Antidepressants for smoking cessation.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:There are two reasons to believe antidepressants might help in smoking cessation. First, depression may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal, and smoking cessation sometimes precipitates depression. Second, smoking appears to be due, in part, to deficits in dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, all of which are increased by antidepressants. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant medications in aiding long term smoking cessation. The drugs include bupropion; doxepin; fluoxetine; imipramine; moclobemide; nortriptyline; selegiline; sertraline, tryptophan and venlafaxine. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register which includes trials indexed in Medline, Embase, SciSearch and PsycLit, and other reviews and meeting abstracts. SELECTION CRITERIA:We considered randomized trials comparing antidepressant drugs to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We excluded trials with less than 6 months follow-up. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We extracted data in duplicate on the type of study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. MAIN RESULTS:There was one trial each of moclobemide, sertraline and venlafaxine, two of fluoxetine and nortriptyline, and five trials of bupropion, one of which tested long term use to prevent relapse. Nortriptyline and bupropion both increased cessation. In one trial the combination of bupropion and nicotine patch produced higher quit rates than patch alone. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:Some antidepressants (bupropion and nortriptyline) can aid smoking cessation. It is not clear whether these effects are specific for individual drugs, or a class effect.

authors

Hughes JR,Stead LF,Lancaster T

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD000031

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2000-01-01 00:00:00

pages

CD000031

issue

4

issn

1469-493X

pii

CD000031

pub_type

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