Monitoring in the field.


:This review looks at the challenges faced when monitoring patients in the field environment. It is considered from the perspective of the UK Defence Medical Services and their experiences over the past 20 yr. The lessons learned are applicable to many other circumstances where a high standard of care, for a large spectrum of patients, is to be delivered in the most inhospitable conditions. The environmental influences on monitoring equipment such as extremes of heat, cold and altitude must be considered and dealt with. Minimal monitoring standards required by professional bodies have to be undertaken, but there is a need to exceed them to compensate for the untoward effects of hostile environments. Patient and machine variables monitored and their relative importance in the field are also explored. Varying field locations are illustrated and the types of monitoring required to care for patients in different areas of field units are discussed. Patient transfers and the particular difficulties encountered in the military context are also reviewed. Undertaking aeromedical evacuation is one of the most challenging environments in the field and the solutions required to undertake it are explored. These considerations are used to propose design requirements necessary to provide appropriate monitoring in all other field conditions. The standards set for carriage of equipment in the air and the testing required allowing compliance with the regulations in force in the UK, are outlined. Finally the importance of practitioner training to undertake these roles in the field is discussed.


Br J Anaesth


McGuire NM




Has Abstract


2006-07-01 00:00:00














  • Comparison of midazolam and diazepam in doses of comparable potency during gastroscopy.

    abstract::The water soluble benzodiazepine midazolam was compared with diazepam, in doses of 0.07 mg kg-1 and 0.15 mg kg-1 respectively, administered i.v. to 100 patients undergoing gastroscopy. The degree of sedation, ease of endoscopy and recovery were comparable in the two groups. The effects of both drugs on arterial pressu...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Whitwam JG,Al-Khudhairi D,McCloy RF

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Infusion thrombophlebitis.

    abstract::Infusion thrombophlebitis is a common complication of i.v. infusions. Many factors appear to be involved in its aetiology, of which the duration of infusion, the drugs infused and the solution(s) infused are the most important. Effective prophylaxis should be based on an understanding of the possible pathophysiology. ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lewis GB,Hecker JF

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of propofol/remifentanil and sevoflurane/remifentanil for maintenance of anaesthesia for elective intracranial surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Propofol and sevoflurane are suitable agents for maintenance of anaesthesia during neurosurgical procedures. We have prospectively compared these agents in combination with the short-acting opioid, remifentanil. METHODS:Fifty unpremedicated patients undergoing elective craniotomy received remifentanil 1 mic...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sneyd JR,Andrews CJ,Tsubokawa T

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of nitroglycerin inhalation in reducing pulmonary arterial hypertension in children with congenital heart disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There has been a renewed interest in nitric oxide donor drugs, such as nitroglycerin, delivered by the inhalational route for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We investigated the acute effects of inhaled nitroglycerin on pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics in children with PAH associated ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goyal P,Kiran U,Chauhan S,Juneja R,Choudhary M

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interactive effect of morphine and dexmedetomidine on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in the rat.

    abstract::We studied the interactive effect of dexmedetomidine and morphine on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in the rat. In one group of rats, to examine the interactive effect on gastrointestinal transit, the two drugs were injected i.p. in a fixed ratio (30: 1)--that of their ED50 values--in six doses (0.062-1...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asai T,Mapleson WW,Power I

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Buprenorphine induces ceiling in respiratory depression but not in analgesia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We measured the effect of two weight adjusted i.v. doses (0.2 mg per 70 kg and 0.4 mg per 70 kg) of the potent opioid buprenorphine on analgesia and respiratory depression in healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to compare buprenorphine's behaviour with respect to the occurrence of ceiling (or appare...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dahan A,Yassen A,Romberg R,Sarton E,Teppema L,Olofsen E,Danhof M

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of atracurium besylate in healthy patients (after a single i.v. bolus dose).

    abstract::The plasma decay of atracurium besylate was examined in two groups of six patients. Group I received atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 and group II 0.3 mg kg-1 as a single bolus dose i.v. The plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. An individual two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was use...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ward S,Neill EA,Weatherley BC,Corall IM

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Transilluminated tracheal intubation.

    abstract::We evaluated the use of an inexpensive trans-illuminating light wand for tracheal intubation. Expertise in its use was acquired quickly, thereby providing successful per-oral intubation in all patients who were able to open the mouth, irrespective of the view obtained of the epiglottis and larynx. ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ainsworth QP,Howells TH

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo effects of propofol on acetylcholine release from the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum studied by intracerebral microdialysis in freely moving rats.

    abstract::Using in vivo microdialysis, we have investigated the effects of propofol on acetylcholine (ACh) release from various regions of the rat brain. Propofol 25 and 50 mg kg-1 i.p. decreased basal ACh release from the frontal cortex by 70% and 85%, respectively. Propofol 25 and 50 mg kg-1 i.p. decreased basal ACh release f...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kikuchi T,Wang Y,Sato K,Okumura F

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia. XXII: Metoclopramide.

    abstract::Metoclopramide hastens emptying of the stomach. Since it may be given to patients before operation, the sedative and toxic effects of 10- and 20-mg does given i.m. were studied in patients and student volunteers. Saline and diazepam 10 mg were used as placebo and reference drugs. Neither dose of metoclopramide had as ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Dundee JW,Clarke RS,Howard PJ

    更新日期:1974-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of heating on the osmotic fragility of stored blood.

    abstract::The effect of incubation at 37 degrees C, 46 degrees C, 47 degrees C and 48 degrees C for 1 h on the osmotic fragility of blood was determined. Blood taken from volunteers into ACD and CPD was examined after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. In addition, 22-day-old blood stored in CPD was examined. The osmotic fragilit...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van der Walt JH,Russell WJ

    更新日期:1978-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of tracheostomy tube size for paediatric long-term ventilation: an audit of children with spinal cord injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There are no published data to predict tracheostomy tube size as growth proceeds in children requiring long-term ventilation. METHODS:A retrospective audit was undertaken of children having long-term ventilation, managed from the Southport spinal injuries unit. The dates of step-up in size of tracheostomy t...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behl S,Watt JW

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Recovery of elderly patients from two or more hours of desflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The solubility of desflurane compared with sevoflurane suggests more rapid recovery from desflurane anaesthesia. This could be important after prolonged anaesthesia and fast recovery may be advantageous in the elderly where slow recovery of mental function is a concern. We compared emergence from desflurane ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Heavner JE,Kaye AD,Lin BK,King T

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperglycaemic effects of Hartmann's solution during surgery in patients with maturity onset diabetes.

    abstract::The metabolic effect of infusing 1.0-1.5 litre of Hartmann's solution to normal subjects and those with maturity onset diabetes has been studied during surgery. It was found that the use of Hartmann's solution after operation was associated with a 7.5 mmol litre-u increase in plasm glucose concentration compared with ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas DJ,Alberti KG

    更新日期:1978-02-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative abnormalities in serum sodium concentrations are associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing major surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Abnormal serum sodium concentrations are common in patients presenting for surgery. It remains unclear whether these abnormalities are independent risk factors for postoperative mortality. METHODS:This is a secondary analysis of the European Surgical Outcome Study (EuSOS) that provided data describing 46 53...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cecconi M,Hochrieser H,Chew M,Grocott M,Hoeft A,Hoste A,Jammer I,Posch M,Metnitz P,Pelosi P,Moreno R,Pearse RM,Vincent JL,Rhodes A,European Surgical Outcomes Study (EuSOS) group for the Trials groups of the European Society o

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Malignant hyperpyrexia and sudden infant death syndrome.

    abstract::This paper reports three investigations of the suggested relationship between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and malignant hyperpyrexia (MH). In the first study 151 MH-susceptible families completed a questionnaire designed to identify the incidence of SIDS within their own pedigree. In the second study 106 SIDS ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis FR,Halsall PJ,Harriman DG

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Histaminoid reactions associated with rocuronium.

    abstract::We describe three histaminoid reactions occurring on induction of anaesthesia. The patients were all resuscitated successfully and subsequent skin testing suggested sensitivity to rocuronium. In this hospital, the incidence of such reactions is of the order of 1 in 3000. This may be coincidental but suggests that ther...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neal SM,Manthri PR,Gadiyar V,Wildsmith JA

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dose requirements of propofol by infusion during nitrous oxide anaesthesia in man. I: Patients premedicated with morphine sulphate.

    abstract::The study was performed to determine the ED50 and ED95 of a continuous infusion of the emulsion formulation of propofol during 67% nitrous oxide anaesthesia in 57 patients premedicated with morphine sulphate 0.15 mg kg-1. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg-1, and maintained before incision with a fixed-rate...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Spelina KR,Coates DP,Monk CR,Prys-Roberts C,Norley I,Turtle MJ

    更新日期:1986-10-01 00:00:00

  • Myoneural effects of pethidine and droperidol.

    abstract::In vitro experiments on the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, stimulated directly or indirectly with supramaximal impulses at 0.1 Hz revealed that pethidine in concentrations greater than 5 micrograms ml-1 caused a rapid increase of the twitch. This was maximal (60% increase during direct and 70% increase d...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boros M,Chaudhry IA,Nagashima H,Duncalf RM,Sherman EH,Foldes FF

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of intravenous parecoxib on post-craniotomy pain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pain management in craniotomy patients is challenging, with mild-to-moderate pain intensity, moderate-to-high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and potentially catastrophic consequences of analgesic-related side-effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether i.v. parecoxib administer...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Williams DL,Pemberton E,Leslie K

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of muscle temperature and forearm position on evoked electromyography in the hand.

    abstract::We have examined the correlation between the evoked electromyographic response in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the hand, temperature and forearm position in 40 female patients after enflurane anaesthesia with spontaneous breathing. In 20 patients the supinated forearm with the wrist extended was immobilized...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Smith DC,Booth JV

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prevention of nausea and vomiting with transdermal hyoscine in adults after middle ear surgery during general anaesthesia.

    abstract::In a double-blind, randomized study, we have compared the efficacy of transdermal hyoscine in the prevention of nausea and vomiting with placebo in 60 young, ASA I-II patients after middle ear surgery during general anaesthesia. In the placebo group, 27% and 43% of patients suffered from nausea and vomiting, respectiv...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Honkavaara P,Saarnivaara L,Klemola UM

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of age on the safety factor in neuromuscular transmission in the isolated diaphragm of the rat.

    abstract::An analysis of neuromuscular transmission has been made in phrenic nerve/diaphragm preparations from male rats aged 30 days or 110 days. The amplitude of miniature end-plate potentials was found to decrease with age, being 0.969 +/- SEM 0.058 mV at 30 days and 0.510 +/- SEM 0.031 mV at 110 days. Over the same period, ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kelly SS,Roberts DV

    更新日期:1977-03-01 00:00:00

  • Time-dependent modulation of muscarinic m1/m3 receptor signalling by local anaesthetics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Signalling of several G-protein-coupled receptors of the Gq/11 family is time-dependently inhibited by local anaesthetics (LAs). Since LA-induced modulation of muscarinic m1 and m3 receptor function may explain their beneficial effects in clinical practice, such as decreased postoperative cognitive dysfuncti...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Picardi S,Stevens MF,Hahnenkamp K,Durieux ME,Lirk P,Hollmann MW

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Development of atelectasis and arterial to end-tidal PCO2-difference in a porcine model of pneumoperitoneum.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intraperitoneal insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2) may promote collapse of dependent lung regions. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of CO2-pneumoperitoneum (CO2-PP) on atelectasis formation, arterial oxygenation, and arterial to end-tidal PCO2-gradient (Pa-E'(CO2)). METHODS:Fifteen an...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strang CM,Hachenberg T,Fredén F,Hedenstierna G

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • The history of controlled hypotension.

    abstract::As the physiology of deliberate hypotension has been unravelled, and as each new pharmacological agent has become available which either depresses or blocks peripheral vascular tone, depresses myocardial performance, or interferes with the conducting tissues within the myocardium, its possible incorporation into the a...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Leigh JM

    更新日期:1975-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of changes in electroencephalographic measures during induction of general anaesthesia: influence of the gamma frequency band and electromyogram signal.

    abstract::Recent research has shown that high-frequency, gamma-band electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations (40-60 Hz) may be an important marker of the conscious state. We compared the ability of the bispectral index (BIS) to distinguish the awake and anaesthetized states during the induction of general anaesthesia with: (i...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sleigh JW,Steyn-Ross DA,Steyn-Ross ML,Williams ML,Smith P

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fatal myocardial infarction after lung resection in a patient with prophylactic preoperative coronary stenting.

    abstract::In this report we present the case of a 77-yr-old man who underwent resection of the upper lobe of the left lung for a carcinoma, six weeks after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with stenting of the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex coronary arteries. Antiplatelet therapy with clopido...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marcucci C,Chassot PG,Gardaz JP,Magnusson L,Ris HB,Delabays A,Spahn DR

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • A randomized comparison of midazolam and diazepam for sedation in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    abstract::One hundred and eighty-five patients were allocated at random to receive pethidine with diazepam (in an emulsion), or pethidine with midazolam i.v. as sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sedation and conditions for examination were comparable and satisfactory in both groups. Midazolam produced more amnesia ...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Magni VC,Frost RA,Leung JW,Cotton PB

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Extradural analgesia with clonidine and fentanyl compared with 0.25% bupivacaine in the first stage of labour.

    abstract::Conventional extradural analgesia during labour with 0.25-0.375% bupivacaine may induce motor weakness and subjective sensory deficit, reducing maternal satisfaction. Even in a regimen for ambulatory extradural analgesia (0.1% bupivacaine-fentanyl 2 micrograms ml-1), a potential for proprioreception impairment exists,...

    journal_title:British journal of anaesthesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Buggy DJ,MacDowell C

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00