Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers.


:The massive health problem associated with cigarette smoking is exacerbated by the addictive properties of tobacco smoke and the limited success of current approaches to cessation of smoking. Yet little is known about the neuropharmacological actions of cigarette smoke that contribute to smoking behaviour, or why smoking is so prevalent in psychiatric disorders and is associated with a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease. Here we report that brains of living smokers show a 40% decrease in the level of monoamine oxidase B (MAO B; EC relative to non-smokers or former smokers. MAO B is involved in the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in reinforcing and motivating behaviours as well as movement. MAO B inhibition is therefore associated with enhanced activity of dopamine, as well as with decreased production of hydrogen peroxide, a source of reactive oxygen species. We propose that reduction of MAO B activity may synergize with nicotine to produce the diverse behavioural and epidemiological effects of smoking.






Fowler JS,Volkow ND,Wang GJ,Pappas N,Logan J,MacGregor R,Alexoff D,Shea C,Schlyer D,Wolf AP,Warner D,Zezulkova I,Cilento R




Has Abstract


1996-02-22 00:00:00














  • A novel epitope of the LFA-1 antigen which can distinguish killer effector and suppressor cells in human CD8 cells.

    abstract::The CD4 subset of cells displays helper/inducer activity and recognizes class II antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), while the CD8 subset recognizes class I MHC antigens and exhibits cytotoxic or suppressor function. Considerable functional as well as corresponding phenotypic heterogeneity exists w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morimoto C,Rudd CE,Letvin NL,Schlossman SF

    更新日期:1987-12-03 00:00:00

  • Long-term proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells in culture.

    abstract::Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are first identifiable as a population of about eight alkaline phosphatase-positive cells in the 7.0 days postcoitum mouse embryo. During the next 6 days of development they proliferate to give rise to the 25,000 cells that will establish the meiotic population. Steel factor is required fo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Resnick JL,Bixler LS,Cheng L,Donovan PJ

    更新日期:1992-10-08 00:00:00

  • Imaging the granular structure of high-Tc superconductivity in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta.

    abstract::Granular superconductivity occurs when microscopic superconducting grains are separated by non-superconducting regions; Josephson tunnelling between the grains establishes the macroscopic superconducting state. Although crystals of the copper oxide high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors are not granular...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lang KM,Madhavan V,Hoffman JE,Hudson EW,Eisaki H,Uchida S,Davis JC

    更新日期:2002-01-24 00:00:00

  • Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    abstract::Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a compl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perry JR,Day F,Elks CE,Sulem P,Thompson DJ,Ferreira T,He C,Chasman DI,Esko T,Thorleifsson G,Albrecht E,Ang WQ,Corre T,Cousminer DL,Feenstra B,Franceschini N,Ganna A,Johnson AD,Kjellqvist S,Lunetta KL,McMahon G,N

    更新日期:2014-10-02 00:00:00

  • The evolution of lncRNA repertoires and expression patterns in tetrapods.

    abstract::Only a very small fraction of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are well characterized. The evolutionary history of lncRNAs can provide insights into their functionality, but the absence of lncRNA annotations in non-model organisms has precluded comparative analyses. Here we present a large-scale evolutionary study of lnc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Necsulea A,Soumillon M,Warnefors M,Liechti A,Daish T,Zeller U,Baker JC,Grützner F,Kaessmann H

    更新日期:2014-01-30 00:00:00

  • Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq.

    abstract::An extensive repertoire of modifications is known to underlie the versatile coding, structural and catalytic functions of RNA, but it remains largely uncharted territory. Although biochemical studies indicate that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification in messenger RNA, an in-depth st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dominissini D,Moshitch-Moshkovitz S,Schwartz S,Salmon-Divon M,Ungar L,Osenberg S,Cesarkas K,Jacob-Hirsch J,Amariglio N,Kupiec M,Sorek R,Rechavi G

    更新日期:2012-04-29 00:00:00

  • NF-AT activation requires suppression of Crm1-dependent export by calcineurin.

    abstract::Nuclear import of the NF-AT transcription factors during T-cell activation requires the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, which unmasks nuclear-location signals on NF-AT. We show here that the nuclear import of NF-ATs is not sufficient to activate NF-AT target genes, as NF-ATs are subject to a futile cycling ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu J,McKeon F

    更新日期:1999-03-18 00:00:00

  • The novel Cer-like protein Caronte mediates the establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry.

    abstract::In the chick embryo, left-right asymmetric patterns of gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm are initiated by signals located in and around Hensen's node. Here we show that Caronte (Car), a secreted protein encoded by a member of the Cerberus/Dan gene family, mediates the Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent inducti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez Esteban C,Capdevila J,Economides AN,Pascual J,Ortiz A,Izpisúa Belmonte JC

    更新日期:1999-09-16 00:00:00

  • Glutamate induces de novo growth of functional spines in developing cortex.

    abstract::Mature cortical pyramidal neurons receive excitatory inputs onto small protrusions emanating from their dendrites called spines. Spines undergo activity-dependent remodelling, stabilization and pruning during development, and similar structural changes can be triggered by learning and changes in sensory experiences. H...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kwon HB,Sabatini BL

    更新日期:2011-06-02 00:00:00

  • Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin.

    abstract::Citrullination is the post-translational conversion of an arginine residue within a protein to the non-coded amino acid citrulline. This modification leads to the loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. It is carried out by a small family of tissue-specific vertebrate enzymes called peptid...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christophorou MA,Castelo-Branco G,Halley-Stott RP,Oliveira CS,Loos R,Radzisheuskaya A,Mowen KA,Bertone P,Silva JC,Zernicka-Goetz M,Nielsen ML,Gurdon JB,Kouzarides T

    更新日期:2014-03-06 00:00:00

  • Calcium entry through stretch-inactivated ion channels in mdx myotubes.

    abstract::Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of human X-linked muscular dystrophies have come from the identification of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the surface membrane. Although there is little or virtually no dystrophin in affected individuals, it is not known how this causes muscle d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Franco A Jr,Lansman JB

    更新日期:1990-04-12 00:00:00

  • HIF-1α metabolically controls collagen synthesis and modification in chondrocytes.

    abstract::Endochondral ossification, an important process in vertebrate bone formation, is highly dependent on correct functioning of growth plate chondrocytes1. Proliferation of these cells determines longitudinal bone growth and the matrix deposited provides a scaffold for future bone formation. However, these two energy-depe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stegen S,Laperre K,Eelen G,Rinaldi G,Fraisl P,Torrekens S,Van Looveren R,Loopmans S,Bultynck G,Vinckier S,Meersman F,Maxwell PH,Rai J,Weis M,Eyre DR,Ghesquière B,Fendt SM,Carmeliet P,Carmeliet G

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rings of negatively charged amino acids determine the acetylcholine receptor channel conductance.

    abstract::The structure-function relationship of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has been effectively studied by the combination of complementary DNA manipulation and single-channel current analysis. Previous work with chimaeras between the Torpedo californica and bovine AChR delta-subunits has shown that the region...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imoto K,Busch C,Sakmann B,Mishina M,Konno T,Nakai J,Bujo H,Mori Y,Fukuda K,Numa S

    更新日期:1988-10-13 00:00:00

  • The Drosophila pheromone cVA activates a sexually dimorphic neural circuit.

    abstract::Courtship is an innate sexually dimorphic behaviour that can be observed in naive animals without previous learning or experience, suggesting that the neural circuits that mediate this behaviour are developmentally programmed. In Drosophila, courtship involves a complex yet stereotyped array of dimorphic behaviours th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Datta SR,Vasconcelos ML,Ruta V,Luo S,Wong A,Demir E,Flores J,Balonze K,Dickson BJ,Axel R

    更新日期:2008-03-27 00:00:00

  • T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection.

    abstract::The clinical course of autoimmune and infectious disease varies greatly, even between individuals with the same condition. An understanding of the molecular basis for this heterogeneity could lead to significant improvements in both monitoring and treatment. During chronic infection the process of T-cell exhaustion in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKinney EF,Lee JC,Jayne DR,Lyons PA,Smith KG

    更新日期:2015-07-30 00:00:00

  • GSK-3α/β kinases and amyloid production in vivo.

    abstract::Arising from C. J. Phiel, C. A. Wilson, V. M.-Y. Lee & P. S. Klein 423, 435-439 (2003)A major unresolved issue in Alzheimer's disease is identifying the mechanisms that regulate proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) isozymes are thought to be important in this re...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Jaworski T,Dewachter I,Lechat B,Gees M,Kremer A,Demedts D,Borghgraef P,Devijver H,Kügler S,Patel S,Woodgett JR,Van Leuven F

    更新日期:2011-12-07 00:00:00

  • Global plasticity in adult visual cortex following reversal of visual input.

    abstract::The reversal or displacement of the retinal image by prism spectacles leads to extreme disruption of visually guided behaviour, but after an extended period of visual transformation normal behaviour is gradually restored. It is unclear whether this adaptation involves a change in visual perception, the learning of new...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugita Y

    更新日期:1996-04-11 00:00:00

  • A highly conserved ATPase protein as a mediator between acidic activation domains and the TATA-binding protein.

    abstract::Biochemical and genetic studies suggest the existence of mediators that work between the activation domains (ADs) of regulatory proteins and the basic transcriptional machinery. We have previously shown genetically that Sug1 interacts with the AD of the yeast activator Ga14. Here we provide evidence that the Sug1 prot...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swaffield JC,Melcher K,Johnston SA

    更新日期:1995-03-02 00:00:00

  • Germline-encoded amino acids in the alphabeta T-cell receptor control thymic selection.

    abstract::An alphabeta T-cell response depends on the recognition of antigen plus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins by its antigen receptor (TCR). The ability of peripheral alphabeta T cells to recognize MHC is at least partly determined by MHC-dependent thymic selection, by which an immature T cell survives only ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scott-Browne JP,White J,Kappler JW,Gapin L,Marrack P

    更新日期:2009-04-23 00:00:00

  • The divergent fates of primitive hydrospheric water on Earth and Mars.

    abstract::Despite active transport into Earth's mantle, water has been present on our planet's surface for most of geological time. Yet water disappeared from the Martian surface soon after its formation. Although some of the water on Mars was lost to space via photolysis following the collapse of the planet's magnetic field, t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wade J,Dyck B,Palin RM,Moore JDP,Smye AJ

    更新日期:2017-12-20 00:00:00

  • Synthesis of epothilones A and B in solid and solution phase.

    abstract::Epothilones A and B, two compounds that have been recently isolated from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum strain 90, have generated intense interest among chemists, biologists and clinicians owing to the structural complexity, unusual mechanism of interaction with microtubules and anticancer potential of these molec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nicolaou KC,Winssinger N,Pastor J,Ninkovic S,Sarabia F,He Y,Vourloumis D,Yang Z,Li T,Giannakakou P,Hamel E

    更新日期:1997-05-15 00:00:00

  • Excitatory transmission from the amygdala to nucleus accumbens facilitates reward seeking.

    abstract::The basolateral amygdala (BLA) has a crucial role in emotional learning irrespective of valence. The BLA projection to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is thought to modulate cue-triggered motivated behaviours, but our understanding of the interaction between these two brain regions has been limited by the inability to man...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stuber GD,Sparta DR,Stamatakis AM,van Leeuwen WA,Hardjoprajitno JE,Cho S,Tye KM,Kempadoo KA,Zhang F,Deisseroth K,Bonci A

    更新日期:2011-06-29 00:00:00

  • Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency.

    abstract::The cloning of mammals from differentiated donor cells has refuted the old dogma that development is an irreversible process. It has demonstrated that the oocyte can reprogramme an adult nucleus into an embryonic state that can direct development of a new organism. The prospect of deriving patient-specific embryonic s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hochedlinger K,Jaenisch R

    更新日期:2006-06-29 00:00:00

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene maps to chromosome 11 and is lost in insulinoma.

    abstract::Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is a predisposition to hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, and to hyperplasia or tumours of the anterior pituitary and the endocrine pancreas, and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Here we map the MEN-1 locus to chromosome 11 by family studies, and demonstrate ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larsson C,Skogseid B,Oberg K,Nakamura Y,Nordenskjöld M

    更新日期:1988-03-03 00:00:00

  • A protein from human placental nuclei binds preferentially to 5-methylcytosine-rich DNA.

    abstract::The methylation of vertebrate DNA at the 5-position of approximately 3-10% of its cytosine residues occurs in a sequence-specific and tissue-specific manner and has been implicated in the control of transcription. How these differences are established and how they mediate the initiation or maintenance of transcription...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang LH,Wang R,Gama-Sosa MA,Shenoy S,Ehrlich M

    更新日期:1984-03-15 00:00:00

  • Orbital Kondo effect in carbon nanotubes.

    abstract::Progress in the fabrication of nanometre-scale electronic devices is opening new opportunities to uncover deeper aspects of the Kondo effect--a characteristic phenomenon in the physics of strongly correlated electrons. Artificial single-impurity Kondo systems have been realized in various nanostructures, including sem...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jarillo-Herrero P,Kong J,van der Zant HS,Dekker C,Kouwenhoven LP,De Franceschi S

    更新日期:2005-03-24 00:00:00

  • In vitro osteoclast generation from different bone marrow fractions, including a highly enriched haematopoietic stem cell population.

    abstract::It is well established that the osteoclast is formed by fusion of post-mitotic, mononuclear precursors derived from circulating progenitor cells. However, the precise haematopoietic origin of the osteoclast is unknown. We have investigated this here by fractionating mouse bone marrow and isolating haematopoietic stem ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheven BA,Visser JW,Nijweide PJ

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • Imperfect optics may be the eye's defence against chromatic blur.

    abstract::The optics of the eye cause different wavelengths of light to be differentially focused at the retina. This phenomenon is due to longitudinal chromatic aberration, a wavelength-dependent change in refractive power. Retinal image quality may consequently vary for the different classes of cone photoreceptors, cells tune...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLellan JS,Marcos S,Prieto PM,Burns SA

    更新日期:2002-05-09 00:00:00

  • Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex.

    abstract::Neurons in the developing rodent cortex are generated from radial glial cells that function as neural stem cells. These epithelial cells line the cerebral ventricles and generate intermediate progenitor cells that migrate into the subventricular zone (SVZ) and proliferate to increase neuronal number. The developing hu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hansen DV,Lui JH,Parker PR,Kriegstein AR

    更新日期:2010-03-25 00:00:00

  • Three-dimensional structure of an antigenic mutant of the influenza virus haemagglutinin.

    abstract::Antigenic variation in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza virus is associated with recurrent epidemics of respiratory disease in man (for review see ref. 1). We have examined the size of structural changes necessary to alter the antigenicity of HA by determining the three-dimensional structure of the HA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knossow M,Daniels RS,Douglas AR,Skehel JJ,Wiley DC

    更新日期:1984-10-18 00:00:00