Weiss lecture. The dose-rate factor in radiation biology.


:The dose-rate effect has been the topic of extensive radiobiological studies and has important implications in radiation therapy and in the field of radiation protection. Three examples will be discussed: two in radiation therapy and one in protection. First, continuous low dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy may be replaced by pulsed brachytherapy, using a single source moving through the catheters of the implant. This strategy, using a modern computer-controlled afterloading device, would allow better dose optimization and result in a considerable cost saving. Radiobiological data have proved useful in defining the pulse length and pulse frequency that is equivalent to continuous low dose-rate. Second, in the intracavitary treatment of carcinoma of the cervix, a few high dose-rate (HDR) fractions on an outpatients basis can replace the low dose-rate (LDR) treatment that requires the patient to be hospitalized for several days. Radiobiological data can be used to estimate the dose levels at HDR that are equivalent to conventional LDR protocols. Third, it is usually assumed in radiation protection that doses accumulated over a period of time at low dose-rate are less effective biologically than the same dose delivered in a single acute exposure. While this may be true for X- or gamma-rays, radiobiological data indicate that neutrons delivered at low dose or in a series of fractions spread out over a period of time may produce more oncogenic transformation than a single acute exposure. This has important implications in radiation protection.


Int J Radiat Biol


Hall EJ




Has Abstract


1991-03-01 00:00:00












  • Establishing the Japan-Store house of animal radiobiology experiments (J-SHARE), a large-scale necropsy and histopathology archive providing international access to important radiobiology data.

    abstract::Purpose: Projects evaluating the effects of radiation, within the National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), have focused on risk analyses for life shortening and cancer prevalence using laboratory animals. Genetic and epigenetic al...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morioka T,Blyth BJ,Imaoka T,Nishimura M,Takeshita H,Shimomura T,Ohtake J,Ishida A,Schofield P,Grosche B,Kulka U,Shimada Y,Yamada Y,Kakinuma S

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Modification of murine adult haemopoiesis and response to methyl nitrosourea following exposure to radiation at different developmental stages.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the hypothesis that the developmental phase at which an individual encounters radiation damage affects its long-term sensitivity to a subsequent tumourigenic insult. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Either the pregnant C57B16 mouse was exposed to 137Cs gamma-rays at 4 or 15 days post-conception (embryonic ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoyes KP,Hendry JH,Lord BI

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative study of wound infection in irradiated mice.

    abstract::Bacterial infection of simple wounds was studied directly and quantitatively in adult mice given 6.5 Gy 60Co. Three days later, when neutropenia was evident, the skin and the medial gluteus muscle of anaesthetized mice were incised. A suspension of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Stre...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elliott TB,Brook I,Stiefel SM

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • The combined effect of fludarabine monophosphate and radiation as well as gemcitabine and radiation on squamous carcinoma tumor cell lines in vitro.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Despite proven antitumor activity of gemcitabine in chemoradiotherapy of advanced head and neck cancer, many authors refer to severe acute and late local and haematological toxicity. Fludarabine does imply nearly the same mechanisms of action as gemcitabine, inhibiting various enzymes involved in DNA replicatio...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nitsche M,Christiansen H,Hermann RM,Lucke EM,Peters K,Rave-Frank M,Schmidberger H,Pradier O

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of GSM-900 and -1800 signals on the skin of hairless rats. II: 12-week chronic exposures.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this work was to determine whether the cellular components of Hairless-rat skin are affected by a chronic local exposure to non-ionizing radiations of Global Mobile Phone System: GSM-900 or -1800 radiations at specific absorption rate (SAR) 2.5 and 5 W/kg. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A selected part o...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanchez S,Masuda H,Billaudel B,Haro E,Anane R,Lévêque P,Ruffie G,Lagroye I,Veyret B

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • The expression of p53-regulated genes in human cultured lymphoblastoid TSCE5 and WTK1 cell lines during spaceflight.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences; space radiations and microgravity. The 53 kDa tumour suppressor protein (p53) plays a role as a guardian of the genome through the activity of p53-centered signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to clarify the biologi...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahashi A,Suzuki H,Omori K,Seki M,Hashizume T,Shimazu T,Ishioka N,Ohnishi T

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Accumulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase and alternatively spliced mRNAs as a delayed response of HeLa S3 cells following X-ray irradiation.

    abstract:PURPOSE:A key enzyme of polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), is responsive to antiproliferative agents. The role of SSAT in cellular responses to X-ray irradiation was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Exponentially growing HeLa S3 cells were irradiated by X-rays, and mRNA levels for ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mita K,Fukuchi K,Hamana K,Ichimura S,Nenoi M

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer stem cells and radiotherapy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The present work summarises the history and current status of research into the importance of cancer stem cells for radiobiological research and for clinical radiation oncology. An effort is made to differentiate clonogenicity from stemness of cancer cells. CONCLUSION:In radiooncology, cancer stem cells have b...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baumann M,Krause M,Thames H,Trott K,Zips D

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of structural and numerical chromosomal anomalies at the first, second, and third mitosis after irradiation of one-cell mouse embryos with X-rays or neutrons.

    abstract::One-cell mouse embryos were irradiated with X-rays or neutrons. Analysis of the first, second, and third postradiation mitoses revealed that the yields of structural aberrations increased linearly after exposure to both radiation qualities. For X-rays the aberration frequency decreased from the first to the third mito...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weissenborn U,Streffer C

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation-induced diploid spermatids in mice.

    abstract::Diploid elongated spermatids of mice were enriched by flow cytometry and cell sorting using a new type of sorter (Partec). The sorted abnormal spermatids were identified morphologically and by nuclear area integration. The radiation-induced increase in the frequency of diploid elongated spermatids was monitored with t...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hacker-Klom U,Heiden T,Otto FJ,Mauro F,Göhde W

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of low doses of gamma-irradiation on mouse skin collagen fibrils.

    abstract::The structure of mouse skin collagen fibrils after treatment with 0.5, 1 and 2.5 Gy gamma-irradiation was studied by electron microscopy. Animals were sacrificed 1, 4 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Although there were areas where the normal parallel packing of fibrils was retained in some regions packing was interrupt...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tzaphlidou M,Kounadi E,Leontiou I,Matthopoulos DP,Glaros D

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of UV-induced G1 arrest by exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields in repair-proficient and -deficient yeast strains.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess the possibility that extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields obstruct the damage repair process, the gene conversion frequency and cell cycle kinetics in a DNA repair-proficient and nucleotide excision repair (NER)-deficient strain of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MATERIALS AND METHOD...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takashima Y,Ikehata M,Miyakoshi J,Koana T

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mutagenic effects of 5-formyluracil on a plasmid vector during replication in Escherichia coli.

    abstract:PURPOSE:5-Formyluracil (5-foU) is a major derivative of thymine produced in DNA by ionizing radiation and various chemical oxidants. It has been previously shown that 5-foU in template DNA directs misincorporation of nucleotides by DNA polymerases during in vitro DNA synthesis. The present experiments were designed to ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyabe I,Zhang QM,Sugiyama H,Kino K,Yonei S

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ca2+ mobilization is related to the lethal effect of X-irradiation in L5178Y cells.

    abstract::Radiation-resistant L5178Y-R (LY-R) and radiation-sensitive L5178Y-S (LY-S) murine lymphoma cells were X-irradiated and their free Ca2+ concentration was examined with Fura-2 in Ca2(+)-free salt solution. The release of free Ca2+ from intracellular stores was linear between 10 and 60 min after irradiation (1-5 Gy X-ra...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Szumiel I,Sochanowicz B,Buraczewska I

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Increased chromosome aberration levels in cells from mouse fetuses after zygote X-irradiation.

    abstract::Cell cultures derived from skin biopsies of mouse fetuses X-irradiated at the zygote stage (2 Gy) were studied for the presence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. In comparison with cells from control, unirradiated fetuses significantly higher spontaneous frequencies of aberrations per 100 metaphases and aber...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pampfer S,Streffer C

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • High levels of chromosome aberrations correlate with impaired in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA repair in human B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the relationship between the susceptibility of B-chronic lymphoid leukaemia (B-CLL) cells to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, the kinetics of DNA strand-break rejoining, and chromosome damage after exposure to ionizing irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Lymphocytes from B-CLL patients were gamma-ir...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blaise R,Alapetite C,Masdehors P,Merle-Beral H,Roulin C,Delic J,Sabatier L

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic changes in progeny of bystander human fibroblasts after microbeam irradiation with X-rays, protons or carbon ions: the relevance to cancer risk.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Radiation-induced bystander effects have important implications in radiotherapy. Their persistence in normal cells may contribute to risk of health hazards, including cancer. This study investigates the role of radiation quality and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in the propagation of harmful e...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Autsavapromporn N,Plante I,Liu C,Konishi T,Usami N,Funayama T,Azzam EI,Murakami T,Suzuki M

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Alpha particle-induced bystander effect is mediated by ROS via a p53-dependent SCO2 pathway in hepatoma cells.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for the efficiency of radiotherapy but the underlying role of cellular metabolism is widely unknown. The roles of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key effector for respiratory chain, and related signaling factors in α-particle...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li J,He M,Shen B,Yuan D,Shao C

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Preferential tumour accumulation of gold nanoparticles, visualised by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: radiosensitisation studies in vivo and in vitro.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the radiosensitisation of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with an average diameter of 5 nm coated with the gadolinium chelating agent dithiolated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic gadolinium (Au@DTDTPA:Gd) in vitro and in mice bearing tumours (MC7-L1). MATERIALS AND METHODS:In vivo, the gadolinium chelate ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hébert EM,Debouttière PJ,Lepage M,Sanche L,Hunting DJ

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Involvement of bystander effect in suppression of the cytokine production induced by heavy-ion broad beams.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Immune cells accumulate in and around cancers and cooperate with each other using specific cytokines to attack the cancer cells. The heavy-ion beams for cancer therapy may stimulate immune cells and affect on the immune system. However, it is still poorly understood how the immune cells are stimulated by ion-be...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mutou-Yoshihara Y,Funayama T,Yokota Y,Kobayashi Y

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intrinsic radiosensitivity and PLD repair in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    abstract::The response to radiation of seven osteosarcoma cell lines was analysed by in vitro colony-forming assay and compared with that of eight human fibroblast strains. The values of D0, the surviving fraction after 2 Gy (S2Gy), and the mean inactivation dose (D) of osteosarcoma cells in log-phase culture were significantly...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugimoto M,Toguchida J,Kotoura Y,Yamamuro T,Utsumi H

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Critical energies for ssb and dsb induction in plasmid DNA by vacuum-UV photons: an arrangement for irradiating dry or hydrated DNA with monochromatic photons.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Theoretical modelling techniques are often used to simulate the action of ionizing radiations on cells at the nanometre level. Using monoenergetic vacuum-UV (VUV) radiation to irradiate DNA either dry or humidified, the action spectra for the induction of DNA damage by low energy photons and the role of water a...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folkard M,Prise KM,Vojnovic B,Brocklehurst B,Michael BD

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Non-proportional involvement of Chinese hamster chromosomes 3, 4, 8 and 9 in X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To study by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) the involvement of Chinese hamster chromosomes 3, 4, 8, and 9, and their separate chromosome arms in X-ray-induced aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Male embryonic primary cells of Chinese hamster were used and metaphases were collected and scored at 20 h ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao Y,Natarajan AT

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Increased γ-H2AX by exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic fields combined with ionizing radiation, but not hydrogen peroxide, in non-tumorigenic human cell lines.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Genotoxic effects have been considered the gold standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for extremely low frequency time-varying magnetic fields (ELF-MF) remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of ELF-MF on cellular DNA may be sub...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoon HE,Lee JS,Myung SH,Lee YS

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Modification of survival by DNA repair modifiers: a probable explanation for the phenomenon of increased radioresistance.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The low dose (<1 Gy) survival curve of mammalian cells is characterized by a region of hypersensitivity (HRS) followed by increased resistance (IRR). Above 1 Gy, the survival response can be described with a smooth downward-bending curve. Indirect evidence has indicated that the IRR response might reflect an in...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marples B,Joiner MC

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Similarities in the repair kinetics of sublethal and potentially lethal X-ray damage in log phase Chinese hamster V79 cells.

    abstract::We have compared the repair kinetics of X-ray-induced sublethal damage (SLD) and potentially lethal damage (PLD) in V79 cells during postirradiation incubation in growth medium at 37 degrees C. Kinetics of SLD repair were studied by dose fractionation (D1 + D2 = 2 + 2, 4 + 2, 4 + 4, 10 + 4 and 10 + 7 Gy). Kinetics of ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reddy NM,Lange CS

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Etiology of posterior subcapsular cataracts based on a review of risk factors including aging, diabetes, and ionizing radiation.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Since the exact development of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) is poorly understood, we review various risk factors and propose a two-stage etiology for PSCs. METHODS:The biological mechanisms associated with age-related cataracts (primarily nuclear cataracts, cortical cataracts and PSCs) were reviewed ...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richardson RB,Ainsbury EA,Prescott CR,Lovicu FJ

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures are not altered by pre- or post-drug exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate whether pre- and post-drug magnetic field (MF) exposure of 50 Hz, 0.2 mT has any significant effect on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS:MF was generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils. Seizures were induced by PTZ injection intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose o...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Canseven AG,Keskil ZA,Keskil S,Seyhan N

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of in vitro alpha-particle irradiation on osteogenic bone marrow cultures.

    abstract::Murine bone marrow contains osteogenic precursor cells that undergo differentiation during in vitro cultivation. In vitro these cells are potential target cells for alpha-irradiation-induced bone tumour formation. Under defined tissue culture conditions these differentiating cells were directly exposed to alpha-partic...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schoeters GE,Vander Plaetse F,van den Heuvel RL

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Repair of DNA strand breaks at hyperthermic temperatures in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    abstract::The repair of DNA double-strand breaks was measured by pH 7.2 filter elution in cells incubated at 25-45 degrees C either before or after X-irradiation. Exposure to 45 degrees C for 15 minutes immediately prior to X-irradiation significantly increased both the half-time for DNA double-strand break closure and the numb...

    journal_title:International journal of radiation biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warters RL,Axtell J

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00