Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in schizophrenia: methodological issues and findings--part II.


:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows investigation of in vivo neurochemical pathology of schizophrenia. "First generation" studies, focusing on phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, have suggested alterations in membrane phospholipid metabolism and reductions in N-acetyl aspartate in the frontal and temporal lobes. Some discrepancies remain in the literature, perhaps related to the variations in medication status and phase of illness in the patients examined, as well as in magnetic resonance spectroscopy methodology; the pathophysiologic significance of the findings also remains unclear. Technologic advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recent years have expanded the potential to measure several other metabolites of interest such as the neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and macromolecules such as membrane phospholipids and synaptic proteins. Issues of sensitivity, specificity, measurement reliability, and functional significance of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings need to be further clarified. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows longitudinal studies of schizophrenia both in its different phases and among individuals at genetic risk for this illness. Future studies also need to address confounds of prior treatment and illness chronicity, take advantage of current pathophysiologic models of schizophrenia, and be hypothesis driven.


Biol Psychiatry


Biological psychiatry


Keshavan MS,Stanley JA,Pettegrew JW




Has Abstract


2000-09-01 00:00:00














  • Impaired Communication Between the Motor and Somatosensory Homunculus Is Associated With Poor Manual Dexterity in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these conn...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson A,Murphy D,Dell'Acqua F,Ecker C,McAlonan G,Howells H,Baron-Cohen S,Lai MC,Lombardo MV,MRC AIMS Consortium, and Marco Catani.

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Smooth pursuit eye movements and attention in psychiatric patients.

    abstract::The effects of two putative attention-engaging maneuvers on tracking performance were studied in three groups of subjects: inpatients (n = 19), outpatients (n = 19), and controls (n = 20). One method involved realerting subjects during tracking by repeating instructions to track carefully. The second method, a signal ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pivik RT

    更新日期:1979-12-01 00:00:00

  • Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse in...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Schmid Y,Enzler F,Gasser P,Grouzmann E,Preller KH,Vollenweider FX,Brenneisen R,Müller F,Borgwardt S,Liechti ME

    更新日期:2015-10-15 00:00:00

  • Atypical prefrontal connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: pathway to disease or pathological end point?

    abstract::Functional neuroimaging studies have identified multiple nodes of dysfunction in frontostriatal and mesocorticolimbic networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet relatively few studies have examined how structural and functional connectivity between nodes in these networks might relate to the beha...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liston C,Malter Cohen M,Teslovich T,Levenson D,Casey BJ

    更新日期:2011-06-15 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepine derivatives--side effects and dangers.

    abstract::The benzodiazepines are generally safe and effective drugs with usually only minor side effects, dose-related sedation being the most common. A range of paradoxical effects can occur of which release of aggressive and hostile feelings has excited most attention. These responses are idiosyncratic however, as most patie...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lader MH,Petursson H

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Postnatal fluoxetine-evoked anxiety is prevented by concomitant 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade and mimicked by postnatal 5-HT2A/C receptor stimulation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postnatal treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, evokes anxiety and depressive behavior in rodent models in adulthood. We examined the role of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A), serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors, implicated in the development of anxiety, in the beha...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarkar A,Chachra P,Vaidya VA

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dysfunctional glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acidergic activities in prefrontal cortex of mice in social defeat model of depression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is often very severe and life threatening. In spite of the remarkable progress in understanding the neural biology, the etiopathophysiology of depression is still elusive. In this study, we have investigated molecular mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veeraiah P,Noronha JM,Maitra S,Bagga P,Khandelwal N,Chakravarty S,Kumar A,Patel AB

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepines as antidepressants: does GABA play a role in depression?

    abstract::Benzodiazepines, the most widely prescribed psychotropic drugs, are often used in patients with depressive disorders, either alone or in combination with standard antidepressants. This review evaluates the efficacy of benzodiazepines (alprazolam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide) as established in acute-phase, randomized co...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Petty F,Trivedi MH,Fulton M,Rush AJ

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In a single-center, placebo-controlled study, topiramate reduced binge eating and weight in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. The current investigation evaluated the safety and efficacy of topiramate in a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS:Eligible patients between 18 and 65...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: McElroy SL,Hudson JI,Capece JA,Beyers K,Fisher AC,Rosenthal NR,Topiramate Binge Eating Disorder Research Group.

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Neurogenesis and helplessness are mediated by controllability in males but not in females.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have implicated neurogenesis in the hippocampus in animal models of depression, especially those related to controllability and learned helplessness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uncontrollable but not controllable stress would reduce cell proliferation in the hippocampus of male and ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shors TJ,Mathew J,Sisti HM,Edgecomb C,Beckoff S,Dalla C

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of stimulant medication on working memory functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Working memory impairments are commonly found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and often improve with psychostimulant treatment. Little is known about how these medications affect the function of frontoparietal brain regions engaged for working memory. This study used functional magnetic re...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Wong CG,Stevens MC

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biological stress responses in high and low trait anxious students.

    abstract::In an investigation of biological indicators of stress in normal humans, undergraduate psychology students were differentiated on trait anxiety and assessed under baseline, preexam (stress), and postexam conditions. Assessment at each condition involved drawing 20 ml of blood, followed by self-reporting for selected q...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis DD,Dunlop SR,Shea P,Brittain H,Hendrie HC

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Trajectory and Predictors of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Mothers With the FMR1 Premutation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although the FMR1 premutation is associated with elevated prevalence of psychiatric disorders, the longitudinal course of symptoms has not been established. The present study followed a sample of women with the FMR1 premutation to characterize the incidence, stability, and predictors of mood and anxiety diso...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roberts JE,Tonnsen BL,McCary LM,Ford AL,Golden RN,Bailey DB Jr

    更新日期:2016-05-15 00:00:00

  • Saliva cortisol in posttraumatic stress disorder: a community epidemiologic study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, so it was expected that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would be associated with activation of this axis; however, studies have found both increased and decreased cortisol in PTSD. To address this question, we collected saliva cortisol at h...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young EA,Breslau N

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Development of impulse control circuitry in children of alcoholics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Difficulty with impulse control is heightened in children with a family history of alcohol use disorders and is a risk factor for later substance problems. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown altered impulse control processing in adolescents with a positive family history...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hardee JE,Weiland BJ,Nichols TE,Welsh RC,Soules ME,Steinberg DB,Zubieta JK,Zucker RA,Heitzeg MM

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neural Correlates of Failed Inhibitory Control as an Early Marker of Disordered Eating in Adolescents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Binge eating and other forms of disordered eating behavior (DEB) are associated with failed inhibitory control. This study investigated the neural correlates of failed inhibitory control as a potential biomarker for DEB. METHODS:The study used prospective longitudinal data from the European IMAGEN study ado...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bartholdy S,O'Daly OG,Campbell IC,Banaschewski T,Barker G,Bokde ALW,Bromberg U,Büchel C,Quinlan EB,Desrivières S,Flor H,Frouin V,Garavan H,Gowland P,Heinz A,Ittermann B,Martinot JL,Paillère Martinot ML,Nees F,Orfano

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Differential Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Internal Capsule and the Striatum on Excessive Grooming in Sapap3 Mutant Mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that do not respond to conventional therapies. Although the precise mechanism of action of DBS remains unknown, modulation of activity in corticofugal fibers originating in the prefrontal cortex is th...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinhal CM,van den Boom BJG,Santana-Kragelund F,Fellinger L,Bech P,Hamelink R,Feng G,Willuhn I,Feenstra MGP,Denys D

    更新日期:2018-12-15 00:00:00

  • Smooth-pursuit eye movement and saccadic intrusions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    abstract::Although several reports agree that smooth-pursuit eye movement (SPEM) is abnormal in some obsessive-compulsive disordered (OCD) patients, differences between treatments and lack of accuracy in control selection make the results controversial. Although reduced gain seems the most accepted abnormality, the characterist...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Pallanti S,Grecu LM,Gangemi PF,Massi S,Parigi A,Arnetoli G,Quercioli L,Zaccara G

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive impairment and (CTG)n expansion in myotonic dystrophy patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic multisystemic disease with muscular, endocrine, ocular, cardiac and cognitive impairment. The molecular basis of the disease has been identified in an unstable base triplet (CTG)n repeat located in the 3' untranslated region of the miotonin protein-kinase (MT-PK) gene on ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perini GI,Menegazzo E,Ermani M,Zara M,Gemma A,Ferruzza E,Gennarelli M,Angelini C

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Elevated expression of integrin alpha(IIb) beta(IIIa) in drug-naïve, first-episode schizophrenic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with schizophrenia have an increased risk over the general public of developing cardiovascular illness. It is unknown if there are functional changes in platelet surface receptors in schizophrenia. We therefore analyzed the surface expression of glycoprotein (GP)Ib, the integrin receptor alpha(IIb)b...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walsh MT,Ryan M,Hillmann A,Condren R,Kenny D,Dinan T,Thakore JH

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced dopaminergic function in alcoholics is related to severe dependence.

    abstract::With a view to the role of dopamine (DA) systems in reward processes and considering recent studies linking specific alleles at the DA-D2 receptor gene locus with alcoholism (especially with severe types) dopaminergic functions were evaluated in 49 alcoholics using growth hormone (GH) response to DA receptor agonist a...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt LG,Dettling M,Graef KJ,Heinz A,Kuhn S,Podschus J,Rommelspacher H

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chaos and schizophrenia: does the method fit the madness?

    abstract::Over the past 30 years, investigators have used nonlinear and so-called chaos theory-based techniques to examine a wide range of phenomena ranging from electroencephalogram and cardiac rate and rhythm analyses to stock market and weather predictions. Psychiatric neuroscientists are now beginning to apply nonlinear met...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paulus MP,Braff DL

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Polymorphisms in the 13q33.2 gene G72/G30 are associated with childhood-onset schizophrenia and psychosis not otherwise specified.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset of psychotic symptoms by age 12 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder that seems to be clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult disorder. METHODS:We studied a rare cohort consisting of 98 probands; 71 of these probands receiv...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Addington AM,Gornick M,Sporn AL,Gogtay N,Greenstein D,Lenane M,Gochman P,Baker N,Balkissoon R,Vakkalanka RK,Weinberger DR,Straub RE,Rapoport JL

    更新日期:2004-05-15 00:00:00

  • Learning deficiencies in Borna disease virus-infected but clinically healthy rats.

    abstract::Borna disease (BD) virus, a still unclassified neurotropic agent, causes either fatal encephalomyelitis or persistent asymptomatic infection in a variety of animal species. We monitored the neuronal functions of intracerebrally infected but healthy rats with three types of learning experiments. Spatial discrimination ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dittrich W,Bode L,Ludwig H,Kao M,Schneider K

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy: managing the chaos of bipolar disorder.

    abstract::Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy is an individual psychotherapy designed specifically for the treatment for bipolar disorder. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy grew from a chronobiological model of bipolar disorder postulating that individuals with bipolar disorder have a genetic predisposition to circadi...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Frank E,Swartz HA,Kupfer DJ

    更新日期:2000-09-15 00:00:00

  • Physical activity and restlessness correlate with leptin levels in patients with adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In food-restricted rats, leptin suppresses semistarvation-induced hyperactivity (SIH) and decreases exploratory behavior. Leptin ameliorates anxiety-related movement in ob/ob mice. In this study, we assessed the relationship between leptin and qualities of physical activity and restlessness in acute anorexia...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holtkamp K,Herpertz-Dahlmann B,Hebebrand K,Mika C,Kratzsch J,Hebebrand J

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Antiretroviral antibodies: implications for schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Some retroviral antigens share structural homology within a group of related retroviruses. It is possible that antibodies directed against one virus may cross-react with antigens from a different virus in the group. METHODS:Using this principle, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Western blot assay ...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hart DJ,Heath RG,Sautter FJ Jr,Schwartz BD,Garry RF,Choi B,Beilke MA,Hart LK

    更新日期:1999-03-15 00:00:00

  • Functional correlates of verbal memory deficits emerging during nicotine withdrawal in abstinent adolescent cannabis users.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance by adolescents and is typically consumed by this population in the context of ongoing tobacco use. Human studies have shown that both cannabis and tobacco exert effects on cognitive function; however, little is known about possible interacting effects o...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobsen LK,Pugh KR,Constable RT,Westerveld M,Mencl WE

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Low birth weight and neurocognitive status at six years of age.

    abstract::We examined the relationship between low birth weight (LBW) (< or = 2500 g) and specific neurocognitive abilities at 6 years of age in a large-scale nonconcurrent prospective study. In 1990-1992, we randomly selected and evaluated LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) children from the 1983-1985 newborn lists of two major...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Breslau N,Chilcoat H,DelDotto J,Andreski P,Brown G

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and nailfold plexus visibility.

    abstract::Visibility of the nailfold vascular plexus has shown promise as a genetically transmitted marker for liability to schizophrenia. To assess whether this marker is specifically associated with negative or positive symptoms of schizophrenia, we reanalyzed patient data collected 20 years ago, well before interest in the n...

    journal_title:Biological psychiatry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poole JH,Maricq HR,Alson E,Willerman L

    更新日期:1991-04-15 00:00:00