Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).


:The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.


Tob Control


Tobacco control


Fong GT,Cummings KM,Shopland DR,ITC Collaboration.




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00










15 Suppl 3


  • Geographic density and proximity of vape shops to colleges in the USA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vape shops have been spreading rapidly in the USA since 2008, catering to the fast-growing market for electronic cigarettes. Little is known about the geographic density and proximity of vape shops near colleges. METHODS:Names and addresses of vape shops were collected from 3 online directories:, Y...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai H,Hao J

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of nations meeting the MPOWER targets between 2014 and 2016: an update.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Since the WHO released the Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policies; Protecting from the dangers of tobacco smoke; Offering help to quit tobacco; Warning the public about the dangers; Enforcing bans on advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and Raising tobacco taxes (MPOWER) policy package to assi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levy DT,Li Y,Yuan Z

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • The tobacco-free generation proposal.

    abstract::The tobacco-free generation proposal advocates legislation precluding the sale and supply of tobacco to individuals born after a certain year. The measure is aimed at overcoming defects with current youth access laws that suffer from rite-of-passage and mixed signalling effects. Since its introduction in 2010, the pro...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berrick AJ

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. METHODS:Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigat...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hiilamo H

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Initial impact of the new Australian tobacco health warnings on knowledge and beliefs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:New health warnings and contents labelling on tobacco products were introduced in Australia in 1995. OBJECTIVE:To assess awareness of the new warnings at a time when a mix of packs with old and new warnings were being sold and on changes in relevant knowledge and attitudes from shortly before the implementa...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borland R,Hill D

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Community guide recommendations and state level tobacco control programmes: 1999-2004.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. DESIGN:Longitudinal study. SETTING:United States. PARTICIPANTS:State tobacco control partners, ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmitt CL,Malarcher AM,Clark PI,Bombard JM,Strauss W,Stillman FA

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sectors of the Russian economy that would benefit from reduced cigarette sales.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cigarette companies argue that tobacco control measures will harm the Russian economy. Research in other countries has refuted this claim. OBJECTIVE:To identify how current and former smokers would (or did) spend their cigarette money if (or when) they quit smoking. METHODS:A nationwide face-to-face survey...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merrill RM,Castleton RA,Lindsay GB

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting the future prevalence of cigarette smoking in Australia: how low can we go and by when?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In Australia, smoking prevalence has declined in men since the 1950s and in women since the 1980s. Future smoking prevalence in Australia is predicted from estimates of previous and current age-specific and sex-specific cessation rates and smoking uptake in young people derived from national survey data on t...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gartner CE,Barendregt JJ,Hall WD

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Creating a market for IQOS: analysis of Philip Morris' strategy to introduce heated tobacco products to the Australian consumer market.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Philip Morris International has made efforts to expand the sale of its heated tobacco product, IQOS, into new domestic markets globally. In Australia, where heated tobacco products are prohibited, the company recently attempted to overturn Australian legislation in order to permit their sale. In light of thi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watts C,Burton S,Freeman B

    更新日期:2020-11-15 00:00:00

  • Tobacco industry use of judicial seminars to influence rulings in products liability litigation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This paper examines the tobacco industry's efforts to influence litigation by sponsoring judicial seminars. METHODS:Thousands of internal tobacco documents were examined, including memos, reports, presentations, and newsletters. Connections to outside organisations were corroborated by examining tobacco ind...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Friedman LC

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. DESIGN:Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joossens L,Lugo A,La Vecchia C,Gilmore AB,Clancy L,Gallus S

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of tobacco use on health and work productivity in Malaysia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The loss of productivity arising from tobacco use in low/middle-income countries has not been well described. We sought to examine the impact of cigarette smoking on population health and work productivity in Malaysia using a recently published measure, the productivity-adjusted life year (PALY). METHODS:A ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan QY,Zomer E,Owen AJ,Chin KL,Liew D

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Discrepancies in the Brazilian tobacco production chain: raw inputs, international trade and legal cigarette production.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The significant market share of illicit cigarettes in Brazil is well established in the literature, nonetheless lacking clarity in terms of its actual size. Paraguay has a paramount role in this discussion, acting both as a supplier of illegal tobacco products to Brazil and as buyer of inputs from Brazil. A ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribeiro LSL,Pinto VDC

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. OBJECTIVE:To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urba...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang J,Zheng R,Chaloupka FJ,Fong GT,Jiang Y

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mass media campaigns within reach: effective efforts with limited resources in Russia's capital city.

    abstract::Mass media campaigns, while often expensive, are proven, cost-effective interventions and should not be considered out-of-reach, especially where governments have some sway over media markets, where large media discounts are possible or where other novel strategies can be employed. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perl R,Stebenkova L,Morozova I,Murukutla N,Kochetova V,Kotov A,Voylokova T,Baskakova J

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switchin...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornelius ME,Cummings KM,Fong GT,Hyland A,Driezen P,Chaloupka FJ,Hammond D,O'Connor RJ,Bansal-Travers M

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Push or be punished: tobacco industry documents reveal aggression against businesses that discourage tobacco use.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To learn how the tobacco industry reacted to businesses' voluntarily enacting policies to discourage tobacco use and minimise exposure of employees and patrons to secondhand smoke. DATA SOURCES:Internal tobacco industry documents discovered among those posted on the internet. Approximately 24 million documen...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landman A

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Paan (pan) and paan (pan) masala should be considered tobacco products.

    abstract::Two products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and popular among South Asians globally - paan and paan masala - are inconsistently categorised as tobacco by researchers, clinicians, program planners and policymakers. This article calls for a universally standard classification of these smokeless carcinogenic produ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mukherjea A,Modayil MV,Tong EK

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Twenty-year health and economic impact of reducing cigarette use: Minnesota 1998-2017.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota fell from 21.8% in 1997 to 15.2% in 2016. This reduction improved heart and lung health, prevented cancers, extended life and reduced healthcare costs, but quantifying these benefits is difficult. METHODS:1.3 million individuals were simulated in a tobacco policy model ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maciosek MV,LaFrance AB,St Claire A,Xu Z,Brown M,Schillo BA

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Marlboro UltraSmooth: a potentially reduced exposure cigarette?

    abstract:AIM:To compare relative toxic emissions scores (RTE) of the carbon filter cigarette Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS), against regular Marlboro, Holiday, and British Columbian brands. METHOD:MUS cigarettes were purchased in Tampa, Florida; Marlboro regular and Holiday were purchased in Auckland, New Zealand, and all emission...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laugesen M,Fowles J

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. DATA SOURCES:Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. STUDY SELECTION...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: King W,Carter SM,Borland R,Chapman S,Gray N

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Nicotine dependence versus smoking prevalence: comparisons among countries and categories of smokers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To collect available international data on nicotine dependence as defined by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, and to compare levels of dependence among countries and categories of smokers. DATA SOURCES:Published and unpublished studies known to the authors and a search of EMBASE from 1985-1995. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fagerström KO,Kunze M,Schoberberger R,Breslau N,Hughes JR,Hurt RD,Puska P,Ramström L,Zatoński W

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. METHODS AND SETTING:100 randomly selected S...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eule B,Sullivan MK,Schroeder SA,Hudmon KS

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective study of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on nicotine inhaler.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on prescription nicotine inhaler. DESIGN:Prospective telephone and internet interviews for six months. PARTICIPANTS:535 new inhaler users. MAIN OUTCOME:Structured interview about off-label use (that is, use of inhaler for non-cessatio...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hughes JR,Adams EH,Franzon MA,Maguire MK,Guary J

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Smoker-free workplace policies: developing a model of public health consequences of workplace policies barring employment to smokers.

    abstract::A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected-smokers, their families, the surrounding community and society at large. We find a lack of p...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houle B,Siegel M

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • A randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention to reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke in the home.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ratschen E,Thorley R,Jones L,Opazo Breton M,Cook J,McNeill A,Britton J,Coleman T,Lewis S

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cigarette tax on cigarette consumption and the Chinese economy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To analyse a policy dilemma in China on public health versus the tobacco economy through additional cigarette tax. METHODS:Using published statistics from 1980 through 1997 to estimate the impact of tobacco production and consumption on government revenue and the entire economy. These estimates relied on th...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu TW,Mao Z

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Allying tobacco control with human rights: invited commentary.

    abstract::The recognition that tobacco control and human rights concerns overlap is quite recent. This commentary reflects upon tobacco control's growth through allying with other domains, and details a particular effort to build alliances between tobacco control and human rights practitioners. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daynard RA,de Alwis Rde S,Gottlieb M

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of e-cigarette and cigarette prices on youth and young adult e-cigarette and cigarette behaviour: evidence from a national longitudinal cohort.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Understanding the impact of prices for tobacco and nicotine products is critical for creating policies to prevent use among young people. This study examines the impact of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and cigarette prices on current e-cigarette and cigarette use among youth and young adults. METHODS...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cantrell J,Huang J,Greenberg MS,Xiao H,Hair EC,Vallone D

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Smoke-free policies in psychiatric services: identification of unmet needs.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Smoke-free policies have been extended to enclosed workplaces in many countries; however, smoking continues to be commonly allowed on psychiatric premises. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco control strategies undertaken in psychiatric inpatient services and day centres in Spain. METHODS:This c...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ballbè M,Nieva G,Mondon S,Pinet C,Bruguera E,Saltó E,Fernández E,Gual A,Smoking and Mental Health Group.

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00