The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Sleep-related accidents often involve healthy young persons who are driving at night. Coffee and napping restore alertness, but no study has compared their effects on real nighttime driving performances. OBJECTIVE:To test the effects of 125 mL of coffee (half a cup) containing 200 mg of caffeine, placebo (decaffeinated coffee containing 15 mg of caffeine), or a 30-minute nap (at 1:00 a.m.) in a car on nighttime driving performance. DESIGN:Double-blind, randomized, crossover study. SETTING:Sleep laboratory and open highway. PARTICIPANTS:12 young men (mean age, 21.3 years [SD, 1.8]). MEASUREMENTS:Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness, inappropriate line crossings from video recordings during highway driving, and polysomnographic recordings during the nap and subsequent sleep. INTERVENTION:Participants drove 200 km (125 miles) between 6:00 p.m. and 7:30 p.m. (daytime reference condition) or between 2:00 a.m. and 3:30 a.m. (coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or nap condition). After intervention, participants returned to the laboratory to sleep. RESULTS:Nighttime driving performance was similar to daytime performance (0 to 1 line crossing) for 75% of participants after coffee (0 or 1 line crossing), for 66% after the nap (P = 0.66 vs. coffee), and for only 13% after placebo (P = 0.041 vs. nap; P = 0.014 vs. coffee). The incidence rate ratios for having a line crossing after placebo were 3.7 (95% CI, 1.2 to 11.0; P = 0.001) compared with coffee and 2.9 (CI, 1.7 to 5.1; P = 0.021) compared with nap. A statistically significant interindividual variability was observed in response to sleep deprivation and countermeasures. Sleep latencies and efficiency during sleep after nighttime driving were similar in the 3 conditions. LIMITATIONS:Only 1 dose of coffee and 1 nap duration were tested. Effects may differ in other patient or age groups. CONCLUSIONS:Drinking coffee or napping at night statistically significantly reduces driving impairment without altering subsequent sleep.

journal_name

Ann Intern Med

authors

Philip P,Taillard J,Moore N,Delord S,Valtat C,Sagaspe P,Bioulac B

doi

10.7326/0003-4819-144-11-200606060-00004

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2006-06-06 00:00:00

pages

785-91

issue

11

eissn

0003-4819

issn

1539-3704

pii

144/11/785

journal_volume

144

pub_type

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