A longitudinal study of an endemic disease in its wildlife reservoir: cowpox and wild rodents.


:Cowpox is an orthopoxvirus infection endemic in European wild rodents, but with a wide host range including human beings. In this longitudinal study we examined cowpox in two wild rodent species, bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus and wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus, to investigate the dynamics of a virus in its wild reservoir host. Trapping was carried out at 4-weekly intervals over 3 years and each animal caught was uniquely identified, blood sampled and tested for antibodies to cowpox. Antibody prevalence was higher in bank voles than in wood mice and seroconversion varied seasonally, with peaks in autumn. Infection was most common in males of both species but no clear association with age was demonstrated. This study provides a model for studying other zoonotic infections that derive from wild mammals since other approaches, such as one-off samples, will fail to detect the variation in infection and thus, risk to human health, demonstrated here.


Epidemiol Infect


Hazel SM,Bennett M,Chantrey J,Bown K,Cavanagh R,Jones TR,Baxby D,Begon M




Has Abstract


2000-06-01 00:00:00












  • Microbiological and clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by the hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Korea.

    abstract::Hypermucoviscous (HV) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been linked to virulence potential in experimental infections. We examined 33 isolates of K. pneumoniae from patients with bacteraemia for the HV phenotype on agar culture, and determined their virulence potential by screening for capsular (K) serotype by po...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung SW,Chae HJ,Park YJ,Yu JK,Kim SY,Lee HK,Lee JH,Kahng JM,Lee SO,Lee MK,Lim JH,Lee CH,Chang SJ,Ahn JY,Lee JW,Park YG

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • The changing epidemiological pattern of hepatitis A in England and Wales.

    abstract::Sera from an age-stratified sample of 4188 individuals, submitted for diagnostic purposes to 15 public health laboratories in England and Wales in 1996, were tested for hepatitis A antibody. The serological profiles were consistent with declining incidence in the past. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the serol...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris MC,Gay NJ,Hesketh LM,Morgan-Capner P,Miller E

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Crohn's disease in people exposed to clinical cases of bovine paratuberculosis.

    abstract::Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), the cause of ruminant paratuberculosis, has been proposed as the causative agent of Crohn's disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to clinical cases of bovine paratuberculosis was a risk factor for Crohn's disease. A questionnaire w...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones PH,Farver TB,Beaman B,Cetinkaya B,Morgan KL

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • The seroprevalance of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in people living in the same environment with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever patients in an endemic region in Turkey.

    abstract::Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Turkey, and since 2004 many cases have been reported from different regions of Turkey. There are limited data about the seroprevalence of the disease in household members of patients or persons sharing the same environment. We evaluated seroprevalence of CCHF in th...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koksal I,Yilmaz G,Aksoy F,Erensoy S,Aydin H

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Shedding of norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.

    abstract::Norovirus is the most frequent cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis and it is difficult to control in crowded environments like hospitals and nursing homes. Transmission depends on oral intake of virus deposited in the environment by infectious subjects. Data from volunteer studies indicate that virus concentrati...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teunis PF,Sukhrie FH,Vennema H,Bogerman J,Beersma MF,Koopmans MP

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • A dot-blot hybridization procedure for the detection of astrovirus in stool samples.

    abstract::We have developed a nucleic acid dot-blot hybridization test for the detection of astroviruses in stool samples. The test was not as sensitive as electron microscopy for the detection of low numbers of well preserved astrovirus particles, but was able to identify astroviruses in stools containing particles of indistin...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willcocks MM,Carter MJ,Silcock JG,Madeley CR

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Host-microflora interaction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): colonization resistance of the indigenous bacteria of the intestinal tract.

    abstract::Experimental data suggest a role for the microflora in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Anti-ds-DNA antibodies may be pathogenic in SLE by forming immune complexes with DNA. Foreign bacteria in the intestines could constitute the stimulus for anti-ds-DNA antibody production in SLE. Colonization Resistance (CR) is t...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Apperloo-Renkema HZ,Bootsma H,Mulder BI,Kallenberg CG,van der Waaij D

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pigs with highly prevalent antibodies to human coronavirus and swine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus in the Tohoku District of Japan.

    abstract::From 1985 to 1988, a total of 2496 swine sera from 60 farms in the Tohoku District of the Honshu Island of Japan were examined for antibodies to swine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), human coronavirus (HCV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to HEV 67N s...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirano N,Suzuki Y,Haga S

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluating vaccination strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease: a model comparison study.

    abstract::Simulation models can offer valuable insights into the effectiveness of different control strategies and act as important decision support tools when comparing and evaluating outbreak scenarios and control strategies. An international modelling study was performed to compare a range of vaccination strategies in the co...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roche SE,Garner MG,Sanson RL,Cook C,Birch C,Backer JA,Dube C,Patyk KA,Stevenson MA,Yu ZD,Rawdon TG,Gauntlett F

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Seroprevalence and force of infection of varicella-zoster virus in Luxembourg.

    abstract::A serological prevalence survey was carried out in Luxembourg during 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against vaccine-preventable infections including varicella-zoster virus (VZV). ELISA tests performed on 2679 sera indicated that 96 (3.6%) of the study population were seronegati...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mossong J,Putz L,Schneider F

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    abstract::A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Almeida LM,Werneck GL,Cairncross S,Coeli CM,Costa MC,Coletty PE

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of mumps antibodies in the Israeli population in relation to mumps vaccination policy and incidence of disease.

    abstract::We examined the prevalence of mumps antibodies in the Israeli population in relation to mumps vaccination policy and past and subsequent incidence of disease. The levels of specific IgG antibodies against mumps were tested in 3330 residual sera collected during 1997-1998 from an age-stratified population sample. Again...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muhsen Kh,Aboudy Y,Mendelson E,Green MS,Cohen D

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Attribution of human Salmonella infections to animal and food sources in Italy (2002-2010): adaptations of the Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models.

    abstract::The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combin...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mughini-Gras L,Barrucci F,Smid JH,Graziani C,Luzzi I,Ricci A,Barco L,Rosmini R,Havelaar AH,VAN Pelt W,Busani L

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiological investigations on the potential transmissibility of a rare disease: the case of atypical scrapie in Great Britain.

    abstract::Multiple cases of atypical scrapie in the same holding and co-existence with classical scrapie have been reported in Great Britain. A two-stage simulation tool was developed by combining a sampling algorithm and a hierarchical Bayesian model to simulate the number of positive cases of atypical scrapie from: (i) random...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ortiz-Peláez A,Arnold ME,Vidal-Diez A

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of Salmonella transmission on a British pig grower-finisher farm: a stochastic model.

    abstract::Previous modelling studies have estimated that between 1% and 10% of human salmonella infections are attributable to pig meat consumption. In response to this food safety threat the British pig industry have initiated a salmonella monitoring programme. It is anticipated that this programme will contribute to achieving...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hill AA,Snary EL,Arnold ME,Alban L,Cook AJ

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, as the cause of an outbreak in a boys' school previously called psittacosis.

    abstract::Sera from an outbreak of acute respiratory illness in a boys boarding school originally thought to have been due to psittacosis (1) have been re-examined and evidence is presented that suggests that the outbreak was caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR (2). ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pether JV,Wang SP,Grayston JT

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs.

    abstract::Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms, including wind. Simulation models, developed to predict the risk of airborne spread, have played an important part in decision making in some outbreaks. The amount of airborne virus excreted as well as the minimal infectious dose (MID) of FM...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexandersen S,Donaldson AI

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation between electrophoretic types B1 and B2 of carboxylesterase B and host-dependent factors in Escherichia coli septicaemia.

    abstract::Electrophoretic types B1 and B2 of carboxylesterase B produced by strains of Escherichia coli isolated from 100 septicaemia cases were correlated with alpha-haemolysin and mannose resistant haemagglutinin (MRHA) production and with clinical data including eventual underlying diseases, origin of septicaemia and evoluti...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Picard B,Goullet P

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, south India: 2. Epidemiological evaluation of the effect of vector control.

    abstract::This article examines the evaluation of a bancroftian filariasis control programme undertaken in Pondicherry from 1981-5. Integrated vector management was applied in one half of the town, and routine operations under the national programme (larviciding and chemotherapy) continued in the comparison area. The programme ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramanian S,Pani SP,Das PK,Rajagopalan PK

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of B. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) from South Africa, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia and capti

    abstract::Bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne Gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. Whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in South Africa and 17 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia. Blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molia S,Kasten RW,Stuckey MJ,Boulouis HJ,Allen J,Borgo GM,Koehler JE,Chang CC,Chomel BB

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • A re-evaluation of the impact of temperature and climate change on foodborne illness.

    abstract::The effects of temperature on reported cases of a number of foodborne illnesses in England and Wales were investigated. We also explored whether the impact of temperature had changed over time. Food poisoning, campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, Salmonella Typhimurium infections and Salmonella Enteritidis infections we...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lake IR,Gillespie IA,Bentham G,Nichols GL,Lane C,Adak GK,Threlfall EJ

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.

    abstract::Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Thre...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roser DJ,van den Akker B,Boase S,Haas CN,Ashbolt NJ,Rice SA

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Animal agriculture exposures among Minnesota residents with zoonotic enteric infections, 2012-2016.

    abstract::Prospective, population-based surveillance to systematically ascertain exposures to food production animals or their environments among Minnesota residents with sporadic, domestically acquired, laboratory-confirmed enteric zoonotic pathogen infections was conducted from 2012 through 2016. Twenty-three percent (n = 170...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klumb CA,Scheftel JM,Smith KE

    更新日期:2020-03-16 00:00:00

  • Pertussis epidemiology prior to the introduction of a maternal vaccination program, Queensland Australia.

    abstract::Pertussis morbidity is highest in infants too young to be fully protected by routine vaccination schedules. Alternate vaccine strategies are required to maximise protection in this age-group. To understand baseline pertussis epidemiology prior to the introduction of the maternal pertussis vaccination program in 2014, ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McHugh L,Viney KA,Andrews RM,Lambert SB

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is hand, foot and mouth disease associated with meteorological parameters?

    abstract::We examined the relationship between meteorological parameters and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) activity. Meteorological data collected from 2000 to 2004 were tested for correlation with HFMD consultation rates calculated through the sentinel surveillance system in Hong Kong. The regression model constructed wa...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma E,Lam T,Wong C,Chuang SK

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Post-pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm09 is associated with more severe outcomes than A/H3N2 and other respiratory viruses in adult hospitalisations.

    abstract::This study compares the frequency and severity of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 (A/H1), influenza A/H3N2 (A/H3) and other respiratory virus infections in hospitalised patients. Data from 17 332 adult hospitalised patients admitted to Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, with a respiratory illness between 2...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minney-Smith CA,Selvey LA,Levy A,Smith DW

    更新日期:2019-11-28 00:00:00

  • Compliance with Clostridium difficile treatment guidelines: effect on patient outcomes.

    abstract::Guidelines for the severity classification and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were published by Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) in 2010; however, compliance and efficacy of these guidelines has not been widely investigated. This pr...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crowell KT,Julian KG,Katzman M,Berg AS,Tinsley A,Williams ED,Koltun WA,Messaris E

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Low rates of ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis in English farmworkers.

    abstract::To determine the occupational significance of tick-borne zoonoses we sought serological evidence of Lyme borreliosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in a representative sample of farmworkers. Although around 20% reported ticks on their domestic and companion animals, few (...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas DR,Sillis M,Coleman TJ,Kench SM,Ogden NH,Salmon RL,Morgan-Capner P,Softley P,Meadows D

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting treatment failure, death and drug resistance using a computed risk score among newly diagnosed TB patients in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB pati...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdelbary BE,Garcia-Viveros M,Ramirez-Oropesa H,Rahbar MH,Restrepo BI

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection: evidence from the Leiden Longevity Study and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins.

    abstract::Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. Little is known about how and when susceptibility to CMV infection is determined. We measured CMV seroprevalence in two genetically informative coh...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mortensen LH,Maier AB,Slagbom PE,Pawelec G,Derhovanessian E,Petersen I,Jahn G,Westendorp RG,Christensen K

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00