Time-resolved fluorescence studies of genetically engineered Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Effects of ATP on the tryptophan-57 loop.

Abstract:

:Single-tryptophan-containing mutants of low adenylation state Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (wild type has two tryptophans at positions 57 and 158) have been constructed and studied by multifrequency phase/modulation fluorescence spectroscopy. The W57L mutant (retains tryptophan at residue 158) and the W158S mutant (retains tryptophan at residue 57) are both characterized by heterogeneous exponential decay kinetics. Global analysis indicates that for the Mn-bound form of the enzyme at pH 7.4 the fluorescence of both tryptophans is best described by a sum of three discrete expontials with recovered lifetimes of 4.77, 1.72, and 0.10 ns for Trp-57 and 5.04, 2.28, and 0.13 ns for Trp-158. The wild-type enzyme also exhibits decay kinetics described by a triple-exponential model with similar lifetime components. The individual tryptophans are distinguishable by the fractional intensities of the resolvable lifetimes. The wild-type and W158S enzymes are dominated by the 5-ns component which provides nearly 60% and 65%, respectively, of the fractional intensity at five wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum. In contrast, the W57L enzyme demonstrates a larger fraction of the 2-ns lifetime species (60%) and only 35% of the longer lifetime component. The substrate ATP induces a shift to approximately 90% of the 5-ns component for the wild-type and W158S enzymes, whereas the W57L protein is essentially unaffected by this ligand. Steady-state quenching studies with iodide indicate that addition of ATP results in a 3.0-3.5-fold decrease in the apparent Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the wild-type and W158S enzymes. Phase/modulation experiments at several iodide concentrations indicate that the median, 2 ns, lifetime component is selectively quenched compared to the 5-ns lifetime component. These results suggest a model where ATP binding results in a shift in the equilibrium distribution of microconformational states populated by Trp-57. ATP shifts this equilibrium nearly completely to the states exhibiting the long-lifetime component which, based on quenching studies, is less solvent-accessible than the conformational states associated with the other lifetime components.

journal_name

Biochemistry

journal_title

Biochemistry

authors

Atkins WM,Stayton PS,Villafranca JJ

doi

10.1021/bi00228a008

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1991-04-09 00:00:00

pages

3406-16

issue

14

eissn

0006-2960

issn

1520-4995

journal_volume

30

pub_type

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