Socioeconomic variations in nicotine dependence, self-efficacy, and intention to quit across four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.


OBJECTIVE:To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on nicotine dependence, self-efficacy, and intention to quit. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Data were from the first wave (2002) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a panel study of over 2000 adult smokers from each of four countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Data were collected via telephone interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nicotine dependence, intention to quit, and self-efficacy to quit smoking were the main outcome measures used in this study. RESULTS:Lower levels of education were associated with higher nicotine dependence. The effect of lower income on higher heaviness of smoking index (HIS) scores was significant in Canada, the UK, and Australia. Respondents with low education had 35% larger odds of low self-efficacy than those with high education. Respondents with low education had 40% larger odds of having no intention to quit than those with high education. Respondents with low income had 23% larger odds of having no intention to quit than those with high income. Country was not a moderator of the association of SES with self-efficacy and intention to quit. CONCLUSION:To the extent that lower SES smokers are more addicted, they are likely to need more intensive support if they are to be successful in their attempts to quit. Given their lower incomes, this places a special responsibility on government to provide or subsidise such services. This should include access to the widest possible range of effective pharmacotherapies complemented with evidence based counselling and support.


Tob Control


Tobacco control


Siahpush M,McNeill A,Borland R,Fong GT




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00










15 Suppl 3


  • Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To better estimate the burden of toxic cigarette butt waste and create awareness of the hazardous nature of cigarette butts on two large university campuses in San Diego by organizing and conducting student cigarette butt clean-up activities. METHODS:Two separate campus-wide clean-ups were conducted by stude...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawdey M,Lindsay RP,Novotny TE

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Current situation and future challenges of tobacco control policy in Thailand.

    abstract::In Thailand, the prevalence of smoking has steadily declined over the past 20 years, suggesting an effective tobacco control policy. However, the prevalence has recently stabilised and youth smoking now appears to be on the rise. Tobacco use is the third highest risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in the...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sangthong R,Wichaidit W,Ketchoo C

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Public opinions on tax and retail-based tobacco control strategies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While tobacco taxes and smoke-free air regulations have significantly decreased tobacco use, tobacco-related illness accounts for hundreds of thousands of annual deaths. Experts are considering additional strategies to further reduce tobacco consumption. METHODS:We investigated smokers' (n=2118) and non-smo...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farley SM,Coady MH,Mandel-Ricci J,Waddell EN,Chan C,Kilgore EA,Kansagra SM

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Global sale of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems in community pharmacies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. METHODS:International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assess...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hudmon KS,Elkhadragy N,Kusynová Z,Besançon L,Brock TP,Corelli RL

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Empirical analysis on the illicit trade of cigarettes in Vietnam.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This paper examined how a higher tax on tobacco would affect illicit trade in Vietnam. METHODOLOGY AND DATA:This paper used the gap method to estimate the gap between cigarette domestically tax-paid sales and domestic consumption. Data were from the tax-paid sales by the Vietnam Steering Committee on Smokin...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen HTT,Giang LT,Pham TN

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Polytobacco use among young adult smokers: prospective association with cigarette consumption.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The risks of polytobacco use among young adults are unclear because we know relatively little about the consistency of multiproduct patterns over time and how these patterns impact cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in multiple tobacco product use over time and associations w...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Petersen A,Myers MG,Tully L,Brikmanis K,Doran N

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Philip Morris External Research Program: results from the first round of projects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Philip Morris (PM) launched the Philip Morris External Research Program (PMERP) in 2000, two years after the company agreed to the dissolution of two industry-wide, external research programmes: the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) and the Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR). Our previous analysis of PME...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirschhorn N,Bialous SA,Shatenstein S

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of a telephone helpline for smokers who called during a mass media campaign.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the impact of a telephone helpline (Quitline) with additional support (written information) on callers who use the service during a mass media campaign. DESIGN:Telephone recall surveys of callers to the helpline carried out two months and one year after their initial call. SETTING:Telephone help...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Owen L

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Challenges for philanthropy and tobacco control in China (1986-2012).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify the international philanthropies that have invested in tobacco control in China, describe their role and strategies in changing the social norms of tobacco use, and define the outcomes achieved. METHODS:Information on the international philanthropic donor China projects, including activities and ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Redmon P,Chen LC,Wood JL,Li S,Koplan JP

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Indoor concentrations of nicotine in low-income, multi-unit housing: associations with smoking behaviours and housing characteristics.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:An analysis of airborne nicotine measurements collected in 49 low-income, multi-unit residences across the Greater Boston Area. METHODS:Nicotine concentrations were determined using passive monitors placed in homes over a one-week sampling period and air exchange rates (AER) were sampled using the perfluoroc...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kraev TA,Adamkiewicz G,Hammond SK,Spengler JD

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hookah smoking on indoor air quality in homes.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Hookahs (water pipes) are rapidly increasing in popularity worldwide. Evidence suggests that although perceived as safer than cigarette smoke, hookah smoke may be as, or even more, dangerous as cigarette smoke. METHODS:Air samples from 33 homes-11 where only hookah-smoking occurred, 12 with only cigarette...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weitzman M,Yusufali AH,Bali F,Vilcassim MJR,Gandhi S,Peltier R,Nadas A,Sherman S,Lee L,Hong Z,Shearston J,Park SH,Gordon T

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring indigenous perspectives on tobacco tax: how some Māori families are responding in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:High smoking prevalence rates, combined with a steep tax on tobacco and lower household income, mean that 5% of Māori (indigenous) whānau (family unit) expenditure in New Zealand is on tobacco. This paper outlines whānau perceptions of, and behavioural responses to, increasing tobacco tax. METHODS:This quali...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gifford H,Waa A,Cvitanovic L,Potaka-Osborne G,Kerehoma-Cook A

    更新日期:2021-01-12 00:00:00

  • Short term patterns of early smoking acquisition.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe short term patterns of smoking acquisition exhibited by adolescent smokers. DESIGN:Interview records from the prospective development and assessment of nicotine dependence in youth study were examined retrospectively. Interviews were conducted three times per year over 30 months. SUBJECTS:164 st...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Wellman RJ,DiFranza JR,Savageau JA,Dussault GF

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Re-evaluating gender and smoking in Thunderbirds 35 years on.

    abstract::The rescreening of a cult children's puppet show made originally in the 1960s, showing the main characters smoking on occasion, raises questions over the appropriateness of such images for today's young viewers. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt K

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco industry response to a ban on lights descriptors on cigarette packaging and population outcomes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its Guidelines recommend nations ban the use of misleading terms, such as 'light' and 'mild' on tobacco product advertising, packaging and labelling. Many nations, including the USA, have implemented such bans and some have introduced or passed legislation r...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alpert HR,Carpenter D,Connolly GN

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Awareness, experience and prevalence of heated tobacco product, IQOS, among young Korean adults.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Philip Morris International introduced 'IQOS' to the Korean market in June 2017. To monitor the use of IQOS among young Korean adults, we identified their awareness, experience and current use of IQOS. METHODS:Three months after the introduction of IQOS in Korea, we conducted an online survey with 228 gen...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim J,Yu H,Lee S,Paek YJ

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco control within and beyond WHO MPOWER: outcomes from Taiwan SimSmoke.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Adult smoking prevalence in Taiwan rapidly declined from 26.5% in 2005 to 20.0% in 2015. Nevertheless, future projections on smoking-attributable deaths and current per capita consumption do not paint an equally bright picture. METHODS:We used SimSmoke, a tobacco control simulation model to assess the imp...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanna M,Gao W,Chiu YW,Chiou HY,Chen YH,Wen CP,Levy DT

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Smoker-free workplace policies: developing a model of public health consequences of workplace policies barring employment to smokers.

    abstract::A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected-smokers, their families, the surrounding community and society at large. We find a lack of p...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houle B,Siegel M

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the perceived effectiveness of cigarette health warnings in China, compared with picture and text-only warnings from other countries. METHOD:1169 individuals (adult smokers, adult nonsmokers and youth) from four Chinese cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming and Yinchuan) viewed 10 health warnings on c...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fong GT,Hammond D,Jiang Y,Li Q,Quah AC,Driezen P,Yan M,ITC China Project Team.

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alaouie H,Afifi RA,Haddad P,Mahfoud Z,Nakkash R

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Preferences and practices among renters regarding smoking restrictions in apartment buildings.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study assessed renters' preferences for official smoking policies in their buildings and their practices concerning restricting tobacco smoking in their apartments. DESIGN:Renters (n = 301) living in large apartment complexes in a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, completed a mail survey. MAIN OUTCOME ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hennrikus D,Pentel PR,Sandell SD

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of California's in-school tobacco use prevention education (TUPE) activities using a nested school-longitudinal design, 2003-2004 and 2005-2006.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Current legislative language requires the California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program, to evaluate the effectiveness of the school-based Tobacco Use Prevention Education (TUPE) programme in California every 2 years. The objective of the study was to measure change and to identi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park HY,Dent C,Abramsohn E,Dietsch B,McCarthy WJ

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for tobacco dependence in adolescent smokers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the incidence of conversion to tobacco dependence (TD) and the prevalence of the TD state in relation to several potential determinants in a sample of adolescent smokers. METHODS:Questionnaires were administered every 3-4 months to document TD symptoms, amount of cigarette consumption, and depressio...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Karp I,O'Loughlin J,Hanley J,Tyndale RF,Paradis G

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • South African platinum mine employees reduce smoking in 5 years.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:South Africa adopted comprehensive tobacco control policies in the 1990s. Smoking has since declined in the general population, but there is little information on the effect of the campaign in labour-intensive industries, especially the mining industry where workers are exposed to dust, which may interact wi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheyip MY,Nelson G,Ross MH,Murray J

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding Philip Morris's pursuit of US government regulation of tobacco.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate Philip Morris's support of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products and analyse its relationship to the company's image enhancement strategies. DATA SOURCES:Internal Philip Morris documents released as part of the Master Settlement Agreement. METHODS:Searches of th...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDaniel PA,Malone RE

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults from the upper Midwest region of the USA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Since its introduction in 2006, snus has been aggressively marketed by tobacco companies. However, little is known about the awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults after Camel and Marlboro snus were sold nationwide in 2010. METHODS:Data were collected from 2607 young adults (ages 20-28) w...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choi K,Forster J

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Productivity burden of smoking in Australia: a life table modelling study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to examine the impact of smoking on productivity in Australia, in terms of years of life lost, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the novel measure of productivity-adjusted life years (PALYs) lost. METHODS:Life table modelling using contemporary Australian data simulated follow-up...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Owen AJ,Maulida SB,Zomer E,Liew D

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Growth in Tobacco Control publications by authors from low- and middle-income countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Research has contributed significantly to tobacco control in high-income nations, but has not yet played a comparable role in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In recent years, efforts have been devoted to building research capacity in LMICs. Using publication in Tobacco Control as a proxy for all tob...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warner KE,Tam J,Koltun SM

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. METHODS:Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS:Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the wo...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hafez N,Ling PM

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Do adult focused anti-smoking campaigns have an impact on adolescents? The case of the Australian National Tobacco Campaign.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine adolescents' awareness of and response to an adult focused anti-smoking advertising campaign. DESIGN AND SETTING:Data were obtained from two cross sectional surveys of adolescents. The first study, a national evaluation study, involved a telephone survey of a randomly selected sample of 400 14-17...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White V,Tan N,Wakefield M,Hill D

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00