Site of hemodynamic effects of intrathecal alpha 2-adrenergic agonists.


:Intrathecally administered alpha 2-adrenergic agonists produce analgesia in humans but may also produce hypotension and bradycardia. To further characterize hemodynamic depression produced by intrathecally administered alpha 2-adrenergic agonists, clonidine (100-1,500 micrograms) was injected into the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar intrathecal space of conscious sheep. Only thoracic intrathecal clonidine injection (100 or 300 micrograms) decreased blood pressure, whereas these doses did not affect blood pressure when injected at other sites. A greater clonidine dose (1,500 micrograms) increased blood pressure to a similar degree at all sites. Hypotension after thoracic intrathecal clonidine injection was inhibited by pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (1 mg, intrathecally) or the depleter of acetylcholine stores hemicholinium-3 (2 mg, intrathecally), suggesting an action at alpha 2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons. ST-91, a polar clonidine analog, did not decrease blood pressure after thoracic intrathecal injection. Intrathecal injection of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbamylcholine increased blood pressure. These data describe a complex action of intrathecal alpha 2-adrenergic agonists on hemodynamic parameters that is dependent on site of injection, drug dose, and drug lipophilicity; that can be explained by anatomic factors; and that may possibly be exploited to minimize hemodynamic depression from these agents.






Eisenach JC,Tong CY




Has Abstract


1991-04-01 00:00:00












  • Cardiac and regional hemodynamic interactions between halothane and nitric oxide synthase activity in dogs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In vitro, halothane appears to affect the role played by nitric oxide in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac function. In vivo, the results of the interactions between halothane and the nitric oxide pathway remain controversial. The authors investigated the effects of halothane on the cardiac and reg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chelly JE,Doursout MF,Lechevalier T,Liang YY,Chelly F,Hartley C,Kilbourn RG

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Inhaled nitric oxide after mitral valve replacement in patients with chronic pulmonary artery hypertension.

    abstract::Patients with mitral valve disease can develop pulmonary artery hypertension that persists after mitral valve replacement. In 1987, nitric oxide (NO) was reported to be an important factor accounting for the biologic activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Inhaled NO was subsequently reported to be a selectiv...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Girard C,Lehot JJ,Pannetier JC,Filley S,Ffrench P,Estanove S

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    abstract::Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesth...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Firth PG

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    abstract::The relationship between neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant hyperthermia (MH) was investigated using the in vitro skeletal muscle contracture test to screen for MH-susceptibility in NMS patients. The maximum contracture tension which developed following exposure to halothane (1-3%), and incremental dos...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caroff SN,Rosenberg H,Fletcher JE,Heiman-Patterson TD,Mann SC

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • Selective metabolic activation of the hippocampus during lidocaine-induced pre-seizure activity.

    abstract::Neurophysiologic studies indicate that local anesthetic-induced seizures are generated in subcortical brain structures. The authors utilized a quantitative autoradiographic technique to measure cerebral metabolism during lidocaine-induced seizure activity in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide. Local cerebral metabol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ingvar M,Shapiro HM

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction between sedative premedicants and ketamine in man in isolated perfused rat livers.

    abstract::Premedication with diazepam, hydroxyzine or secobarbital significantly increased ketamine-induced sleep time (137 +/- 3.5 min, 135 +/- 9.2 min, 128 +/- 4.7 min) over that of unpremedicated controls (98.5 +/- 4.4 min) in man. The corresponding mean plasma half-lives (t1/2) of ketamine were longer in patients premedicat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lo JN,Cumming JF

    更新日期:1975-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary uptake of propofol in cats. Effect of fentanyl and halothane.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many drugs are removed by the lung. The pulmonary uptake of one drug can be inhibited when a second, highly accumulated drug is administered parenterally or as a chronic oral treatment. The effect of inhalational anesthetics on pulmonary drug uptake has not been extensively studied and may alter pharmacokine...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matot I,Neely CF,Katz RY,Neufeld GR

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists inhibit the recruitment of opioid-containing leukocytes and impair peripheral antinociception.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Neurokinins (e.g., substance P) contribute to pain transmission in the central nervous system, peripheral neurogenic inflammation, and leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. Leukocyte recruitment involves (1) up-regulation of adhesion molecule expression through neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors on endothelial ce...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rittner HL,Lux C,Labuz D,Mousa SA,Schäfer M,Stein C,Brack A

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Volume kinetic analysis of the distribution of 0.9% saline in conscious versus isoflurane-anesthetized sheep.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The distribution and elimination of 0.9% saline given by intravenous infusion has not been compared between the conscious state and during inhalational anesthesia. METHODS:Six adult sheep received an intravenous infusion of 25 ml/kg of 0.9% saline over 20 min in the conscious state and also during isofluran...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brauer KI,Svensén C,Hahn RG,Traber LD,Prough DS

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of hypothermia in cerebral oxygen deficiency caused by arterial hypoxia.

    abstract::To study the cerebral protective effects of hypothermia in arterial hypoxia, anesthetized (70% N2O), mechanically ventilated rats were cooled to a body temperature of 27 C. Hypoxia was induced by decreasing the oxygen content in the inspired gas mixture either to 6-7 per cent or to 2.5-3 per cent. This reduced mean Pa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carlsson C,Hägerdal M,Siesjö BK

    更新日期:1976-01-01 00:00:00

  • Low-dose propofol-induced amnesia is not due to a failure of encoding: left inferior prefrontal cortex is still active.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. METHODS:Seventeen volunteer participants (12 men; aged 30.4 +/- 6.5 yr) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O positron ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Veselis RA,Pryor KO,Reinsel RA,Mehta M,Pan H,Johnson R Jr

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of myocardial loading conditions in determining the effects of enflurane on left ventricular function in the intact and isolated canine heart.

    abstract::The effect of enflurane (2% and 4% inspired) on left ventricular (LV) function were examined in chronically instrumented dogs, both intact and after isolation of their hearts and lungs from the systemic circulation. Enflurane in the intact dogs increased heart rate (32 +/- 5% with 2% and 41 +/- 4% with 4%) and elicite...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimpfer M,Gilly H,Krösl P,Schlag G,Steinbereithner K

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Amitriptyline for prolonged cutaneous analgesia in the rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Amitriptyline has been reported to be a more potent local anesthetic than bupivacaine. In keeping with the objective of identifying drugs for prolonged cutaneous analgesia, the authors compared the cutaneous analgesic effectiveness of amitriptyline and bupivacaine in rats. METHODS:Rats were subcutaneously i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan MA,Gerner P,Kuo Wang G

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ideal permissive hypotension to resuscitate uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and the tolerance time in rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that permissive hypotension for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock can result in good resuscitation outcome. The ideal target mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the tolerance time for permissive hypotension have not been determined. METHODS:To elucidate the ideal target MAP and tolerance time f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li T,Zhu Y,Hu Y,Li L,Diao Y,Tang J,Liu L

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in electroencephalogram and autonomic cardiovascular activity during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane compared with halothane in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study was design to assess clinical agitation, electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic cardiovascular activity changes in children during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane compared with halothane using noninvasive recording of EEG, heart rate, and finger blood pressure. METHODS:Children aged 2-...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Constant I,Dubois MC,Piat V,Moutard ML,McCue M,Murat I

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative blood loss in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Excessive bleeding often occurs during pediatric scoliosis surgery and is attributed to numerous factors, including accelerated fibrinolysis. The authors hypothesized that administration of tranexamic acid would reduce bleeding and transfusion requirements during scoliosis surgery. METHODS:Forty-four patien...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sethna NF,Zurakowski D,Brustowicz RM,Bacsik J,Sullivan LJ,Shapiro F

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction of neuromuscular blocking effects of neomycin and polymyxin B.

    abstract::Neomycin and polymyxin B produce neuromuscular blocks with distinct features by different mechanisms of action. In eight anesthetized cats the authors studied their interaction by examining the neuromuscular block produced by an equipotent mixture. Values of onset, potency, dose-response relations, duration and revers...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee C,de Silva AJ

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • "Opt Out" and Access to Anesthesia Care for Elective and Urgent Surgeries among U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2001, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a rule allowing U.S. states to "opt out" of the regulations requiring physician supervision of nurse anesthetists in an effort to increase access to anesthesia care. Whether "opt out" has successfully achieved this goal remains unknown. METHODS:...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun EC,Dexter F,Miller TR,Baker LC

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Opioid facilitation of rewarding electrical brain stimulation is suppressed in rats with neuropathic pain.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Opioids are powerful analgesics, but are also common drugs of abuse. Few studies have examined how neuropathic pain alters the pharmacology of opioids in modulating limbic pathways that underlie abuse liability. METHODS:Rats with or without spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were implanted with electrodes into t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ewan EE,Martin TJ

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Differential effects of propofol and sevoflurane on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias and phosphorylated connexin 43 protein in rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The effects of anesthetics on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias remain poorly studied. This study investigated the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on the survival rate and morbidity as a result of ventricular arrhythmias, and defined a possible mechanism for the arrhythmogenic properties of anesth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirata N,Kanaya N,Kamada N,Kimura S,Namiki A

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Resting metabolic rate of the critically ill patient: measured versus predicted.

    abstract::Critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation are particularly susceptible to malnutrition. A knowledge of the energy requirements of these patients is essential in designing nutritional regimens. This study examines 45 resting energy-expenditure measurements performed in a group (n = 40) of postoperative, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weissman C,Kemper M,Askanazi J,Hyman AI,Kinney JM

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Suprascapular and Interscalene Nerve Block for Shoulder Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Interscalene block provides optimal shoulder surgery analgesia, but concerns over its associated risks have prompted the search for alternatives. Suprascapular block was recently proposed as an interscalene block alternative, but evidence of its comparative analgesic effect is conflicting. This meta-analysis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Hussain N,Goldar G,Ragina N,Banfield L,Laffey JG,Abdallah FW

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Does a higher positive end expiratory pressure decrease mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an important component of therapy in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The independent effect of PEEP on mortality is currently unknown. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials com...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Phoenix SI,Paravastu S,Columb M,Vincent JL,Nirmalan M

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in anesthesia-related death and brain damage: A closed claims analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The authors used the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Project database to determine changes in the proportion of claims for death or permanent brain damage over a 26-yr period and to identify factors associated with the observed changes. METHODS:The Closed Claims Project is a structured e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheney FW,Posner KL,Lee LA,Caplan RA,Domino KB

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Biologic Impact of Mechanical Power at High and Low Tidal Volumes in Experimental Mild Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The authors hypothesized that low tidal volume (VT) would minimize ventilator-induced lung injury regardless of the degree of mechanical power. The authors investigated the impact of power, obtained by different combinations of VT and respiratory rate (RR), on ventilator-induced lung injury in experimental m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santos RS,Maia LA,Oliveira MV,Santos CL,Moraes L,Pinto EF,Samary CDS,Machado JA,Carvalho AC,Fernandes MVS,Martins V,Capelozzi VL,Morales MM,Koch T,Gama de Abreu M,Pelosi P,Silva PL,Rocco PRM

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Deficit Accumulation and Phenotype Assessments of Frailty Both Poorly Predict Duration of Hospitalization and Serious Complications after Noncardiac Surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Frailty is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes, but it remains unclear which measure of frailty is best. This study compared two approaches: the Modified Frailty Index, which is a deficit accumulation model (number of accumulated deficits), and the Hopkins Frailty Score, which is a phenotype model...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sonny A,Kurz A,Skolaris LA,Boehm L,Reynolds A,Cummings KC 3rd,Makarova N,Yang D,Sessler DI

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcranial Doppler to Predict Neurologic Outcome after Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To assess the performance of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in predicting neurologic worsening after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. METHODS:The authors conducted a prospective observational study across 17 sites. TCD was performed upon admission in 356 patients (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS], 9 to 15) with...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Bouzat P,Almeras L,Manhes P,Sanders L,Levrat A,David JS,Cinotti R,Chabanne R,Gloaguen A,Bobbia X,Thoret S,Oujamaa L,Bosson JL,Payen JF,Asehnoune K,Pes P,Lefrant JY,Mirek S,Albasini F,Scrimgeour C,Thouret JM,Char

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Benefit versus Severe Side Effects of Opioid Analgesia: Novel Utility Functions of Probability of Analgesia and Respiratory Depression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies integrated opioid benefit and harm into one single function-the utility function-to determine the drug toxicity (respiratory depression) in light of its wanted effect (analgesia). This study further refined the concept of the utility function using the respiratory and analgesic effects of th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roozekrans M,van der Schrier R,Aarts L,Sarton E,van Velzen M,Niesters M,Dahan A,Olofsen E

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Neurologic evaluation of infant and adult rats before and after sciatic nerve blockade.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Only limited data exist comparing differences in sensory function and responses to neural blockade in infant and adult rats. Therefore, the authors sought (1) to compare baseline thermal, proprioceptive, and postural responses in infant, adolescent, and adult rats; and (2) to compare the effects of sciatic n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu D,Hu R,Berde CB

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise produces sensitivity to metocurine.

    abstract::Chronic muscle disuse decreases the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to nondepolarizing relaxants, such as metocurine (MTC). In this study, the authors determined whether chronic conditioning would produce the opposite effect and increase the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to MTC. Five dogs were exercised by daily runni...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gronert GA,White DA,Shafer SL,Matteo RS

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00