Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).


:The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.


Tob Control


Tobacco control


Fong GT,Cummings KM,Shopland DR,ITC Collaboration.




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00










15 Suppl 3


  • Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among older adults: United States, 1965-94.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To characterise patterns of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among older adults in the United States. DESIGN:Data from the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) 1965-94 were analysed. The NHIS is a cross-sectional survey using a representative national sample. SETTING:In most cases interviews were...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Husten CG,Shelton DM,Chrismon JH,Lin YC,Mowery P,Powell FA

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Filter ventilation and nicotine content of tobacco in cigarettes from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose was to determine filter ventilation and the nicotine content of tobacco and their contribution to machine-smoked yields of cigarettes from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. METHODS:Ninety-two brands of cigarettes (32 American, 23 Canadian, and 37 British brands) were purchased a...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kozlowski LT,Mehta NY,Sweeney CT,Schwartz SS,Vogler GP,Jarvis MJ,West RJ

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding Philip Morris's pursuit of US government regulation of tobacco.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate Philip Morris's support of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products and analyse its relationship to the company's image enhancement strategies. DATA SOURCES:Internal Philip Morris documents released as part of the Master Settlement Agreement. METHODS:Searches of th...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDaniel PA,Malone RE

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of flavourants and humectants on waterpipe tobacco puffing behaviour, biomarkers of exposure and subjective effects among adults with high versus low nicotine dependence.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Flavourants and humectants in waterpipe tobacco (WT) increase product appeal. Removal of these constituents, however, is associated with increased intensity of WT puffing, likely due to reduced nicotine delivery efficiency. To clarify the potential public health outcomes of restrictions on flavourants or h...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keller-Hamilton B,Mehta T,Hale JJ,Leavens ELS,Shihadeh A,Eissenberg T,Brinkman MC,Wagener TL

    更新日期:2021-01-06 00:00:00

  • Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To better estimate the burden of toxic cigarette butt waste and create awareness of the hazardous nature of cigarette butts on two large university campuses in San Diego by organizing and conducting student cigarette butt clean-up activities. METHODS:Two separate campus-wide clean-ups were conducted by stude...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawdey M,Lindsay RP,Novotny TE

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Food and Drug Administration can reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes to very low levels. This potential regulatory action is hypothesised to improve public health by reducing smoking, but may have unintended consequences related to weight gain. METHODS:Weight gain was evaluated from a double-blind...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Rupprecht LE,Koopmeiners JS,Dermody SS,Oliver JA,al'Absi M,Benowitz NL,Denlinger-Apte R,Drobes DJ,Hatsukami D,McClernon FJ,Pacek LR,Smith TT,Sved AF,Tidey J,Vandrey R,Donny EC

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Longitudinal pathways of exclusive and polytobacco cigar use among youth, young adults and adults in the USA: findings from the PATH Study Waves 1-3 (2013-2016).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study is to examine the cross-sectional prevalence of use and 3-year longitudinal pathways of cigar use in US youth (12-17 years), young adults (18-24 years), and adults 25+ (25 years or older). DESIGN:Data were drawn from the first three waves (2013-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tob...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edwards KC,Sharma E,Halenar MJ,Taylor KA,Kasza KA,Day H,Hammad HT,Anic G,Bansal-Travers M,Limpert J,Gardner LD,Borek N,Kimmel HL,Compton WM,Hyland A,Stanton CA

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of e-cigarette and cigarette prices on youth and young adult e-cigarette and cigarette behaviour: evidence from a national longitudinal cohort.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Understanding the impact of prices for tobacco and nicotine products is critical for creating policies to prevent use among young people. This study examines the impact of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and cigarette prices on current e-cigarette and cigarette use among youth and young adults. METHODS...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cantrell J,Huang J,Greenberg MS,Xiao H,Hair EC,Vallone D

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Economic effect of restaurant smoking restrictions on restaurant business in Massachusetts, 1992 to 1998.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine if restaurant business declines or improves after the implementation of restrictive restaurant smoking policies. DESIGN:Analysis used a pre/post-quasi-experimental design that compared town meals tax receipts before and after the imposition of highly restrictive restaurant smoking policies in ad...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bartosch WJ,Pope GC

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Preferences and practices among renters regarding smoking restrictions in apartment buildings.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study assessed renters' preferences for official smoking policies in their buildings and their practices concerning restricting tobacco smoking in their apartments. DESIGN:Renters (n = 301) living in large apartment complexes in a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, completed a mail survey. MAIN OUTCOME ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hennrikus D,Pentel PR,Sandell SD

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. METHODS:We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco com...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Persoskie A,Donaldson EA,Ryant C

    更新日期:2018-05-31 00:00:00

  • Exploring indigenous perspectives on tobacco tax: how some Māori families are responding in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:High smoking prevalence rates, combined with a steep tax on tobacco and lower household income, mean that 5% of Māori (indigenous) whānau (family unit) expenditure in New Zealand is on tobacco. This paper outlines whānau perceptions of, and behavioural responses to, increasing tobacco tax. METHODS:This quali...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gifford H,Waa A,Cvitanovic L,Potaka-Osborne G,Kerehoma-Cook A

    更新日期:2021-01-12 00:00:00

  • Tobacco control advocacy in the age of social media: using Facebook, Twitter and change.

    abstract::The tobacco industry's use of social media sites, such as Facebook, is an emerging area of research; however, this is the first study of the potential for social media to advance tobacco control. This paper presents three case studies of using social media for tobacco control advocacy, demonstrates how social media ca...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hefler M,Freeman B,Chapman S

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the Twitter activity around the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tobacco companies' intentions to influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) via the Conference of Parties (COP; the official biannual meeting where Parties review the Convention) are well documented. We aimed to analyse Twitter data to gain insights into tobacco industry tactics, argume...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robertson L,Joshi A,Legg T,Wellock G,Ray K,Evans-Reeves K

    更新日期:2020-11-11 00:00:00

  • Arabian nights in Hong Kong: Chinese young adults' experience of waterpipe smoking.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Waterpipe smoking (WPS) has increased among young adults who may be oblivious to its harmful effects. We explored Chinese young adults' experiences of using waterpipes. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews with 49 Chinese young adults aged between 18 to 30 years who had smoked waterpipes in the past 30 days w...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JJ,Yeung KCY,Wang MP,Thorne S

    更新日期:2020-08-20 00:00:00

  • Disease burden of adult lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease from passive tobacco smoking in China.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To address the health hazards tobacco smoking imposes upon non-smokers in China, this paper estimates the burden of diseases in adults from passive tobacco smoking for two major diseases--lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS:The disease burden was estimated in terms of both premature mortal...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gan Q,Smith KR,Hammond SK,Hu TW

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the removal of point-of-sale tobacco displays in Ireland.

    abstract:AIM:To evaluate the short-term impacts of removing point-of-sale tobacco displays in Ireland, implemented in July 2009. METHODS:Retailer compliance was assessed using audit surveys in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Using a monthly survey of 1000 adults carried out since 2002, changes in smoking prevalence were assessed; attitud...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McNeill A,Lewis S,Quinn C,Mulcahy M,Clancy L,Hastings G,Edwards R

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke harm awareness: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign about Dutch smoke-free legislation on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke (SHS) harm awareness. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:A content analysis was conducted of 1041 newspaper articles on the smoke...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagelhout GE,van den Putte B,de Vries H,Crone M,Fong GT,Willemsen MC

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Seven years of progress in tobacco control: an evaluation of the effect of nations meeting the highest level MPOWER measures between 2007 and 2014.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Since WHO released the package of six MPOWER measures to assist nations with implementing the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC), 88 countries adopted at least one highest level MPOWER measure. We estimated the subsequent reduction in smoking-related deaths from all new highest level measures...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levy DT,Yuan Z,Luo Y,Mays D

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking-related knowledge and attitudes of senior Australian medical students.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the smoking-related knowledge and attitudes of senior medical students and to compare knowledge and attitude changes in students exposed to four different smoking cessation skills training interventions. DESIGN:A survey questionnaire, assessing knowledge and attitudes, was administered pre- and pos...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Roche AM,Eccleston P,Jordan D

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Residual tobacco smoke: measurement of its washout time in the lung and of its contribution to environmental tobacco smoke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tobacco smoking entails inhaling millions of fine particles with each puff, and it is intuitive that after smoking a cigarette it will take a certain time to washout residual tobacco smoke (RTS) from the lungs with subsequent breaths. OBJECTIVES:To study the washout time of 0.3-1.0 microm particles after th...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Invernizzi G,Ruprecht A,De Marco C,Paredi P,Boffi R

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of policies directed at youth access to smoking: results from the SimSmoke computer simulation model.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To develop a simulation model to predict the effects of youth access policies on retail compliance, smoking rates, and smoking attributable deaths. METHODS:A model of youth access policies is developed based on empirical research and a theory of perceived risk. The model incorporates substitution into other...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levy DT,Friend K,Holder H,Carmona M

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Content analysis of age verification, purchase and delivery methods of internet e-cigarette vendors, 2013 and 2014.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Identify the population of internet e-cigarette vendors (IEVs) and conduct content analyses of their age verification, purchase and delivery methods in 2013 and 2014. METHODS:We used multiple sources to identify IEV websites, primarily complex search algorithms scanning more than 180 million websites. In 201...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams RS,Derrick J,Liebman AK,LaFleur K,Ribisl KM

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. METHODS:Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18-26, in Alameda and San Francisco C...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holmes LM,Ling PM

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Early symptoms of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although waterpipe smoking is increasingly popular among youth and can lead to nicotine dependence (ND), no studies have documented how ND develops in waterpipe smokers. We examined the emerging symptoms of ND among adolescent waterpipe smokers in Lebanon. METHODS:Individual confidential interviews were use...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bahelah R,DiFranza JR,Fouad FM,Ward KD,Eissenberg T,Maziak W

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that p...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gardner B,West R

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Macroeconomic impacts of cigarette consumption in Pakistan.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pakistan has a large population of tobacco users, with about 24 million adults consuming tobacco products in one form or another. There is a dearth of research on the impact of a reduction in tobacco use on Pakistan's economy which can inform policy-makers on the extent that tobacco control measures would af...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saleem W,Iqbal MA

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Global sale of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems in community pharmacies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. METHODS:International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assess...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hudmon KS,Elkhadragy N,Kusynová Z,Besançon L,Brock TP,Corelli RL

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Awareness, experience and prevalence of heated tobacco product, IQOS, among young Korean adults.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Philip Morris International introduced 'IQOS' to the Korean market in June 2017. To monitor the use of IQOS among young Korean adults, we identified their awareness, experience and current use of IQOS. METHODS:Three months after the introduction of IQOS in Korea, we conducted an online survey with 228 gen...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim J,Yu H,Lee S,Paek YJ

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of recent trends in adolescent and adult cigarette smoking behaviour and brand preferences.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare trends in smoking behaviour and use of cigarette brands by adults and adolescents. DESIGN:Data analysed in this paper come from tobacco use surveys of adults and teenagers conducted in 18 communities in the United States, as part of the National Cancer Institute's Community Intervention Trial for ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cummings KM,Hyland A,Pechacek TF,Orlandi M,Lynn WR

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00