Risk factors for tobacco dependence in adolescent smokers.


OBJECTIVE:To study the incidence of conversion to tobacco dependence (TD) and the prevalence of the TD state in relation to several potential determinants in a sample of adolescent smokers. METHODS:Questionnaires were administered every 3-4 months to document TD symptoms, amount of cigarette consumption, and depression symptoms in a prospective cohort of 1293 grade 7 students in a convenience sample of 10 schools. RESULTS:Over 54 months of follow-up, 113 of 344 novice smokers converted to TD. The referent series for the analysis of incidence comprised 823 person-surveys. The prevalence series included 1673 person-surveys, contributed by 429 smokers. Conversion to TD and TD status were associated with the intensity of recent (that is, past 3-month) cigarette consumption (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 1.97) and adjusted prevalence odds ratio (aPOR) 1.35 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.48) per 100 cigarettes per month), slowest CYP2A6 activity (aIRR 4.19 (95% CI 1.38 to 12.76) and aPOR 2.30 (95% CI 1.29 to 4.09)), depression score (aIRR 1.61 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.21) and aPOR 1.47 (95% CI 1.22, 1.75) per 1-unit change). Additional determinants included, for conversion to TD, time since onset of cigarette use (aIRR 0.76 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.00) per year) and, for the TD state, positive TD status six months ago (aPOR 3.53 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.19)). CONCLUSIONS:TD risk in adolescents is associated with intensity of recent cigarette consumption, while the role of more distant cigarette consumption appears small; subjects with slow nicotine metabolism and those with more depression symptoms are at increased risk of becoming tobacco dependent. The risk of being tobacco dependent is considerably higher in subjects who had previously developed the TD state.


Tob Control


Tobacco control


Karp I,O'Loughlin J,Hanley J,Tyndale RF,Paradis G




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00














  • Tobacco industry litigation to deter local public health ordinances: the industry usually loses in court.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The tobacco industry uses claims of state preemption or violations of the US Constitution in litigation to overturn local tobacco control ordinances. METHODS:Collection of lawsuits filed or threatened against local governments in the USA; review of previously secret tobacco industry documents; interviews wi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nixon ML,Mahmoud L,Glantz SA

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco control advocacy in the age of social media: using Facebook, Twitter and change.

    abstract::The tobacco industry's use of social media sites, such as Facebook, is an emerging area of research; however, this is the first study of the potential for social media to advance tobacco control. This paper presents three case studies of using social media for tobacco control advocacy, demonstrates how social media ca...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hefler M,Freeman B,Chapman S

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Spectrofluorometric method for measuring tobacco smoke particulate matter on cigarette filters and Cambridge pads.

    abstract::Almost all cigarettes sold have a filter (United States, >98%; worldwide, >95%). In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced diverse filters designed to reduce components in tobacco smoke. Today, there exists a need to establish assays to assess the efficacy of cigarette filters to retain total partic...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paszkiewicz GM,Pauly JL

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Current situation and future challenges of tobacco control policy in Thailand.

    abstract::In Thailand, the prevalence of smoking has steadily declined over the past 20 years, suggesting an effective tobacco control policy. However, the prevalence has recently stabilised and youth smoking now appears to be on the rise. Tobacco use is the third highest risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in the...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sangthong R,Wichaidit W,Ketchoo C

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cigarette sales to minors via the internet: how the story has changed in the wake of federal regulation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess how easily minors can purchase cigarettes online and online cigarette vendors' compliance with federal age/ID verification and shipping regulations, North Carolina's 2013 tobacco age verification law, and federal prohibitions on the sale of non-menthol flavoured cigarettes or those labelled or adver...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams RS,Derrick J,Phillips KJ

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Nicotine dependence versus smoking prevalence: comparisons among countries and categories of smokers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To collect available international data on nicotine dependence as defined by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, and to compare levels of dependence among countries and categories of smokers. DATA SOURCES:Published and unpublished studies known to the authors and a search of EMBASE from 1985-1995. ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fagerström KO,Kunze M,Schoberberger R,Breslau N,Hughes JR,Hurt RD,Puska P,Ramström L,Zatoński W

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switchin...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornelius ME,Cummings KM,Fong GT,Hyland A,Driezen P,Chaloupka FJ,Hammond D,O'Connor RJ,Bansal-Travers M

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • The Philip Morris External Research Program: results from the first round of projects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Philip Morris (PM) launched the Philip Morris External Research Program (PMERP) in 2000, two years after the company agreed to the dissolution of two industry-wide, external research programmes: the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) and the Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR). Our previous analysis of PME...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirschhorn N,Bialous SA,Shatenstein S

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Applying toxicological risk assessment principles to constituents of smokeless tobacco products: implications for product regulation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine how information on chemical constituents of different smokeless tobacco products (STPs) may be used in cancer risk assessment for regulatory purposes. METHODS:This study investigated select STP constituents potentially associated with significant cancer risk by applying a known toxicological ris...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ayo-Yusuf OA,Connolly GN

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between electronic cigarette use and quitting behaviours among South African adult smokers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The South African Medicines Control Council classifies e-cigarettes as Schedule 3 substances and requires them to be dispensed only within pharmacies. e-Cigarettes are however ubiquitous and are marketed as cessation aids. We investigated the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among S...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agaku I,Egbe CO,Ayo-Yusuf O

    更新日期:2021-01-15 00:00:00

  • Patterns of smoking in Russia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in Russia but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalen...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKee M,Bobak M,Rose R,Shkolnikov V,Chenet L,Leon D

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the removal of point-of-sale tobacco displays in Ireland.

    abstract:AIM:To evaluate the short-term impacts of removing point-of-sale tobacco displays in Ireland, implemented in July 2009. METHODS:Retailer compliance was assessed using audit surveys in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Using a monthly survey of 1000 adults carried out since 2002, changes in smoking prevalence were assessed; attitud...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McNeill A,Lewis S,Quinn C,Mulcahy M,Clancy L,Hastings G,Edwards R

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Australian smokers' experiences and perceptions of recessed and firm filter cigarettes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While cigarette filter modifications have long been used to increase product appeal and assuage health concerns, tighter marketing restrictions, including plain packaging, have further spurred the growth of filter variants. We explored and assessed experiences and perceptions of smokers who had tried and/or ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wakefield MA,Dunstone K,Brennan E,Vittiglia A,Scollo M,Durkin SJ,Hoek J,Thrasher J,Hatsukami D,Benowitz N,Samet JM

    更新日期:2020-10-28 00:00:00

  • Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. METHODS:Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18-26, in Alameda and San Francisco C...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holmes LM,Ling PM

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • The association of waterpipe tobacco smoking with later initiation of cigarette smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the gateway theory.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:There is a concern that waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) can lead to the later initiation of cigarette smoking, a concept referred to as the 'gateway theory'. The objective of the study was to systematically review the literature for the association of WTS with later initiation of cigarette smoking. METHOD...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Al Oweini D,Jawad M,Akl EA

    更新日期:2019-07-30 00:00:00

  • Economic burden of smoking in Korea.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. METHODS:The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang HY,Kim HJ,Park TK,Jee SH,Nam CM,Park HW

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the internet's broad reach and potential to influence consumer behaviour, there has been little examination of the volume, characteristics, and target audience of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. METHODS:A full-service advertising firm was used to collect all online banner/video advert...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richardson A,Ganz O,Vallone D

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Designated "no smoking" areas provide from partial to no protection from environmental tobacco smoke.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the efficacy of designated "no smoking" areas in the hospitality industry as a means of providing protection from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and whether certain design features assist in achieving this end. METHODOLOGY:In the greater metropolitan region of Sydney, a representative group ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cains T,Cannata S,Poulos R,Ferson MJ,Stewart BW

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. METHODS:Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; r...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thrasher JF,Osman A,Moodie C,Hammond D,Bansal-Travers M,Cummings KM,Borland R,Yong HH,Hardin J

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • E-cigarette users commonly stealth vape in places where e-cigarette use is prohibited.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:'Stealth vaping' is the practice of vaping discreetly in places where electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is prohibited. While anecdotal evidence suggests that stealth vaping is common, there have been no formal studies of the behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine stealth vaping behaviour a...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yingst JM,Lester C,Veldheer S,Allen SI,Du P,Foulds J

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco in prisons: a focus group study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the role of tobacco use in prison and possible influences of the prison environment on smoking among inmates in the context of developing inmate smoking cessation programmes. METHOD:Qualitative study based on seven focus groups with prisoners and ex-prisoners. SETTINGS:A maximum security prison i...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richmond R,Butler T,Wilhelm K,Wodak A,Cunningham M,Anderson I

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of local youth-access regulations on progression to established smoking among youths in Massachusetts.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To test whether community-level restrictions on youth access to tobacco (including both ordinances and enforcement) are associated with less smoking initiation or less progression to established smoking among adolescents. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study of a random sample of adolescents in Massachusetts whos...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomson CC,Hamilton WL,Siegel MB,Biener L,Rigotti NA

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Smoke and mirrors: how Massachusetts diverted millions in tobacco tax revenues.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study examines the politics of appropriating Question 1 tobacco tax revenues in the first budget year after Massachusetts voters passed the ballot initiative in 1992. The initiative increased the tobacco tax on cigarettes by 25 cents per pack and on smokeless tobacco by 25% of the wholesale price. METHO...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ritch WA,Begay ME

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Banning tobacco sponsorship: replacing tobacco with health messages and creating health-promoting environments.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the replacement of Western Australian tobacco sponsorship with health promotion sponsorship by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (known as "Healthway"), following the Tobacco Control Act 1990. DESIGN:Process measures of performance were collected from 25 tobacco replacement proje...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holman CD,Donovan RJ,Corti B,Jalleh G,Frizzell SK,Carroll AM

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Perspectives of US military commanders on tobacco use and tobacco control policy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tobacco use among members of the US military service is unacceptably high, resulting in substantial healthcare and personnel costs. Support of military command is critical to the success of tobacco control policies because line commanders are responsible for implementation and enforcement. This study is the ...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poston WSC,Haddock CK,Jahnke SA,Jitnarin N,Malone RE,Smith EA

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Building capacity for tobacco control research and policy.

    abstract::The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, "International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program" represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low- and middle-income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epid...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stillman F,Yang G,Figueiredo V,Hernandez-Avila M,Samet J

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • "Gone are the days of mass-media marketing plans and short term customer relationships": tobacco industry direct mail and database marketing strategies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these a...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewis MJ,Ling PM

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling the impact of a new tobacco product: review of Philip Morris International's Population Health Impact Model as applied to the IQOS heated tobacco product.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We review the Population Health Impact Model (PHIM) developed by Philip Morris International and used in its application to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market its heated tobacco product (HTP), IQOS, as a modified-risk tobacco product (MRTP). We assess the model against FDA guidelines for MRT...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Max WB,Sung HY,Lightwood J,Wang Y,Yao T

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Are quitting-related cognitions and behaviours predicted by proximal responses to plain packaging with larger health warnings? Findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Implementation of tobacco plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) in Australia had positive effects on responses reflecting the specific objectives of the PP policy and on follow-up quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relationshi...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brennan E,Durkin S,Coomber K,Zacher M,Scollo M,Wakefield M

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To better estimate the burden of toxic cigarette butt waste and create awareness of the hazardous nature of cigarette butts on two large university campuses in San Diego by organizing and conducting student cigarette butt clean-up activities. METHODS:Two separate campus-wide clean-ups were conducted by stude...

    journal_title:Tobacco control

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawdey M,Lindsay RP,Novotny TE

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00