Exploratory spatial analysis of pilot fatality rates in general aviation crashes using geographic information systems.


:Geographic information systems and exploratory spatial analysis were used to describe the geographic characteristics of pilot fatality rates in 1983-1998 general aviation crashes within the continental United States. The authors plotted crash sites on a digital map; rates were computed at regular grid intersections and then interpolated by using geographic information systems. A test for significance was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Further analysis compared low-, medium-, and high-rate areas in relation to pilot characteristics, aircraft type, and crash circumstance. Of the 14,051 general aviation crashes studied, 31% were fatal. Seventy-four geographic areas were categorized as having low fatality rates and 53 as having high fatality rates. High-fatality-rate areas tended to be mountainous, such as the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian region, whereas low-rate areas were relatively flat, such as the Great Plains. Further analysis comparing low-, medium-, and high-fatality-rate areas revealed that crashes in high-fatality-rate areas were more likely than crashes in other areas to have occurred under instrument meteorologic conditions and to involve aircraft fire. This study demonstrates that geographic information systems are a valuable tool for injury prevention and aviation safety research.


Am J Epidemiol


Grabowski JG,Curriero FC,Baker SP,Li G




Has Abstract


2002-03-01 00:00:00












  • Predictors of atherosclerosis in the Honolulu Heart Program. I. Biologic, dietary, and lifestyle characteristics.

    abstract::Of 8,006 men of Japanese ancestry living in Hawaii who were followed from 1966 to 1983 for incident cardiovascular disease, 1,381 died and 290 had a protocol autopsy which included determination of the extent of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta. More than 50 biologic, lifestyle, and dietary character...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reed DM,MacLean CJ,Hayashi T

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Five-year analysis of adenovirus 8 antibody levels in an industrial community following an outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis.

    abstract::Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored for five years with samples from 79 keratoconjunctivitis patients with type 8 adenovirus (AV-8) infection. Geometric mean antibody titers declined from 1:161 at the peak of the epidemic to 1:56 after five years. Computerized analysis of the decline ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hierholzer JC,Sprague JB

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence from nonrandomized studies: a case study on the estimation of causal effects.

    abstract::Although randomized controlled trials are regarded as the gold standard for comparison of treatments, evidence from observational studies is still relevant. To cope with the problem of possible confounding in these studies, investigators need methods for analyzing their results which adjust for confounders and lead to...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmoor C,Caputo A,Schumacher M

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Invited Commentary: The Enduring Role of "Place" in Health-A Historic Perspective.

    abstract::In public health, it has long been observed that "place"-specifically, where one lives-affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of "context" (defined as area characteristics) and "composition" (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cozier YC

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    abstract::This report of the worldwide distribution of two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans was drawn from data on 628 clinical isolates and from data on 97 additional isolates from other laboratories. Tests showed that 100% of the cultures from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Switzerland, and Ja...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kwon-Chung KJ,Bennett JE

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of antibodies to four herpesviruses among adults with glioma and controls.

    abstract::The authors previously reported statistically significant inverse associations between adult onset glioma and histories of chickenpox and shingles among 462 cases and 443 controls in the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study (1991--1995) and a suggestive but nonsignificant inverse association with immunoglobulin G...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wrensch M,Weinberg A,Wiencke J,Miike R,Barger G,Kelsey K

    更新日期:2001-07-15 00:00:00

  • Changes in smoking status affect women more than men: results of the Lung Health Study.

    abstract::Lung Health Study participants were smokers aged 35-60 years with mild lung function impairment who participated in a 5-year, 10-center (nine in the United States, one in Canada) clinical trial in 1986-1994. The authors compared the relation of randomized treatment assignments and of smoking history during the study w...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Connett JE,Murray RP,Buist AS,Wise RA,Bailey WC,Lindgren PG,Owens GR,Lung Health Study Research Group.

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    abstract::Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adams KF,Leitzmann MF,Ballard-Barbash R,Albanes D,Harris TB,Hollenbeck A,Kipnis V

    更新日期:2014-01-15 00:00:00

  • Hispanic origin and neural tube defects in Houston/Harris County, Texas. I. Descriptive epidemiology.

    abstract::High prevalences of anencephaly and neural tube defects (NTDs) have recently been recorded for several Texas counties bordering Mexico. In addition, a few investigators have reported Hispanics to be at elevated risk for NTDs (anencephaly and spina bifida). Factors contributing to this risk have not been established. T...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Canfield MA,Annegers JF,Brender JD,Cooper SP,Greenberg F

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Misclassification bias arising from random error in exposure measurement: implications for dual measurement strategies.

    abstract::Despite the resulting loss of information, continuous exposure variables are often categorized in epidemiologic data analysis. It has been shown that nondifferential measurement error of exposure can lead to differential misclassification under these circumstances. This paper extends these findings to the misclassific...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brenner H,Blettner M

    更新日期:1993-09-15 00:00:00

  • Hormone Therapy Use and Risk of Chronic Disease in the Nurses' Health Study: A Comparative Analysis With the Women's Health Initiative.

    abstract::Observational studies and randomized controlled trials of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and chronic disease risk appear to have divergent results for cardiovascular disease. However, differences may be related to a modifying effect of age, time since menopause, and HT formulation. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhupathiraju SN,Grodstein F,Rosner BA,Stampfer MJ,Hu FB,Willett WC,Manson JE

    更新日期:2017-09-15 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for popliteal and carotid wall thicknesses in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    abstract::The authors evaluated risk factors potentially associated with the development of popliteal artery atherosclerosis in a population-based study and compared them with factors linked to carotid wall intimal-medial thickness. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is a longitudinal investigation of cardiova...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dobs AS,Nieto FJ,Szklo M,Barnes R,Sharrett AR,Ko WJ

    更新日期:1999-11-15 00:00:00

  • Multi-level analysis in epidemiologic research on health behaviors and outcomes.

    abstract::Individual-level health behaviors and outcomes have multi-level determinants (individual and environmental). Multi-level analysis seeks to explain individual outcomes in terms of both individual and environmental or aggregate variables. Ecologic fallacy (improper inference about individual-level associations based on ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Von Korff M,Koepsell T,Curry S,Diehr P

    更新日期:1992-05-15 00:00:00

  • Invited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?

    abstract::Despite the availability of safe and effective measles vaccines since 1963, measles still accounts for approximately 10% of global mortality from all causes among children aged less than 5 years, an estimated 36.5 million cases and 1 million deaths in 1996. Worldwide in 1996, routine coverage with 1 dose of measles v...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Strebel P,Guris D,Papania M,Cochi S

    更新日期:1999-02-15 00:00:00

  • Use of antibiotics and risk of breast cancer.

    abstract::A recent nested case-control study found that increasing use of antibiotics was associated with a significantly elevated risk of breast cancer. The authors attempted to replicate this finding with a similar study design using the General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom. Women aged 30-79 years who were...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García Rodríguez LA,González-Pérez A

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood diabetes, epidemics, and epidemiology: an approach for controlling diabetes. World Health Organization DIAMOND Project Group on Epidemics.

    abstract::The identification of the environmental factors causing insulin-dependent diabetes in children has remained elusive. However, evidence is rapidly accumulating that childhood diabetes exhibits epidemic patterns, much like that seen with an infectious disease. It is likely that within these epidemics the environmental d...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Outward Na-K-Cl cotransport in human red blood cells: a methodological evaluation of method for epidemiologic investigations.

    abstract::The present report evaluates a method for the determination of the maximal velocity of the outward sodium, potassium, chlorine (Na-K-Cl) cotransport in erythrocytes. The loading procedure was carried out using the ionophore nystatin. The technical error for this assay, based on concurrent analysis of randomized blind ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Trevisan M,Canessa M,Laurenzi M,Di Muro MR,De Colle S,Franzese A,Iacone R,De Chiara F

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relation of occupational exposure to respiratory symptoms and asthma in a general population sample: self-reported versus interview-based exposure data.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to examine how the consistency of self-reported exposure to dust or gas, asbestos, and quartz varied between subjects with and those without respiratory symptoms and asthma in a Norwegian community sample () in 1987-1988. Exposure characterization obtained in a structured work history i...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakke PS,Hanoa R,Gulsvik A

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • The performance of three approximate confidence limit methods for the odds ratio.

    abstract::The performance of three approximate confidence limit methods for the odds ratio, R, is studied at the 95% level in the unconditional sample space. There are: the method proposed by Cornfield (Proceedings of the 3rd Berkeley Symposium 1956;4:135-48), the logit method with 1/2 corrections first considered by Woolf (Ann...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gart JJ,Thomas DG

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of age, breast feeding, and household structure on Haemophilus influenzae type b disease risk and antibody acquisition in Alaskan Eskimos.

    abstract::Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease occurs with unusually high incidence in Alaskan Eskimos. In 1983, the authors evaluated the unique susceptibility of the Yupik-speaking Eskimo population in southwest Alaska. A matched case-control design was used to assess the influence of age, breast feeding, and ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Petersen GM,Silimperi DR,Chiu CY,Ward JI

    更新日期:1991-11-15 00:00:00

  • All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in postmenopausal white, black, Hispanic, and Asian women with and without diabetes in the United States: the Women's Health Initiative, 1993-2009.

    abstract::Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (1993-2009; n = 158,833 participants, of whom 84.1% were white, 9.2% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, and 2.6% were Asian), we compared all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in white, black, Hispanic, and Asian postmenopausal women with and without diabetes....

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma Y,Hébert JR,Balasubramanian R,Wedick NM,Howard BV,Rosal MC,Liu S,Bird CE,Olendzki BC,Ockene JK,Wactawski-Wende J,Phillips LS,Lamonte MJ,Schneider KL,Garcia L,Ockene IS,Merriam PA,Sepavich DM,Mackey RH,Johnson KC

    更新日期:2013-11-15 00:00:00

  • The Cornell Medical Index as a predictor of health in a prospective cardiovascular study in Taiwan.

    abstract::As part of a prospective study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged Chinese men in Taiwan, 1820 Chinese males, aged 40--59 years, from the middle and upper socioeconomic classes, were characterized at study entry by a history and physical examination with particular reference to cardiovascular status and by ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weaver CA,Ko YH,Alexander ER,Pao YL,Ting N

    更新日期:1980-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin C deficiency in a population of young Canadian adults.

    abstract::A cross-sectional study of the 979 nonsmoking women and men aged 20-29 years who participated in the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study from 2004 to 2008 was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency and its association with markers of chronic disease in a population of yo...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahill L,Corey PN,El-Sohemy A

    更新日期:2009-08-15 00:00:00

  • Accuracy and reliability of self-measurement of body girths.

    abstract::Because body fat distribution has been recognized as a disease risk factor, practical methods for the measurement of body girths are needed. In two groups of postmenopausal women aged 55-69 years in the upper midwestern United States, the authors examined the reliability and accuracy of self-measurement by mail questi...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kushi LH,Kaye SA,Folsom AR,Soler JT,Prineas RJ

    更新日期:1988-10-01 00:00:00

  • Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.

    abstract::Periconceptional intake of folic acid prevents some neural tube defects (NTDs). Other nutrients may also contribute to NTD etiologies; a likely candidate is choline. Similar to folic acid, choline is involved in one-carbon metabolism for methylation of homocysteine to methionine. The authors investigated whether mater...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shaw GM,Carmichael SL,Yang W,Selvin S,Schaffer DM

    更新日期:2004-07-15 00:00:00

  • Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth.

    abstract::Whether caffeine consumption during pregnancy represents a fetal hazard remains uncertain. The authors report on a large prospective study designed to examine this question. In 1996-2000, 2,291 mothers with singleton livebirths in Connecticut and Massachusetts were evaluated after their first prenatal visit and were q...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bracken MB,Triche EW,Belanger K,Hellenbrand K,Leaderer BP

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of a small set of ancestral informative markers for control of population admixture in African Americans.

    abstract::Confounding due to population stratification is a potential source of concern in population-based genetic association studies, particularly in recently admixed populations such as African Americans. Several methods have been developed to control for population stratification in the context of genome-wide association s...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Ruiz-Narváez EA,Rosenberg L,Wise LA,Reich D,Palmer JR

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood infections and adult height in monozygotic twin pairs.

    abstract::Adult height is determined by genetics and childhood nutrition, but childhood infections may also play a role. Monozygotic twins are genetically matched and offer an advantage when identifying environmental determinants. In 2005-2007, we examined the association of childhood infections with adult height in 140 height-...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hwang AE,Mack TM,Hamilton AS,Gauderman WJ,Bernstein L,Cockburn MG,Zadnick J,Rand KA,Hopper JL,Cozen W

    更新日期:2013-08-15 00:00:00

  • Self-reported life satisfaction and 20-year mortality in healthy Finnish adults.

    abstract::The authors investigated the role of self-reported life satisfaction in mortality with a prospective cohort study (1976-1995). A nationwide sample of healthy adults (18-64 years, n = 22,461) from the Finnish Twin Cohort responded to a questionnaire about life satisfaction and known predictors of mortality in 1975. A s...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koivumaa-Honkanen H,Honkanen R,Viinamäki H,Heikkilä K,Kaprio J,Koskenvuo M

    更新日期:2000-11-15 00:00:00

  • Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake.

    abstract::Experimentally, high-carbohydrate diets have been shown to elevate triglycerides, but it has not been established whether this rise is permanent or transient. The authors approached this question by studying 719 boys from worldwide populations with marked differences in long-term carbohydrate intake. Fasting serum tri...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: West CE,Sullivan DR,Katan MB,Halferkamps IL,van der Torre HW

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00