Isozymic nature of spore coat-associated alanine racemase of Bacillus subtilis.


:Spore coat-associated alanine racemase of Bacillus subtilis, which converts L-alanine to D-alanine, that is, the germinant to the competitive inhibitor, to regulate spore germination for survival of the organism under unfavorable growth conditions, was examined. The dormant spores, L-alanine-initiated germination of which is inhibited by diphenylamine, were used to characterize the enzyme in the native form because of its unextractablility from dormant spores. The presence of isozymes, Enz-I and Enz-II with Km for L-alanine of about 20mM and 50mM and optimum activity at around 40 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively, was proposed. The enzymes were selectively used depending on the L-alanine concentration and the temperature. The pH profiles of the activity (optimun at pH 9.0) and the stability (stable between pH 6-11 at 60 degrees C) were similar, but Enz-II was more heat-stable than Enz-I and the denaturation curve demonstrated a two-domain structure for Enz-II. Sensitivity to D-penicillamine, hydroxylamine and HgCl2 was similar between Enz-I and Enz-II, while that to D-cycloserine, L- and D-aminoethylphosphonic acid, monoiodoacetate and N-ethylmaleimide was different; HgCl2 was the most effective inhibitor among these compounds.


Amino Acids


Amino acids


Kanda-Nambu K,Yasuda Y,Tochikubo K




Has Abstract


2000-01-01 00:00:00












  • Design of substrates and inhibitors of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) based on its phosphorylation reaction.

    abstract::The G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family consists of seven cytosolic serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases, and among them, GRK2 is involved in the regulation of an enormous range of both G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and non-GPCR substrates that participate in or regulate many critical cellular p...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kang JH,Toita R,Kawano T,Murata M,Asai D

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Potent effects of amino acid scanned antimicrobial peptide Feleucin-K3 analogs against both multidrug-resistant strains and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    abstract::Pseudomonas aeruginosa is particularly difficult to treat because it possesses a variety of resistance mechanisms and because it often forms biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides represent promising candidates for future templates of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections due to their unique mechanism of antimicrobial a...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie J,Li Y,Li J,Yan Z,Wang D,Guo X,Zhang J,Zhang B,Mou L,Yang W,Jiang X

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired energy metabolism of the taurine‑deficient heart.

    abstract::Taurine is a β-amino acid found in high concentrations in excitable tissues, including the heart. A significant reduction in myocardial taurine content leads to the development of a unique dilated, atrophic cardiomyopathy. One of the major functions of taurine in the heart is the regulation of the respiratory chain. H...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schaffer SW,Shimada-Takaura K,Jong CJ,Ito T,Takahashi K

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Protein and non-protein biomarkers in melanoma: a critical update.

    abstract::Melanoma is the most malignant type of all skin neoplasms. Its worldwide incidence has steadily increased during the past decades, suggesting a probable melanoma 'epidemic'. Although current clinical, morphologic, and histopathologic methods provide insights into disease behavior and outcome, melanoma is still an unpr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tandler N,Mosch B,Pietzsch J

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of calmodulin binding domains in TRPV2 and TRPV5 C-tails.

    abstract::The transient receptor potential channels TRPV2 and TRPV5 belong to the vanilloid TRP subfamily. TRPV2 is highly similar to TRPV1 and shares many common properties with it. TRPV5 (and also its homolog TRPV6) is a rather distinct member of the TRPV subfamily. It is distant for being strictly Ca(2+)-selective and featur...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holakovska B,Grycova L,Bily J,Teisinger J

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Biochemical mechanisms for a possible involvement of the transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of the polyglutamine diseases: minireview article.

    abstract::Transglutaminases are a family of enzymes which show the common capacity to catalyse the cross-linking of protein substrates. Some members of this family of enzymes are also capable to catalyse other chemical reactions for the cell life. The distribution and the role of these enzymes have been studied in numerous cell...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pepe I,Occhino E,Cella G,Luongo A,Guardascione F,Gentile V

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of L-alanine-initiated germination ofBacillus subtilis spores by alanine racemase.

    abstract::Germination ofBacillus subtilis spores was initiated by L-Ala and competitively inhibited by D-Ala, suggesting the presence of an alanine receptor. The spores showed alanine racemase activity in the spore coat. To investigate the role of alanine racemase (L → D) on germination, net racemase activity was determined usi...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yasuda Y,Kanda K,Nishioka S,Tanimoto Y,Kato C,Saito A,Fukuchi S,Nakanishi Y,Tochikubo K

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Structure-based design, synthesis and anticancer effect of cyclic Smac-polyarginine peptides.

    abstract::The second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac/DIABLO) is a pro-apoptotic protein that released from mitochondria into the cytosol when cells undergo apoptosis. Smac promotes caspase activation by binding the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP), particularly XIAP and eliminating their inhibitory activit...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khalily MP,Gerekçi S,Güleç EA,Özen C,Özçubukçu S

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebral organic acid disorders induce neuronal damage via excitotoxic organic acids in vitro.

    abstract::Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GDD), which is one of the most frequent organic acid disorders, is characterized by a specific age- and regional-dependent neuropathology. We hypothesized that the distinct brain damage in GDD could be caused by the main pathologic metabolites, the organic acids glutaric (GA) and...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kölker S,Ahlemeyer B,Krieglstein J,Hoffmann GF

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cysteine dioxygenase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activities in primary cultured hepatocytes respond to sulfur amino acid supplementation in a reciprocal manner.

    abstract::Hepatocytes were cultured for 3 days as spheroids (aggregates) or as monolayers in basal medium and in sulfur amino acid-supplemented media. Cultured hepatocytes had low levels of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity and normal levels of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) and cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase (CSDC...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohta J,Kwon YH,Stipanuk MH

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleobase-containing peptides: an overview of their characteristic features and applications.

    abstract::Reports on nucleobase-containing chiral peptides (both natural and artificial) and achiral pseudopeptides are reviewed. Their synthesis, structural features, DNA and RNA-binding ability, as well as some other interesting applications which make them promising diagnostic/therapeutic agents of great importance in many a...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roviello GN,Benedetti E,Pedone C,Bucci EM

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Volatile constituents of glutathione--ribose model system and its antioxidant activity.

    abstract::Reaction between glutathione and ribose was carried out to study the volatiles formed via Maillard reaction and their antioxidant activity as well as their role in inhibition of LDL oxidation. The simultaneous distillation-extraction technique was used for trapping the volatile components followed by GC-MS analysis. T...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El-massry K,Farouk A,El-Ghorab A

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mitomycin C modulates DNA-double strand break repair genes in cervical carcinoma cells.

    abstract::In a previous study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanism mediated via Fas/FasL-dependent pathway in mitomycin C-treated cervical carcinoma cells. In this study, 2-D and MALDI-TOF analyses were performed in order to search mitomycin C-induced modulators in cervical carcinoma cells. Some protein spots down- or up-regu...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang YH,Lee KA,Kim JH,Park SG,Yoon DY

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Biosynthesis of D-aspartate in mammals: the rat and human homologs of mouse aspartate racemase are not responsible for the biosynthesis of D-aspartate.

    abstract::D-Aspartate (D-Asp) has important physiological functions, and recent studies have shown that substantial amounts of free D-Asp are present in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cells. Biosynthesis of D-Asp has been observed in several cultured rat cell lines, and a murine gene (glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminas...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsuda S,Katane M,Maeda K,Kaneko Y,Saitoh Y,Miyamoto T,Sekine M,Homma H

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of xCT expression and system x (c) (-) function in neuronal cells.

    abstract::The glutamate/cystine antiporter system x(c)(-) transports cystine into cells in exchange for glutamate at a ratio of 1:1. It is composed of a specific light chain, xCT, and a heavy chain, 4F2, linked by a disulfide bridge. Intracellularly, cystine is reduced into cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor of glutathione (...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lewerenz J,Maher P,Methner A

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis and biological activity of oxytocin analogues containing unnatural amino acids in position 9: structure activity study.

    abstract::We report the solid phase synthesis and some pharmacological properties of 24 oxytocin (OT) analogues. Basic modifications at position 9 (introduction of L- or D-beta-(2-thienyl)-alanine [L- or D-Thi], or L- or D-3-Pyridylalanine [L- or D-3-Pal]) were combined with D-tyrosine(OEthyl) [D-Tyr(Et)] or D-1-naphthylalanine...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magafa V,Borovicková L,Slaninová J,Cordopatis P

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring pitfalls of 64Cu-labeled EGFR-targeting peptide GE11 as a potential PET tracer.

    abstract::The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents an important molecular target for both radiotracer-based diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy of various cancer entities. For the delivery of radionuclides to the tumor, peptides hold great potential as a transport vehicle. With respect to EGFR, the peptide...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Striese F,Sihver W,Gao F,Bergmann R,Walther M,Pietzsch J,Steinbach J,Pietzsch HJ

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of phosphate ion on the fluorescence of 3-fluorotyrosine.

    abstract::3-Fluorotyrosine fluorescence is quenched effectively by phosphate ions not only by a dynamic but also by a static mechanism owing to H-bond complex formation in ground state. 3-Fluorotyrosine pKa values both in the ground and first excited state (8.3 and 4, respectively) are appreciably lower than those of tyrosine, ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vdovenko SI,Kolycheva MT,Gerus II,Kukhar VP

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Phage display peptide probes for imaging early response to bevacizumab treatment.

    abstract::Early evaluation of cancer response to a therapeutic regimen can help increase the effectiveness of treatment schemes and, by enabling early termination of ineffective treatments, minimize toxicity, and reduce expenses. Biomarkers that provide early indication of tumor therapy response are urgently needed. Solid tumor...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cao Q,Liu S,Niu G,Chen K,Yan Y,Liu Z,Chen X

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of dietary L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate supplementation during late gestation of sows on the miR-15b/16, miR-221/222, VEGFA and eNOS expression in umbilical vein.

    abstract::Placental vascular formation and blood flow are crucial for fetal survival, growth and development, and arginine regulates vascular development and function. This study determined the effects of dietary arginine or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation during late gestation of sows on the microRNAs, vascular endot...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu XD,Wu X,Yin YL,Liu YQ,Geng MM,Yang HS,Blachier F,Wu GY

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular imaging of fibrosis using a novel collagen-binding peptide labelled with 99mTc on SPECT/CT.

    abstract::Fibrosis, closely related to chronic various diseases, is a pathological process characterised by the accumulation of collagen (largely collagen type I). Non-invasive methods are necessary for the diagnosis and follow-up of fibrosis. This study aimed to develop a collagen-targeted probe for the molecular imaging of fi...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zheng L,Ding X,Liu K,Feng S,Tang B,Li Q,Huang D,Yang S

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are defective in the taurine-deficient heart.

    abstract::Taurine depletion leads to impaired mitochondrial function, as characterized by reduced ATP production and elevated superoxide generation. These defects can fundamentally alter cardiomyocyte function and if left unchanged can result in cell death. To protect against these stresses, cardiomyocytes possess quality contr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jong CJ,Ito T,Schaffer SW

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Free carnitine and acetyl carnitine plasma levels and their relationship with body muscular mass in athletes.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma carnitine concentration and body composition variation in relation to muscular and fat masses since there is no experimentally proved correlation between plasma carnitine and body masses. We used bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gatti R,De Palo CB,Spinella P,De Palo EF

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Proteome analysis of soybean hypocotyl and root under salt stress.

    abstract::To evaluate the response of soybean to salt stress, the related changes in protein expression were investigated using the proteomic approach. Soybean plants were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl. Especially at 200 mM, the length and fresh weight of the hypocotyl and root reduced under salt stress, while the prol...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aghaei K,Ehsanpour AA,Shah AH,Komatsu S

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Monosodium glutamate induced convulsions in rats: Influence of route of administration, temperature and age.

    abstract::Treatment of developing rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG) produces an increase of glutamate levels in the brain, being this elevation dependent on both route of administration and animal's age. The capacity of exogenous MSG to induce convulsions seems to be related to the rate of glutamate elevation in the brain, r...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peñafiel R,Cremades A,Monserrat F,Puelles L

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • N-acetylcysteine reduces inflammation in the small intestine by regulating redox, EGF and TLR4 signaling.

    abstract::This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could affect intestinal redox status, proinflammatory cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and aquaporin-8 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model. Eighteen piglets (35-day-old) were randomly alloc...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou Y,Wang L,Yi D,Ding B,Yang Z,Li J,Chen X,Qiu Y,Wu G

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of oral taurine administration on behavior and hippocampal signal transduction in rats.

    abstract::Taurine, 2-aminoethylsulfonic acid, is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has various important physiological functions as a neuromodulator and antioxidant. Taurine is expected to be involved in depression; however, knowledge regarding its function in relation to depression is limited. In this study...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iio W,Matsukawa N,Tsukahara T,Toyoda A

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydrodipeptides bearing different protecting groups.

    abstract::N-[(Z)-N-Benzoyl- or N-boc-(2-fluorophenyl)dehydroalanyl]-(R)- or (S)-phenyl-alanines 1,2,5 and 6 were hydrogenated in the presence of chiral and achiral rhodium complexes. The optical induction is compared to the results obtained using the corresponding esters as substrates. ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Döbler C,Kreuzfeld HJ,Fischer C,Michalik M

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    abstract::High-protein diets have been shown to alleviate detrimental effects of high-fat diets and this effect can be partially mimicked by dietary L-leucine supplementation. Here, we aimed to elucidate the early mechanisms and the specificity of leucine effects. We performed a 1-week trial with male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitu...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Freudenberg A,Petzke KJ,Klaus S

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative metabolomics charts the impact of genotype-dependent methionine accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    abstract::Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid for all organisms. In plants, Met also functions as a precursor of plant hormones, polyamines, and defense metabolites. The regulatory mechanism of Met biosynthesis is highly complex and, despite its great importance, remains unclear. To investigate how accumulation of Met i...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kusano M,Fukushima A,Redestig H,Kobayashi M,Otsuki H,Onouchi H,Naito S,Hirai MY,Saito K

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00