High 222Rn levels, enhanced surface deposition, increased diffusion coefficient, humidity, and air change effects.

Abstract:

:Measurements have been made of surface deposition rates for 218Po radon decay products in a small (0.283m3) aluminum test chamber for 222Rn levels from 1 to 1,600 kBq m-3. an increase in macroscopic surface deposition rate has been found to be induced by the high 222Rn concentrations. A distinct 222Rn level threshold has been found below which plateout is constant at the normal rate for ambient residential conditions. Above the threshold, an increase in plateout is observed and the transition quickly reaches a constant, higher plateout. With all environmental conditions remaining constant and varying humidity, the threshold 222Rn level decreases with increasing relative humidity. The rate of rise to the new plateau is found to increase with increasing humidity. For the constant air change rate of ACH = 0.2 h-1, the fraction of airborne 218Po lost by the enhanced plateout was consistently 0.4 +or- 0.25 for seven values of humidity from 8 to 54% RH. For a fixed RH = 40 +or- 2%, it was found that the threshold increases from 5 to 58 kBq m-3 for a change in ACH from 0 1.06 h-1. In converting the deposition data to values of diffusion coefficient D, using Crump and Seinfeld's theory, a very high D of 0.18 cm2s-1 is assumed for ambient air conditions. Results indicate an ambient D = 0.027 cm2s-1. The results may impact on research utilizing high levels in test chambers and diffusion coefficients and attached and unattached fractions, and also for cancer studies using animals with 222Rn levels as much as 10(4) times greater than ambient residential levels.

journal_name

Health Phys

journal_title

Health physics

authors

Leonard BE

doi

10.1097/00004032-199603000-00008

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1996-03-01 00:00:00

pages

372-87

issue

3

eissn

0017-9078

issn

1538-5159

journal_volume

70

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Physical models and dose factors for use in internal dose assessment.

    abstract::Internal dose assessment depends on the use of mathematical formulas for dose calculation and models of the human body and its organs. A simple, unified method for internal dose calculations is described, which brings together and simplifies concepts used in nuclear medicine and occupational internal dose systems prev...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200309000-00006

    authors: Stabin MG,Siegel JA

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Concentrations of U and Po in animal feed supplements, in poultry meat and in eggs.

    abstract::The present study was undertaken to assess the contribution of phosphate feed supplements to the radiation exposure of the population in Israel. The phosphates usually contain appreciable quantities of U and its daughters and the actual exposure of human consumers depends, to a very large extent, on the degree of equi...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198903000-00006

    authors: Izak-Biran T,Schlesinger T,Weingarten R,Even O,Shamai Y,Israeli M

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Implications of a two-stage clonal expansion model to indoor radon risk assessment.

    abstract::Spreadsheet macro programs for calculations of exact hazard and probability of having contracted cancer were used to study the implications of the lung cancer model of Moolgavkar et al. Excess lifetime risk ELR and loss of life expectancy LLE were calculated from the annual values of hazard and probability, using publ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199904000-00007

    authors: Castrén O

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    abstract::Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing o...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000212

    authors: Harvey RP

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Adsorption of 222Rn by open-faced and diffusion-barrier canisters at different conditions of temperature and humidity.

    abstract::Open-faced and diffusion-barrier charcoal canisters were individually exposed to a fixed temperature, humidity, and radon concentration in a chamber for a period of 7 d. The radon progeny activity in the canister under study was measured every 3 h. A total of 15 runs were made for the open-faced canisters and nine run...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199401000-00009

    authors: Luetzelschwab JW,Hastings L,Ellis SM

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Uptake of 244Cm, 238Pu and other radionuclides by trees inhabiting a contaminated flood plain.

    abstract::The plant uptake of 244Cm, 137Cs, 238Pu and 90Sr was measured for trees in a flood plain forest whose soils were contaminated by aqueous discharges from a nuclear-fuel chemical separations facility. Uptake of the naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra was also measured. The relative availability of the nuclides was 23...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198409000-00003

    authors: Pinder JE 3rd,McLeod KW,Alberts JJ,Adriano DC,Corey JC

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • The air-kerma rate constant of 192Ir.

    abstract::The air-kerma rate constant gamma delta (and its precursors), as one of the basic radiation characteristics of 192Ir, was determined by many authors. Analysis of accessible data on this quantity led us to the conclusion that published data strongly disagree. That is the reason we calculated this quantity on the basis ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199301000-00011

    authors: Ninković MM,Raiĉevìć JJ

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Actinides concentrations in human tissues.

    abstract::Fallout 239,240Pu concentrations in some autopsy tissues from the general population in Japan are described. Body burden and relative distribution among tissues of plutonium were obtained by extrapolating using the mass of relevant tissues of the normal Japanese adult. 239,240Pu-to-90Sr body burden ratio was obtained....

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198306001-00043

    authors: Kawamura H,Tanaka G

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Radon-222 levels in New York State homes.

    abstract::Results are presented from a statewide survey that measured annual 222Rn concentrations in over 2000 single-family, owner-occupied homes in New York state. The participants were selected by a random-digit-dialing telephone interview approach developed by Mitofsky-Waksberg which allows inferences to be made from the sa...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199002000-00001

    authors: Perritt RL,Hartwell TD,Sheldon LS,Cox BG,Clayton CA,Jones SM,Smith ML,Rizzuto JE

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Signal Processing and Its Effect on Scanning Efficiencies for a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-energy Radiation.

    abstract::Signal processing within a radiation detector affects detection efficiency. Currently, organizations such as private industry, the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force are coupling some detector systems with data collection devices to survey large land areas for radioactive contamination. As detector technology has advanced...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000298

    authors: Marianno CM

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers.

    abstract::Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198901000-00002

    authors: Ambach W,Rehwald W,Blumthaler M,Eisner H,Brunner P

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Indoor 222Rn concentrations in Central Asturias.

    abstract::A survey of the 222Rn concentrations in 106 homes in the four main towns of the Central Asturias region was carried out over three years. A total of 1,014 measurements was obtained using passive radon charcoal canisters. The 222Rn concentrations fit a log-normal distribution law, with a geometric mean of 23 Bq m(-3). ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199605000-00010

    authors: Pérez Iglesias JM,Alvarez Alvarez MC,Dopico Vivero MT,Garzón Ruipérez L

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Plutonium-induced wounds in beagles.

    abstract::Beagle dogs were given subcutaneous implants of plutonium in their forepaws to mimic hand wounds received by workers accidentally contaminated with plutonium. Ten dogs received 9.46 +/- 0.43 mu Ci of plutonium oxide, and eight dogs received 1.25 +/- 0.60 mu Ci of plutonium nitrate. Surviving dogs were sacrificed at 8 ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198407000-00006

    authors: Dagle GE,Bristline RW,Lebel JL,Watters RL

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Equations for modeling of grab samples of radon decay products.

    abstract::A mathematical model of the process of collecting and analyzing a grab sample of radon decay products in air can be useful for a number ofpurposes. Among them is predicting the observed counts of alpha particles and/or beta particles (1) under various conditions of radon decay product equilibrium; (2) for various samp...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200208001-00014

    authors: Jenkins PH

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.

    abstract::There has been concern that living near nuclear installations might increase the risk of cancer, including childhood leukemia, in surrounding communities. Such concern has been voiced by residents in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties in Western Pennsylvania in conjunction with the operation of two former nuclear mat...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200312000-00014

    authors: Boice JD Jr,Bigbee WL,Mumma MT,Blot WJ

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Radon Release and Its Simulated Effect on Radiation Doses.

    abstract::One of the main factors that affect the uncertainty in calculating the gamma-radiation absorbed dose rate inside a room is the variation in the degree of secular equilibrium of the considered radioactive series. A component of this factor, considered in this paper, is the release of radon (Rn) from building materials ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000630

    authors: Orabi M

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Radon release from building materials in Hong Kong.

    abstract::Indoor 222Rn in high-rise buildings originates inside the building materials, then diffuses gradually through the intergranular spaces of the material into the room atmosphere. Therefore, the radionuclide contents and the physical properties of the building materials are important for indoor 222Rn levels in Hong Kong....

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199410000-00008

    authors: Tso MY,Ng CY,Leung JK

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing the applicability of FISH-based prematurely condensed dicentric chromosome assay in triage biodosimetry.

    abstract::The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been regarded as the gold standard of radiation biodosimetry. The assay, however, requires a 2-d peripheral blood lymphocyte culture before starting metaphase chromosome analyses to estimate biological doses. Other biological assays also have drawbacks with respect to the time ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000182

    authors: Suto Y,Gotoh T,Noda T,Akiyama M,Owaki M,Darroudi F,Hirai M

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation safety at the University of Rochester's Laser Fusion Research Facility.

    abstract::The fusion research conducted at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics requires large amounts of tritium and generates brief but very high, neutron fluxes. This raises a number of radiological concerns that have been satisfactorily addressed via a combination of engineering controls, training, and administrative control...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200111001-00016

    authors: Karam PA,Pien G

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    abstract::The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by prov...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e3181b97318

    authors: Wilson DA,Mohr LC,Frey GD,Lackland D,Hoel DG

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of an improved dosimetry system for the workers at the Mayak Production Association.

    abstract::Databases are being created that contain verified and updated dosimetry and worker history information for workers at the Mayak Production Association. Many workers had significant external and internal exposures, particularly during the early years (1948-1952) of operation. These dosimetric and worker history data ar...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200007000-00012

    authors: Khokhryakov V,Suslova K,Aladova E,Vasilenko E,Miller SC,Slaughter DM,Krahenbuhl MP

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Statistical analysis of Japanese Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases--1980.

    abstract::In 193 cases autopsied between 1945 and 1980, all persons who had been intravascularly injected with Thorotrast in life, the authors found 131 malignant hepatic tumors, 20 liver cirrhoses, 6 myeloid leukemias, 4 erythroleukemias, 5 aplastic anemias, 4 lung cancers, 1 mesothelioma and 1 osteosarcoma. The causes of deat...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198306001-00025

    authors: Mori T,Kato Y,Aoki N,Hatakeyama S

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Human Monitoring Laboratory's new lung counter: calibration and comparison with the previous system and the Cameco Corporation's lung counter.

    abstract::The Human Monitoring Laboratory has replaced its lung counting system with four large area (85 mm x 30 mm) HPGe detectors, electronics, and software. The system has been calibrated with the same lung set and phantom that was used to calibrate the Human Monitoring Laboratory's previous lung counting system and the Came...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/01.hp.0000167148.87179.b7

    authors: Kramer GH,Hauck BM

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mitigating radiation-induced toxicity: an overview of new approaches developed at the French Military Biomedical Research Institute.

    abstract::Acute radiation syndrome represents the clinical response of radiation-sensitive key tissues (i.e., hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular) following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. In this context, the hematopoietic syndrome remains the first therapeutic challenge. Today, identifying new drug...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000039

    authors: Drouet M,Hérodin F

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Past and future work on radiobiology mega-studies: a case study at Argonne National Laboratory.

    abstract::Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 externa...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e3181febad3

    authors: Haley B,Wang Q,Wanzer B,Vogt S,Finney L,Yang PL,Paunesku T,Woloschak G

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Description of the properties of unattached 218Po and 212Pb particles by means of the classical theory of cluster formation.

    abstract::A review is given of the classical theory of cluster formation to see whether it is a useful description of the behaviour of unattached radioactive particles. Special attention is given to the predictions concerning the size of the clusters, their growth, and their dependency on humidity and other trace gases. The the...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198512000-00013

    authors: Raes F

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Inter-species extrapolation of skin heating resulting from millimeter wave irradiation: modeling and experimental results.

    abstract::This study reports measurements of the skin surface temperature elevations during localized irradiation (94 GHz) of three species: rat (irradiated on lower abdomen), rhesus monkey (posterior forelimb), and human (posterior forearm). Two exposure conditions were examined: prolonged, low power density microwaves (LPM) a...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200305000-00006

    authors: Nelson DA,Walters TJ,Ryan KL,Emerton KB,Hurt WD,Ziriax JM,Johnson LR,Mason PA

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Power-frequency magnetic fields from electric blankets.

    abstract::Power-frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields produced by electric blankets are estimated from data on blanket design using a three-dimensional computer model. Maximum, minimum, and volume-average fields within human forms are presented as a function of blanket type and a number of geometric factors including body size, ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199004000-00012

    authors: Florig HK,Hoburg JF

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Radium and uranium concentrations in Georgia community water systems.

    abstract::The first cycle of statewide radionuclide concentration measurements of public drinking water supplies was completed in accord with the Federal and Georgia Safe Drinking Water Acts. The recommended pattern of analysis is initial screening for gross alpha-particle activity, followed by measuring 226Ra if the gross alph...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198301000-00001

    authors: Cline W,Adamovitz S,Blackman C,Kahn B

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Decay Chain Deduction of Uranium Fission Products.

    abstract::Delayed gamma spectrum is the fingerprint of uranium materials in arms control verification technology. The decay chain is simplified into basic state linear chain and excitation state linear chain to calculate and analyze the delayed gamma spectra of fission products. Formulas of the changing rule for nuclide number ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000521

    authors: Guo H,Tian C,Wang X,Lv N,Ma M,Wei Y

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00