Value and limitations of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in the management of type 1 diabetes.


:The CGMS (Continuous Glucose Monitoring System) is a portable device allowing continuous measuring of glucose. It provides recordings of at least 72 h, during which 288 measures/day are performed. Results are visualised in the form of a set of curves, illustrating the variations in blood glucose levels over time. The quality of the records has often been questioned by several authors. Some of the system's physiologically related limitations can be explained by the less than perfect coincidence of variations in glucose levels observed in the interstitial tissue, where CGMS measurings are done, and in the blood, where calibrations are performed. Other limitations, such as defects in accuracy or in reproducibility of tracings or premature curtailments of recordings, are due to technical weaknesses which were considerably improved during the past few years, particularly with regard to the quality of the electrodes providing a more stable signal over time. In clinical practice, CGMS is a tool for investigating the glycaemic patterns of diabetic patients in conjonction with SMBG. It allows the identification of overlooked hyper- or hypoglycaemia. Generally well accepted, it is a usefull tool to analyse the nocturnal period, or any situation where glucose checks are rare. The visual nature of its results provides a facilitating support in the discussion between the patient and the care-provider during consultations or educational sessions. CGMS utilisation was proposed for guiding treatment adjustment. At present, it is still difficult to state with certainty that this tool allows effective improvement in the metabolic control of patients with type 1 diabetes, in view of the paucity of controlled studies showing an impact on HbA1c values or on the frequency of hypoglycaemia, even if such a tendency emerges from most non-controlled intervention trials.


Diabetes Metab


Diabetes & metabolism


Melki V,Ayon F,Fernandez M,Hanaire-Broutin H




Has Abstract


2006-04-01 00:00:00














  • Added benfluorex in obese insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::To determine the effect of benfluorex on glycaemic control in obese insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetes, 76 patients (aged 53.8 +/- 12.8 years) receiving insulin (> or = 0.5 IU/kg) and an appropriate low-calorie diet were evaluated after a 1-month run-in followed by a 3-month double-blind treatment period (3 tablets dai...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Leutenegger M,Bauduceau B,Brun JM,Guillon-Metz F,Martin C,Nicolino-Peltier C,Richard JL,Vannereau D

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in type 1 diabetic patients.

    abstract:AIMS:The objective of the present investigation was to study the production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IFNgamma and TNFalpha in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) taken from type 1 diabetic patients with inadequate metabolic control. METHODS:Seventeen type 1 diabetic patients and a gender- and age-matche...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foss NT,Foss-Freitas MC,Ferreira MA,Cardili RN,Barbosa CM,Foss MC

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Elevated serum uric acid predicts impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes only among Japanese women undergoing health checkups.

    abstract:AIM:This study assessed whether or not elevated serum uric acid can predict impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japanese people undergoing health checkups. METHODS:Altogether, 7114 male and 5529 female participants in both 2000 and 2005 were targeted for the study. After excluding tho...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamada T,Fukatsu M,Suzuki S,Wada T,Joh T

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes in Africans. Part 1: epidemiology and clinical specificities.

    abstract::The prevalence of diabetes in African communities is increasing with ageing of the population and lifestyle changes associated with rapid urbanisation and westernisation. Traditional rural communities still have very low prevalence, at most 1-2%, except in some specific high-risk groups, whereas 1-13% or more adults i...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sobngwi E,Mauvais-Jarvis F,Vexiau P,Mbanya JC,Gautier JF

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • "Big IGF-II"-induced hypoglycemia secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma.

    abstract::Non-islet cell tumor-related hypoglycemia is a rare phenomenon. We report the case of a 63 Year-old man admitted for hemiparesia and a capillary blood glucose of 20 mg/dL. The presence of an immature form of IGF-II that can mimic the effect of insulin, namely "big IGF-II", explained this patient's hypoglycaemia. A mod...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morbois-Trabut L,Maillot F,De Widerspach-Thor A,Lamisse F,Couet C

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors in Caribbean patients with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:AIM:The prevalence of diabetes in the French West Indies is three times higher than in mainland France. We aimed to assess the associations between vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors in Caribbean patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:In this cross-s...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vélayoudom-Céphise FL,Larifla L,Donnet JP,Maimaitiming S,Deloumeaux J,Blanchet A,Massart C,Munoz-Bellili N,Merle S,Chout R,Bonnet F,Foucan L

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Type 1 diabetes control and pregnancy outcomes in women treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or with insulin glargine and multiple daily injections of rapid-acting insulin analogues (glargine-MDI).

    abstract:AIM:The best way to treat pregnant patients who have type 1 diabetes is still unclear. For this reason, the present study compared metabolic control and maternal-fetal outcomes in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous infusions of rapid-acting insulin analogues (CSII) or with insulin glargine and multiple daily...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Bruttomesso D,Bonomo M,Costa S,Dal Pos M,Di Cianni G,Pellicano F,Vitacolonna E,Dodesini AR,Tonutti L,Lapolla A,Di Benedetto A,Torlone E,Italian Group for Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Pregnancy.

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of non-inert material in needles and cartridges following a single insulin injection with a pen.

    abstract::Preliminary results of an observational study are described in 50 unselected diabetic patients treated with insulin pens. The study was conducted to detect the presence of unexpected material in needles and cartridges after a single insulin injection. The injection was done by a trained nurse with the patient's usual ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Le Floch JP,Herbreteau C,Lange F,Perlemuter L

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Balance of substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise in lean and obese people.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To compare fat and carbohydrate oxidation at different exercise intensities between overweight and normal-weight subjects, in order to analyze the influence of muscular metabolic abnormalities in obese people on substrate utilization during exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS:32 healthy sedentary overweight subj...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pérez-Martin A,Dumortier M,Raynaud E,Brun JF,Fédou C,Bringer J,Mercier J

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Renal involvement is related to body height in newly diagnosed diabetic women aged 40 years or over.

    abstract::We scrutinized the relation between body height and renal involvement in a large population-based sample of newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over. The urinary albumin concentration (UAC) was measured in freshly voided morning urine in 1,284 newly diagnosed diabetic patients. The course of insulin tre...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Olivarius Nde F,Vestbo E,Andreasen AH,Mogensen CE

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Trimethylamine N-oxide levels are associated with NASH in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:AIMS:Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), choline and betaine serum levels have been associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These associations could be mediated by insulin resistance. However, the relationships among these metabolites, insulin resista...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: León-Mimila P,Villamil-Ramírez H,Li XS,Shih DM,Hui ST,Ocampo-Medina E,López-Contreras B,Morán-Ramos S,Olivares-Arevalo M,Grandini-Rosales P,Macías-Kauffer L,González-González I,Hernández-Pando R,Gómez-Pérez F,Campos-Pérez F,

    更新日期:2020-08-10 00:00:00

  • Management of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: guidelines of the French-Speaking Diabetes Society (Société francophone du diabète [SFD]).

    abstract:AIM:The clinical guidelines reported by the French-Speaking Diabetes Society (Société francophone du diabète) include updated recommendations for preconceptual planning and care in the management of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS:The working group included diabetologists, as well as a...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Bismuth E,Bouche C,Caliman C,Lepercq J,Lubin V,Rouge D,Timsit J,Vambergue A,French-Speaking Diabetes Society.

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300U/mL versus insulin glargine 100U/mL in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes: 12-month results from the EDITION 3 trial.

    abstract:AIM:To explore if efficacy and safety findings for insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) versus insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100), observed over 6 months in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, are maintained after 12 months. METHODS:EDITION 3 was a phase 3a, randomized, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, tr...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Bolli GB,Riddle MC,Bergenstal RM,Wardecki M,Goyeau H,Home PD,EDITION 3 study investigators.

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Role of fatty liver in the association between obesity and reduced hepatic insulin clearance.

    abstract:AIM:Hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) is important in regulating plasma insulin levels. Diminished HIC causes inappropriate hyperinsulinaemia, and both obesity and fatty liver (FL), which are known to decrease HIC, can be found either together in the same patient or on their own. The mechanism by which obesity reduces HI...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsubayashi Y,Yoshida A,Suganami H,Ishiguro H,Yamamoto M,Fujihara K,Kodama S,Tanaka S,Kaku K,Sone H

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Polymorphism of stress protein HSP70-2 gene in Tunisians: susceptibility implications in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Several studies have shown statistical evidence of linkage between obesity and the chromosomal region encompassing the TNFalpha gene, suggesting...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zouari Bouassida K,Chouchane L,Jellouli K,Chérif S,Haddad S,Gabbouj S,Danguir J

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Vasopressin and urinary concentrating activity in diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::In diabetes mellitus (DM), the high urine flow rate suggests that urinary concentrating capacity is impaired. However, several studies have shown that vasopressin is elevated in DM and the consequences of this elevation have not yet been characterized. This study reevaluated renal function and water handling in male W...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahloulay M,Schmitt F,Déchaux M,Bankir L

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus: prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    abstract::The mechanisms of chronic diarrhoea, a frequent symptom in diabetes mellitus, are multifactorial and complex, although small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and autonomic neuropathy seem to play a major role. This study evaluated the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and the effects of antibiotic tre...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Virally-Monod M,Tielmans D,Kevorkian JP,Bouhnik Y,Flourie B,Porokhov B,Ajzenberg C,Warnet A,Guillausseau PJ

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Activities of cyclooxygenases, and levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha, in fetopathy associated with experimental diabetic gestation.

    abstract:AIM:The present study investigated the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway to elucidate any changes that may be involved in the mechanism(s) underlying diabetic fetopathy. METHODS:Diabetes was induced in female rats (n=12) by two successive daily injections of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin, while control animals (n=10) were inject...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Matubsi HY,Salim MD,El-Sharaky AS,Kamel MA,Oriquat GA,Helmy MH,El-Bassiouni EA,Shourbaji M

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Factors related to CSII compliance.

    abstract::Many studies have demonstrated the metabolic efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and particularly a reduction of glycaemic fluctuations in type 1 diabetic patients. Despite this benefit, many patients decide to discontinue the use of CSII. To determine the factors related to discontinuation of ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ronsin O,Jannot-Lamotte MF,Vague P,Lassman-Vague V

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Disability and quality of life in elderly people with diabetes.

    abstract::To implement preventive policies of disability in older diabetic people, the role of diabetes in the disablement process should be investigated. Diabetes mellitus is consistently associated with a higher prevalence of disability at all states, as well as with a progression in disability states and may be considered as...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bourdel-Marchasson I,Helmer C,Fagot-Campagna A,Dehail P,Joseph PA

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of a thioredoxin peroxidase in insulin-producing cells.

    abstract::The presence of thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), also known as thiol specific antioxidant (TSA), was investigated in neonatal and adult rat islets, and in the beta-cell line HIT-T15. Western blotting of extracts from neonatal and adult pancreatic islets and from the tumoral cell line HIT-T15 revealed the presence of a 25...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boschero AC,Stoppiglia LF,Collares-Buzato CB,Bosqueiro JR,Delghingaro-Augusto V,Leite A,Carvalho CP,Netto LE,Carneiro EM

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of short-term modest weight loss on fasting and post-prandial lipoprotein sub-fractions in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We assessed the efficacy of a modest weight loss (1.5 +/- 0.3 kg) and simultaneous rapid improvement in glycemic control on fasting an post-prandial lipoprotein sub-fractions in nine overweight (BMI=28 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) well controlled Type 2 diabetic patients (HbA(1c)=7.3 +/- 0.1%). MATERIAL AND METHODS:They...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ybarra J,James RW,Makoundou V,Bioletto S,Golay A

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Incretin-based therapy in combination with basal insulin: a promising tactic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    abstract::Incretin therapies such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have become well-established treatments for type 2 diabetes. Both drug classes reduce blood glucose through physiological pathways mediated by the GLP-1 receptor, resulting in glucose-dependent enhancement of ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vora J,Bain SC,Damci T,Dzida G,Hollander P,Meneghini LF,Ross SA

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • The metabolic syndrome and cancer: Is the metabolic syndrome useful for predicting cancer risk above and beyond its individual components?

    abstract:AIMS:The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if the MetS confers a greater cancer risk than the sum of its individual components, which components drive the association, or if the MetS predicts future cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We linked 20,648 participants from the ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harding J,Sooriyakumaran M,Anstey KJ,Adams R,Balkau B,Briffa T,Davis TM,Davis WA,Dobson A,Giles GG,Grant J,Knuiman M,Luszcz M,Mitchell P,Pasco JA,Reid C,Simmons D,Simons L,Tonkin A,Woodward M,Shaw JE,Magliano DJ

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • NOD1 activation induces innate immune responses and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    abstract:AIMS:The innate immune-receptor nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) protein recognizes intracellular bacterial peptidoglycan. Activation of the innate immune system contributes to the development and progression of insulin resistance. The present study aimed to determine the presence of NOD1 and NOD2 in human adipo...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou YJ,Zhou H,Li Y,Song YL

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes and human leucocyte antigens.

    abstract::The association of diabetes with HLA class I alleles in the early 1970s and with HLA class II alleles in the late 1970s provided a crucial, though indirect, indication of the role of immune phenomena in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Genotyping of HLA alleles in the mid-1980s opened up ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boitard C,Caillat-Zucman S,Timsit J

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome on 10-year incidence of diabetes: the ATTICA study.

    abstract:AIM:The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on the 10-year diabetes incidence. METHODS:In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-89 years old) and 1528 women (18-87 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study (Athens metropolitan area, Greece). Amon...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koloverou E,Panagiotakos DB,Pitsavos C,Chrysohoou C,Georgousopoulou EN,Metaxa V,Stefanadis C,ATTICA Study group.

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Consensus statement on the care of the hyperglycaemic/diabetic patient during and in the immediate follow-up of acute coronary syndrome.

    abstract::The Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease study group of the Société francophone du diabète (SFD, French Society of Diabetes) in collaboration with the Société française de cardiologie (SFC, French Society of Cardiology) have devised a consensus statement on the care of the hyperglycaemic/diabetic patient during and in ...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Vergès B,Avignon A,Bonnet F,Catargi B,Cattan S,Cosson E,Ducrocq G,Elbaz M,Fredenrich A,Gourdy P,Henry P,Lairez O,Leguerrier AM,Monpère C,Moulin P,Vergès-Patois B,Roussel R,Steg G,Valensi P,Diabetes and Cardiovascula

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bone density and markers of bone remodeling in type 1 male diabetic patients.

    abstract:AIMS:To assess the prevalence and severity of bone disease in type 1 diabetic patients and to determine serum markers of bone remodeling as well as their relationship with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS:BMD [by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and serum markers of bone remodeling [osteocalcin, c-terminal t...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexopoulou O,Jamart J,Devogelaer JP,Brichard S,de Nayer P,Buysschaert M

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of HbA1c concentrations in patients with acute myocardial infarction: comparison of the DCA 2000 device with the HPLC method.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent studies suggest that HbA1c is an important predictor of the glycometabolic state of patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). OBJECTIVE:We aimed at comparing the results of HbA1c concentrations obtained by 2 different methods in patients with AMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In a firs...

    journal_title:Diabetes & metabolism

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hadjadj S,Duengler F,Barriere M,Mauco G,Coisne D,Warnier F,Sosner P,Torremocha F,Herpin D,Marechaud R

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00