Insulin in the vitreous of the normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.


:Insulin has been detected by ELISA in the vitreous of the normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rat at levels for both about 1% of those in serum. 131I-labeled insulin, administered to conscious rats via an indwelling cannula in the right atrium, was found to cross the blood-ocular barrier into the vitreous. Autoradiographic gel analysis showed the peptide was transferred as an intact molecule. Vitreous insulin levels reflected serum levels as seen in relatively constant vitreous-to-serum insulin ratios over a wide range of serum insulin concentrations. The rate of blood-to-vitreous passage of insulin was about the same in normal as in diabetic rats (fasting serum glucose greater than or equal to 21 mM). At least a portion of vitreous insulin is therefore of pancreatic origin, and retinal tissue in the normal and diabetic animal is thus accessible to circulating hormone. The blood-ocular barrier is unaltered in streptozotocin diabetes with regard to insulin passage.






Shires TK,Braddock KJ,Pulido JS




Has Abstract


1992-07-01 00:00:00
















  • Isolation and primary structure of VIP from sheep brain.

    abstract::The amino acid sequence of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is well conserved between species. Thus, all mammalian VIPs isolated so far, except that of the guinea pig, have the same amino acid sequence. This study describes the isolation and primary structure of sheep brain VIP. The purification was followe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gafvelin G

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • RISK pathway is involved in oxytocin postconditioning in isolated rat heart.

    abstract::The reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway is a fundamental signal transduction cascade in the cardioprotective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we examined the cardioprotective role of oxytocin as a postconditioning agent via activation of the RISK pathway (PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2)....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Polshekan M,Jamialahmadi K,Khori V,Alizadeh AM,Saeidi M,Ghayour-Mobarhan M,Jand Y,Ghahremani MH,Yazdani Y

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Increased levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and oxytocin during suckling in lactating dogs.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to investigate how suckling influences the plasma levels of oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal peptide in lactating dogs. Blood-samples were drawn from ten lactating beagles during suckling, in week one and week three of the five week long lactation period and the levels of vasoactive ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eriksson M,Lindén A,Stock S,Uvnäs-Moberg K

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential effects of selective opioid peptide antagonists on the acquisition of pavlovian fear conditioning.

    abstract::Pretreatment with opioid antagonists enhances acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The present experiments attempted to characterize the type of opioid receptor responsible for this effect using a procedure that assessed the fear of rats to a chamber previously associated with electric shock (1 mA, 0.75 s). Fre...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fanselow MS,Kim JJ,Young SL,Calcagnetti DJ,DeCola JP,Helmstetter FJ,Landeira-Fernandez J

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diadenosine tetraphosphate stimulates atrial ANP release via A(1) receptor: involvement of K(ATP) channel and PKC.

    abstract::Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs) are endogenous compounds and exert diverse cardiovascular functions. However, the effects of APnAs on atrial ANP release and contractility have not been studied. In this study, the effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) on atrial ANP release and contractility, and their mechani...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yuan K,Cao C,Bai GY,Kim SZ,Kim SH

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a stable chemerin analog with potent activity toward ChemR23.

    abstract::Chemerin is a novel peptide that was identified as a natural ligand for ChemR23. As it has been reported to be involved in the regulation of immune responses and adipogenesis, chemerin may have a variety of physiological functions. Chemerin is synthesized as a precursor (prochemerin) and is proteolytically activated a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimamura K,Matsuda M,Miyamoto Y,Yoshimoto R,Seo T,Tokita S

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation of trichogin, an antifungal protein from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Tricholoma giganteum.

    abstract::An antifungal protein was isolated from the mushroom Tricholoma giganteum var. golden blessings. The protocol included ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Su...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo Y,Wang H,Ng TB

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Somatostatin binding to dissociated cells from rat cerebral cortex.

    abstract::A method has been developed for the study of somatostatin (SS) binding to dissociated cells from rat cerebral cortex. Binding of [125I] [Tyr11]SS to cells obtained by mechanical dissociation of rat cerebral cortex was dependent on time and temperature, saturable, reversible and highly specific. Under conditions of equ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colas B,Prieto JC,Arilla E

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased dynorphin levels and increased kappa opioid receptor binding in male rats with isolation-induced hypertension.

    abstract::The role of hippocampal dynorphin A (1-8) (Dyn A (1-8)) and kappa opioid receptors was investigated in the isolation-induced hypertensive rat (IHR). Male Sprague Dawley rats were either isolated (1 per cage) or grouped (3 per cage) for 7 days. Isolated rats exhibited increased blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 1...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wright RC,McConnaughey MM,Ingenito AJ

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal hypertension induces tissue-specific modulations of the apelinergic system in the fetoplacental unit in rat.

    abstract::Apelin and its receptor APJ are expressed in fetal tissues but their function and regulation remain largely unknown. In rat, maternal treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inducing hypertension was used to investigate apelin plasma levels in mother/fetus pairs and on the gene expression level of the apelin/...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ivars J,Butruille L,Knauf C,Bouckenooghe T,Mayeur S,Vieau D,Valet P,Deruelle P,Lesage J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Intermedin, a novel calcitonin family peptide that exists in teleosts as well as in mammals: a comparison with other calcitonin/intermedin family peptides in vertebrates.

    abstract::Endocrine regulation in vertebrates is critical for the adaptation and regulation of homeostasis. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling transduction system represents one of the most ancient forms of cell surface signaling. Recently, comparative sequence analysis has aided in the identification and pairing o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang CL,Roh J,Hsu SY

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Wasp venom peptides; wasp kinins, new cytotrophic peptide families and their physico-chemical properties.

    abstract::In addition to wasp kinins, the wasp venom contains a series of hydrophobic peptides, mastoparans and chemotactic peptides as major peptidergic components. The first major component in the venom is mastoparam. The peptides in the mastoparan family are tetradecapeptide amides which cause degranulation of the mast cells...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakajima T,Yasuhara T,Uzu S,Wakamatsu K,Miyazawa T,Fukuda K,Tsukamoto Y

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Glucagon receptor signaling in metabolic diseases.

    abstract::Glucagon is a peptide hormone secreted from the pancreatic alpha cells in response to hypoglycemia but in some patients with type 2 diabetes a paradoxical hypersecretion results from the intake of glucose. In rodent, antagonizing the actions of glucagon have been shown to be effective for lowering blood glucose levels...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wewer Albrechtsen NJ

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Receptor-mediated angiotensin II transcytosis by brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    abstract::Angiotensin II (Ang II) uptake and transport across monolayers of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) was demonstrated. Ang II transport was linear up to 2 h, saturable with a K(m) of 1.7 nM, and tended to be polarized with the apical-to-basolateral transport being greater. [3H]Ang II transport was foun...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rose JM,Audus KL

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • A glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide suppresses macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

    abstract::Macrophage foam cell formation, characterized by cholesterol ester accumulation catalyzed by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), is the hallmark of early atherogenesis. We previously demonstrated the suppressive effects of incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic poly...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tashiro Y,Sato K,Watanabe T,Nohtomi K,Terasaki M,Nagashima M,Hirano T

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Caerulein and its analogues: neuropharmacological properties.

    abstract::The decapeptide from the frog Hyla caerulea, caerulein (caerulein diethylammonium hydrate, ceruletide, CER) is chemically closely related to the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8). Like CCK-8, CER and some of its analogues produce many behavioural effects in mammals: inhibition of intake of food and wat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zetler G

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • L-prolyl-l-leucyl-glycinamide and its peptidomimetic analog 3(R)-[(2(S)-pyrrolidylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA) attenuate haloperidol-induced c-fos expression in the striatum.

    abstract::Acute treatment of rats with haloperidol results in a rapid and transient increase in striatal c-fos mRNA and Fos immunoreactivity. The induction of immediate early genes by haloperidol may be involved in the development of extrapyramidal side effects. L-Prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG, or MIF-1) has been observed to...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ott MC,Costain WJ,Mishra RK,Johnson RL

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of [125I]beta-endorphin binding sites in the rat caudal dorsomedial medulla.

    abstract::[125I]beta-endorphin bound to high affinity (Kd = 0.25 nM) receptors in the caudal dorsomedial medulla of rats with a Bmax of 97 fmol/mg protein. The relative potency for displacement of [125I]beta-endorphin binding was: beta-endorphin(1-31) > beta-endorphin(1-27) > DAMGO > naloxone > N-acetyl-beta-endorphin(1-31) > U...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: D'Souza MM,Carr JA

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical mapping of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    abstract::The distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula was investigated using the indirect immunofluorescence technique. In the telencephalon, positive cells and fibers were located in the mid-caudal part of the area superficialis basalis, the n. septi caudoventralis and in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vallarino M,Feuilloley M,Vandesande F,Vaudry H

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intracerebroventricular angiotensin II increases intraoral intake of water in rats.

    abstract::Ad lib and intraoral intake tests can separate the effects of drugs on the appetitive and consummatory phases of ingestive behavior. Central angiotensin II increases ad lib intake from water bottles, but its effect on intraoral intake has not been examined. Rats with both lateral intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houpt TA,Corp ES,Berlin R

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Tachykinergic afferents to the rat arcuate nucleus. A combined immunohistochemical and retrograde tracing study.

    abstract::The location of the cells giving rise to the tachykinergic innervation of the rat arcuate nucleus was studied by combining immunohistochemistry and retrograde axonal transport of a protein-gold complex (WGA-ApoHRP-gold). Small volumes (20 nl) of this marker were injected into the arcuate nucleus of the rat. Twenty-fou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magoul R,Onteniente B,Benjelloun W,Tramu G

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dissociated feeding and hypothermic effects of neuropeptide Y in the paraventricular and perifornical hypothalamus.

    abstract::The present study investigated the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on food intake and body temperature (Tbo) in free-feeding unrestrained rats following injection into the medial hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the lateral perifornical hypothalamus (PFH). NPY (78-235 pmol) or saline was infused unilatera...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Currie PJ,Coscina DV

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcriptional regulation of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene.

    abstract::Activation of natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) produces the second messenger cGMP, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood pressure and cardiovascular homeostasis. In the present study, we have examined the role of trans-acting factor Ets-1 in transcriptional regulation of Npr1 gene (coding for NPRA). Usi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumar P,Arise KK,Pandey KN

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of neuropeptide Y on food intake and brain biogenic amines in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    abstract::Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in mammals, but very little is known about NPY actions in fish. The present study investigated the role of NPY in food intake in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aldegunde M,Mancebo M

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in late auditory evoked potentials induced by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) but not somatostatin (SRIF) after peripheral administration in male controls.

    abstract::To investigate possible influences of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) on auditory perceptional processes, 12 subjects received either placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%), GHRH (50 micrograms), or SRIF (100 micrograms) on different days. Late auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were computed and...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hartmann A,Dietl T,Krumrey K,Vogl L,Dirlich G,Holsboer F,Heuser-Link M

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Functional comparison of two evolutionary conserved insect neurokinin-like receptors.

    abstract::Tachykinins are multifunctional neuropeptides that have been identified in vertebrates as well as invertebrates. The C-terminal FXGXRa-motif constitutes the consensus active core region of invertebrate tachykinins. In Drosophila, two putative G protein-coupled tachykinin receptors have been cloned: DTKR and NKD. This ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poels J,Verlinden H,Fichna J,Van Loy T,Franssens V,Studzian K,Janecka A,Nachman RJ,Vanden Broeck J

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Remarkable inter- and intra-species complexity of conotoxins revealed by LC/MS.

    abstract::Cone snails have evolved an assortment of venom peptides as an evolutionary strategy for rapid prey immobilization and defence. Earlier studies estimated approximately 100 conopeptides per species. In this study we optimized liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of conop...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis J,Jones A,Lewis RJ

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning of BNP from heart and its immunohistochemical localization in the hypothalamus of monkey.

    abstract::Previous physiological studies have suggested central roles of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). However, little information is available about the localization of BNP in the brain. In this study, we determined cDNA sequence encoding the entire coding region of prepro-BNP of Japanese and cynomologus monkeys, and then e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdelalim EM,Takada T,Torii R,Tooyama I

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Neurons containing alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in the cat hypothalamus.

    abstract::Immunohistochemical studies were conducted on sections of cat hypothalamus in order to determine the distribution of neurons containing alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity. A large number of neurons in the arcuate nucleus were stained after incubation of sections with antisera to e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Micevych PE,Elde RP

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • From blood to brain through BBB and astrocytic signaling.

    abstract::In this Festschrift, I discuss the career and guiding principles to which Abba J. Kastin has adhered during the last 20 years we worked together. I briefly describe the history of our joint laboratory group, the context of studies of peptide permeation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and newer developments in th...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Pan W

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00