circumference and non-progressive intellectual disability. To date, 17 genes have been known as an underlying cause of MCPH in humans. ASPM (abnorma...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hashmi JA,Al-Harbi KM,Ramzan K,Albalawi AM,Mehmood A,Samman MI,Basit S

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Head and neck cancer in a referral center in Asir region.

    abstract::This study looks at the incidence of head and neck cancer in the Southwest Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Asir Region). There were a total of 204 newly diagnosed patients seen at Asir Central Hospital between 1987 and 1992; 113 males and 91 females. All were Saudi patients. Frequency at various sites with refe...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Ghamdi SA,Malatani T,Kameswaran M,Khurana P

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • The experience of a menopause clinic in Kuwait: Implication for primary health care.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to evaluate the sequelae of menopause and how this can be managed in a primary health care setting. Between June 1992 and June 1994, 261 postmenopausal females who attended the menopause clinic at the Kuwait Maternity Hospital were evaluated clinically and with laboratory investigations; mamm...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al Qattan N,Omu AE

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of three noninvasive laboratory variables to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We tested the clinical utility of the platelet count, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score in predicting the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia. METHO...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdo AA,Al Swat K,Azzam N,Ahmed S,Al Faleh F

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Features associated with severe disease in hospitalized children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:In 2009, pandemic H1N1 influenza A caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, available data on disease characteristics and outcome of hospitalized children is limited. DESIGN AND SETTING:A prospective cohort study of children who required hospitalization because of the in...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al Subaie SS,Al Saadi MA

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Trihexyphenidyl (artane) abuse among Saudi psychiatric patients.

    abstract::This preliminary study done by abstracting relevant data from different testing material and using multiple rating scales, describes the sociodemographic variables, psychopathological correlates, and features of trihexyphenidyl (artane) abuse in a sample of 14 Saudi psychiatric patients and, as a result of this resear...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qureshi NA

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of hepatitis B immunization status after antineoplastic therapy in children with cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Hepatitis B is a disease that is preventable with vaccination. Antibody levels after vaccination may be affected by suppression of the immune system due to cancer therapy. Children with cancer have a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We aimed to assess the pretreatment immunizati...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karaman S,Vural S,Yildirmak Y,Urganci N,Usta M

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of low birth weight infants from ultrasound measurement of placental diameter and placental thickness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to help to predict low birth weight infants by measuring placental diameter and thickness. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was conducted of 70 consecutive singleton pregnancies to evaluate placental diameter and thickness by ultrasonographic measurement at 36 weeks gestatio...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Habib FA

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bronchopulmonary infection due to Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis at Qatif Central Hospital.

    abstract::Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is now recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Over a two year period, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis was isolated in pure culture from 3.4% of the sputums collected from patients with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. It was the third mo...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elbashier AM,Al-Salem AH,Al-Jama AH,Khogali A,Abusrair H,Khot AP,Malik AG

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Omalizumab therapy in three patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria.

    abstract::Chronic urticaria is a common skin disease. In about 45% of patients the cause is an autoantibody directed at the α-subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor (chronic autoimmune urticaria; CAU). Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that has a proven role in the treatment of various allergic diseases. We gave o...

    journal_title:Annals of Saudi medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Ahmad M

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00