Influence of exhaled air on inhalation exposure delivered through a directed-flow nose-only exposure system.


:In order to conserve material that is available in limited quantities, "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems have at times been run at flow rates close to the minute ventilation of the animal. Such low-flow-rate conditions can contribute to a decrease of test substance concentration in inhaled air; near the animal nose, exhaled air and the directed flow of exposure air move in opposite directions. With a Cannon "directed-flow" nose-only exposure system (Lab Products, Maywood, NJ), we investigated the extent to which exposure air plus exhaled air can be inhaled by an animal. A mathematical model and a mechanical simulation of respiration were adopted to predict for a male Fischer 344 rat the concentration of test substance in inhaled air. The mathematical model was based on the assumption of instantaneous mixing. The mechanical simulation of respiration used a Harvard respirator. When the system was operated at an exposure air flow rate greater than 2.5 times the minute ventilation of the animal, the concentration of test substance in the inhaled air was reduced by less than 10%. Under these conditions, the circular jet of air exiting the exposure air delivery tube tended to reach the animal's nose with little dispersion. For exposure air flow rates less than 2 times the minute ventilation, we predict that the interaction of exhaled air and exposure air can be minimized by proportionally reducing the delivery tube diameter. These findings should be applicable to similar "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems.


Inhal Toxicol


Inhalation toxicology


Moss OR,James RA,Asgharian B




Has Abstract


2006-01-01 00:00:00














  • Amorphous silica coatings on magnetic nanoparticles enhance stability and reduce toxicity to in vitro BEAS-2B cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Nanoparticles are being rapidly assimilated into numerous research fields and consumer products. A concurrent increase in human exposure to such materials is expected. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique and beneficial features, increasing their functionality and integrative potential. However, MNP ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baber O,Jang M,Barber D,Powers K

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic and vascular effects of circulating diesel exhaust particulate matter.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Numerous studies have found an association between transiently increased particulate matter air pollution and acute adverse cardiovascular health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear. Translocation of ultra-fine ambient particulate matter has been proposed to play a key role...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bai N,van Eeden SF

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for phosgene (CG).

    abstract::The Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures fo...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Glass D,McClanahan M,Koller L,Adeshina F

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Relative contributions of PM2.5 chemical constituents to acute arterial vasoconstriction in humans.

    abstract::Studies have shown associations between acute ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and increases in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported in 24 healthy adults that exposure to concentrated ambient particles plus ozone (CAP + O(3)) caused a mean decrease of 0.09 mm in brach...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Urch B,Brook JR,Wasserstein D,Brook RD,Rajagopalan S,Corey P,Silverman F

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Is PM more toxic than the sum of its parts? Risk-assessment toxicity factors vs. PM-mortality "effect functions".

    abstract::Epidemiology studies of populations living in areas with good air quality report correlations between levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and mortality rates. These associations occur at low PM concentrations that are below current air quality standards. Can such concentrations cause mortality, given the toxicit...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valberg PA

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Direct contact with particulate matter increases oxidative stress in different brain structures.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Several experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the neurological adverse effects caused by exposure to air pollution, specifically in relation to pollutant particulate matter (PM). The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effect of PM in increased concentrations in diffe...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fagundes LS,Fleck Ada S,Zanchi AC,Saldiva PH,Rhoden CR

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Particle toxicology: from coal mining to nanotechnology.

    abstract::Particle research has been historically closely connected to industrial activities or materials, such as coal, asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, and more recently ambient particulate matter (PM). It is the purpose of this review to combine insights and developments in particle toxicology with the historical context o...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Borm PJ

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Are airborne refractory ceramic fibers similar to asbestos in their carcinogenicity?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Animal studies on refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) have led to the suggestion that RCF might resemble asbestos in carcinogenicity. Human data are available to test this hypothesis. METHODS:We compared the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma in 605 men engaged in the manufacture of RCF and followed sinc...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walker AM,Maxim LD,Utell MJ

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Association between air pollution and multiple respiratory hospitalizations among the elderly in Vancouver, Canada.

    abstract::Recurrent events, such as repeated hospital admissions for the same health outcome, occur frequently in environmental health studies. In this study, we conducted an analysis of data on repeated respiratory hospitalizations among the elderly in Vancouver, Canada, for the period of June 1, 1995, to March 31, 1999, using...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fung KY,Khan S,Krewski D,Chen Y

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Radiological progression and lung function decrements among silica-exposed ceramic workers: a longitudinal study.

    abstract::Objectives: This follow-up study set out to evaluate the natural course and radiographic progression of silicosis among ceramic workers and describe the risk factors related with disease progression. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of ceramic workers with silicosis who were referred to our ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karataş M,Gündüzöz M,Büyükşekerci M,Özakıncı OG,Nadir Öziş T

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluating ECG and carboxyhemoglobin changes due to smoking narghile.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study aimed to investigate whether increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) levels and ECG changes, which associated with fatal ventricular dysrhythmias, including increased QT, P-wave and T peak (Tp)-Tend (Te) dispersion, can be detected after smoking narghile, which is a traditional method of smoking tobacco t...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Yıldırım F,Çevik Y,Emektar E,Çorbacıoğlu ŞK,Katırcı Y

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Surfactant protein A, exposure to endotoxin, and asthma in garbage collectors and in wastewater workers.

    abstract::Endotoxin causes an inflammation at the bronchial and alveolar level. The inflammation-induced increase in permeability of the bronchoalveolar epithelial barrier is supposed to cause a leakage of pneumoproteins. Therefore, their concentrations are expected to increase in the bloodstream. This study aimed at examining ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Widmeier S,Bernard A,Tschopp A,Jeggli S,Dumont X,Hilfiker S,Oppliger A,Hotz P

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-response assessment and effect of particles in guinea pigs exposed chronically to diesel exhaust: analysis of various biological markers in pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid and circulating blood.

    abstract::To elucidate dose-response and other effects of diesel particles in guinea pigs chronically exposed to diesel exhaust, various biomarkers for chronic obstructive lung diseases were studied using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood specimens. Guinea pigs were exposed 16 h/day, 6 days/wk, for 6, 12, 18, or 24 m...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishihara Y,Kagawa J

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Thioredoxin mediates remodeling factors of human bronchial epithelial cells upon interaction with house dust mite-stimulated eosinophils.

    abstract::Bronchial epithelial cells exposed to allergens typically secrete chemokines to recruit eosinophils. Persistent inflammation and repair responses result in airway remodeling and irreversible airflow limitation. House dust mite (HDM) is a common allergen causing allergic disorders. Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox protein ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chuang CY,Chang CH,Huang YL

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of polymerized toner on rat lung in chronic inhalation study.

    abstract::In order to evaluate the chronic effect of polymerized toner particles on the lung, inflammation- and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was examined by using the lung tissue of rats subjected to 24 months of toner inhalation exposure. Wistar female rats were divided into four gr...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morimoto Y,Hirohashi M,Kasai T,Oyabu T,Ogami A,Myojo T,Murakami M,Nishi K,Kadoya C,Todoroki M,Yamamoto M,Kawai K,Kasai H,Tanaka I

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of allergies and smoking status on nasal mucosa of hypertrophied turbinates - an immunohistologic analysis.

    abstract::Background: Allergies and smoking are common reasons for nasal mucosa inflammations, which in turn, cause nasal obstructions. Nevertheless, the impact of coexisting allergies and smoking on nasal mucosa inflammation has not been studied.Objectives: To study the impact of smoking with relation to allergies on nasal muc...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warman M,Tiomkin E,Huszar M,Halperin D,Asher I,Cohen O

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • A review of controlled human SO₂ exposure studies contributing to the US EPA integrated science assessment for sulfur oxides.

    abstract::Laboratory studies involving intentional and highly controlled exposures to air pollutants among groups of human volunteers provide valuable information related to the potential health effects of pollutants regulated under the US Clean Air Act. These controlled human exposure studies often provide biological plausibil...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johns DO,Linn WS

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Halomethane-induced cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts and NL20-TA epithelial cells.

    abstract::Halomethanes (HMs) can be formed during the chlorination process to obtain drinking water. In liver cells, HMs had been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic; however, their bioactivation by CYP 2E1 and GSTT1 is required. Although inhalation is the most common pathway of exposure, reports on the toxic effects induced...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nájera-Martínez M,García-Latorre EA,Reyes-Maldonado E,Domínguez-López ML,Vega-López A

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lung antioxidant and cytokine responses to coarse and fine particulate matter from the great California wildfires of 2008.

    abstract::The authors have previously demonstrated that wildfire-derived coarse or fine particulate matter (PM) intratracheally instilled into lungs of mice induce a strong inflammatory response. In the current study, the authors demonstrate that wildfire PM simultaneously cause major increases in oxidative stress in the mouse ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wegesser TC,Franzi LM,Mitloehner FM,Eiguren-Fernandez A,Last JA

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tumorigenicity of cellulose fibers injected into the rat peritoneal cavity.

    abstract::Cellulose fibers, along with many other organic fibers, are durable. Therefore, if inhaled, they have the potential to persist within the lung, and may then cause disease. Here we report the effects of injecting high-purity cellulose fibers into the abdominal cavity of rats. A respirable fraction of cellulose fiber wa...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cullen RT,Miller BG,Clark S,Davis JM

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Respiratory diseases in French cork workers.

    abstract::A cross-sectional study on suberosis was conducted in the Champagne-Ardenne County, France, to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, the level of pulmonary function, and the presence of precipitins against Penicillium frequentans. Thirteen of the 33 workers exposed to cork dust had respiratory symptoms exc...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deschamps F,Foudrinier F,Dherbecourt V,Mas P,Prevost E,Legrele AM,Bellier S,Toubas D

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fine particle deposition within human nasal airways.

    abstract::An original mathematical model describing particle diffusion in human nasal passages is presented. A unique feature of the model is that it combines effects of both turbulent and laminar flows. To account for turbulence, concentration equations written in cylindrical coordinates are first simplified by a scaling techn...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martonen TB,Zhang Z,Yue G,Musante CJ

    更新日期:2003-04-11 00:00:00

  • Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Early Response Protooncogenes, and Activator Protein-1 in Cell Signaling by Asbestos.

    abstract::Cell signaling by pathogenic minerals may initiate the transactivation of genes that are critical to carcinogenesis and fibroproliferative diseases of the lung and pleura. We have shown previously that stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade by asbestos fibers leads to phosphorylation events...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mossman B,Hubbard A,Shukla A,Timblin CR

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results.

    abstract::The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully si...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang CM,Gupta T,Ruiz PA,Wolfson JM,Ferguson ST,Lawrence JE,Rohr AC,Godleski J,Koutrakis P

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic Inflammation and Tumor Formation in Rats After Intratracheal Instillation of High Doses of Coal Dusts, Titanium Dioxides, and Quartz.

    abstract::Coal mine dust's possible carcinogenicity has recently drawn attention because of the IARC review of quartz, some new epidemiological data in German coal miners, and findings on other poorly soluble, nontoxic dusts in the rat. The aim of this study was to investigate persistent inflammation and tumor response in the r...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borm PJ,Höhr D,Steinfartz Y,Zeitträger I,Albrecht C

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    abstract::Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure ...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grasemann H,Tschiedel E,Groch M,Klepper J,Ratjen F

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust impairs mouse spermatogenesis.

    abstract::The effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) was investigated. Twenty pregnant ICR mice were exposed to DE at the particle concentration of 1.0 mg/m3, from d 2 until d 16 postcoitum. Male offspring were kept alive until 12 wk of age, and then male reproductive organ weight, daily sperm production (DSP), seru...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ono N,Oshio S,Niwata Y,Yoshida S,Tsukue N,Sugawara I,Takano H,Takeda K

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Low-level ozone exposure induces airways inflammation and modifies cell surface phenotypes in healthy humans.

    abstract::The effects of low-level ozone exposure (0.08 ppm) on pulmonary function in healthy young adults are well known; however, much less is known about the inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of low-level ozone in the airways. Techniques such as induced sputum and flow cytometry make it possible to examine airways in...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexis NE,Lay JC,Hazucha M,Harris B,Hernandez ML,Bromberg PA,Kehrl H,Diaz-Sanchez D,Kim C,Devlin RB,Peden DB

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Workplace exposure to engineered nanoparticles.

    abstract::Measurement strategies as well as results from measurements at workplaces are presented. Measurements were performed in research laboratories as well as by companies producing small amounts of nanostructured materials. The work was done in the frame of a BAuA (Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin) resear...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plitzko S

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of sarin and cyclosarin toxicity by subcutaneous, intravenous and inhalation exposure in Gottingen minipigs.

    abstract::Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB and GF vapor via whole-body inhalation exposures or to liquid GB or GF via intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Vapor inhalation exposures were for 10, 60 or 180 min. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate t...

    journal_title:Inhalation toxicology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hulet SW,Sommerville DR,Miller DB,Scotto JA,Muse WT,Burnett DC

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00