A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of intravenous pilocarpine in humans.


:Pilocarpine (P) is of potential utility in the treatment of xerostomia. Because optimal development of P dosage forms for humans requires that its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics be defined, this intravenous study of its disposition and associated salivary responses was performed. In a hospital setting, two healthy female subjects were given a series of graded doses of intravenous P or placebo to stimulate salivary secretion. Plasma levels of P, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were simultaneously monitored. Other objective and subjective physiological parameters were assessed. Plasma concentrations of P declined either mono- or bi-exponentially with time, and brisk initial salivation was followed by prolonged salivation at doses > or = 1 mg. At doses between 0.5 and 3.5 mg, dose-independent pharmacokinetic parameters included a small steady-state volume of distribution (2.4 to 3.0 L/kg), a high plasma clearance (0.026 to 0.03 L/kg/min), and a mean residence time of approximately 100 min. The cumulative volume of whole saliva secreted during the first 3 h post-dose was linearly related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Plasma concentrations from 1 to 42 ng/mL were associated with significant levels of salivation. The pharmacokinetic linearity of the system and proportionality between the area under plasma concentration-time curves and overall salivary response have important implications for the design and utilization of pilocarpine dosage forms.


J Dent Res


Tanzer JM,Kramer PA,Schulman P,Willard AK




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Natural defenses against Candida colonization breakdown in the oral cavities of the elderly.

    abstract::Candida colonization of the oral cavity increases in the elderly. A major predisposing condition is denture use, which also increases in the elderly. To test whether the increase in colonization is age-related in a fashion independent of denture use, we analyzed the frequency (incidence) of carriage, the intensity of ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lockhart SR,Joly S,Vargas K,Swails-Wenger J,Enger L,Soll DR

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Host response in experimental periodontal disease.

    abstract::Experiments were performed to determine the role of the immune response in rat periodontal disease. Germ-free rats were fed defined antigen-free liquid diets or a diet containing ovalbumin(OVA) as a prototype antigen. The OVA-fed rats demonstrated increased gingival lymphocytes (mainly T at early times), OVA-sensitize...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taubman MA,Yoshie H,Ebersole JL,Smith DJ,Olson CL

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of phase transitions in gutta-percha by differential thermal analysis.

    abstract::Pure gutta-percha was heat-treated in a differential thermal analyzer. The high melting form crystallized on cooling when gutta-percha was heated to 70 C or less. Above 74 C, crystallization into the low melting form predominated. Either polymorph can be selectively crystallized by control of the heat-treatment temper...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rootare HM,Powers JM

    更新日期:1977-12-01 00:00:00

  • X-ray diffraction study of acid-degradable glasses.

    abstract::The composition of the degradable glasses used in commercial dental glass-ionomer cements determines their leaching behavior and hence the properties of the cement. The objective of the present study was to assess if the composition and leaching in acetic acid solutions are reflected in the x-ray diffraction character...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Maeyer EA,Verbeeck RM

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Dental development in hemifacial microsomia.

    abstract::Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder marked by facial asymmetry. Whether facial asymmetry accounts for asymmetrical dental development is unknown. There are few data on dental development relative to mandibular development or severity of HFM, or on development over time. We hypothesized that when mandi...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ongkosuwito EM,de Gijt P,Wattel E,Carels CE,Kuijpers-Jagtman AM

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative study of salivary lysozyme in caries-resistant and caries-susceptible adults.

    abstract::Lysozyme concentration was quantitated immunochemically in parotid and submandibular-sublingual saliva of 46 caries-resistant and 17 caries-susceptible adults. There was essentially no difference between the two groups. The concentration of lysozyme was three times higher in the submandibular-sublingual than in the pa...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stuchell RN,Mandel ID

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    abstract::Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to e...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Listl S,Galloway J,Mossey PA,Marcenes W

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular Vesicles of Stem Cells to Prevent BRONJ.

    abstract::Extracellular vesicles (EVs), several tens to hundreds of nanometers in size, are vesicles secreted by cells for intercellular communication. EVs released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) have the potential to treat multiple diseases. This study aimed to determine the effects of MSC-EVs on bisphosphonate-related ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe J,Sakai K,Urata Y,Toyama N,Nakamichi E,Hibi H

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Fibroblastic subpopulations in uninjured and wounded rabbit oral mucosa.

    abstract::Fibroblast cultures derived from uninjured and reparative rabbit buccal mucosa were compared in terms of extracellular glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and cellular response to interleukin-1 (IL-1). Under identical growth conditions, proliferation of both cell lines was the same. Both lines incorporated [3H]-glucosamin...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bronson RE,Treat JA,Bertolami CN

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dissolution of mercury from amalgam into saline solution.

    abstract::Dissolution of mercury from amalgams and some intermetallic compounds found in the amalgam structure, such as gamma 1, gamma 2, and beta 1, was examined during one week of aging in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37 degrees C. The amount of mercury released from gamma 1 (30.2 micrograms/cm2) was at least 13 times that released ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okabe T,Ferracane J,Cooper C,Matsumoto H,Wagner M

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Kinin generation in the gingival inflammatory response to topically applied bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    abstract::A water-soluble lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella enteritidis and a phenol-soluble lipopolysaccharide from Leptotrichia buccalis were applied topically to the healthy marginal gingivae of beagle dogs. Saline was applied to contralateral areas as an internal control. Increases in vascular permeability were monitored b...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montgomery EH,White RR

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to mouse salivary glands.

    abstract::Adenoviral vectors effectively transfer genes to rat salivary glands. However, potent immune responses limit their use in vivo. Mice offer more opportunities than rats for the study of these immune processes. We first established conditions for infection of mouse salivary glands, with an adenoviral vector. The effects...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang S,Baum BJ,Yamano S,Mankani MH,Sun D,Jonsson M,Davis C,Graham FL,Gauldie J,Atkinson JC

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Damage maps of veneered zirconia under simulated mastication.

    abstract::Zirconia-based restorations often fracture from chipping and/or delamination of the porcelain veneers. We hypothesized that veneer chipping/delamination is a result of the propagation of near-contact-induced partial cone cracks on the occlusal surface under mastication. Masticatory loading involves the opposing tooth ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim JW,Kim JH,Janal MN,Zhang Y

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep apnea symptoms and risk of temporomandibular disorder: OPPERA cohort.

    abstract::The authors tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) signs/symptoms are associated with the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), using the OPPERA prospective cohort study of adults aged 18 to 44 years at enrollment (n = 2,604) and the OPPERA case-control study of chronic TMD (n = 1,716). In ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanders AE,Essick GK,Fillingim R,Knott C,Ohrbach R,Greenspan JD,Diatchenko L,Maixner W,Dubner R,Bair E,Miller VE,Slade GD

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Incorporation of bacterial inhibitor into resin composite.

    abstract::Attempts to produce resin composite with antibacterial properties by incorporation of an antibacterial agent such as chlorhexidine have been reported, but problems can arise due to release of the inhibitory agent from the composite. Such problems may include toxic effects, influence on mechanical properties, and loss ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imazato S,Torii M,Tsuchitani Y,McCabe JF,Russell RR

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • The presence of fucosyltransferases with different substrate specificity in human parotid saliva.

    abstract::Using glycoproteins and milk oligosaccharides as substrate acceptors, we demonstrated at least two fucosyltransferases in human parotid saliva. One enzyme transferred L-fucose from GDP-fucose to the C-3 position of N-acetylglucosamine or glucose residue of oligosaccharide chains, and the other transferred to the C-4 p...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tamagawa H,Inoshita E,Shibata S,Shizukuishi S,Tsunemitsu A

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • A Comparative Assessment of Implant Site Viability in Humans and Rats.

    abstract::Our long-term objective is to devise methods to improve osteotomy site preparation and, in doing so, facilitate implant osseointegration. As a first step in this process, we developed a standardized oral osteotomy model in ovariectomized rats. There were 2 unique features to this model: first, the rats exhibited an os...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Chen CH,Pei X,Tulu US,Aghvami M,Chen CT,Gaudillière D,Arioka M,Maghazeh Moghim M,Bahat O,Kolinski M,Crosby TR,Felderhoff A,Brunski JB,Helms JA

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly--a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract::Overgrowth of oral yeast is a common problem among the elderly. Probiotic bacteria are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes. We tested the hypothesis that cheese containing probiotic bacteria can reduce the prevalence of oral Candida. During this 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled stud...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hatakka K,Ahola AJ,Yli-Knuuttila H,Richardson M,Poussa T,Meurman JH,Korpela R

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Genetics of human taste perception.

    abstract::Genetic approaches are rapidly yielding new information about our sense of taste. This information comes from both molecular studies of genes encoding taste receptors and other taste-signaling components, and from studies of inherited variation in taste abilities. Our understanding of bitter taste has advanced by comb...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim UK,Breslin PA,Reed D,Drayna D

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Intra-oral models to assess cariogenicity: evaluation of oral fluoride and pH.

    abstract::The main purpose of this paper is to review the various methods used for evaluation of fluoride retention in saliva, plaque, and enamel following application of topical anti-caries treatments such as F dentifrices and F mouthwashes. Such methods monitor delivery of fluoride to the site of action, the mouth, and so can...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Duckworth RM,Gilbert RJ

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Infection and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    abstract::Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), although initially believed to be exclusively associated with bisphosphonates, has been implicated in recent reports with additional drugs, especially the bone antiresorptive denosumab. The pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, and no causal association bet...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Katsarelis H,Shah NP,Dhariwal DK,Pazianas M

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • The control of morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    abstract::Morphogenesis (germ-tube formation) in Candida albicans was induced gratuitously by N-acetylhexosamine derivatives (N-acetyl-glucosamine covalently linked to agarose, N-acetylmannosamine, hyaluronic acid, colloidal chitin, and mucin). These compounds were not taken up by the yeast cells and did not support growth. 2-D...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shepherd MG,Sullivan PA

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of dental amalgams on mercury levels in expired air.

    abstract::The expired air of a group of 48 persons, 40 with and eight without dental amalgam restorations, was analyzed for its mercury content before and after chewing. Expired air samples were collected in polyethylene bags, and a known quantity of each was pumped into the mercury detector for measurement. The results showed ...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Svare CW,Peterson LC,Reinhardt JW,Boyer DB,Frank CW,Gay DD,Cox RD

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • The Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Dental Caries and Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases: A Historical Perspective.

    abstract::Over the last hundred years, groundbreaking research in oral microbiology has provided a broad and deep understanding about the oral microbiome, its interactions with our body, and how the community can affect our health, be protective, or lead to the development of dental diseases. During this exciting journey, hypot...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colombo APV,Tanner ACR

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Titanium and fluoride concentrations in titanium tetrafluoride and APF treated enamel.

    abstract::Greater fluoride concentrations were obtained in enamel treated with phosphate/fluoride solutions than in that treated with TiF4 at similar pH's (1.0) and F concentrations (0.6M F and 1.6M F). However, fluoride solution without added phosphate at pH 1.0 and 1.6M F concentration produced lower fluoride concentrations i...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clarkson B,Wefel J

    更新日期:1979-02-01 00:00:00

  • A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    abstract::The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotyp...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galler KM,Yasue A,Cavender AC,Bialek P,Karsenty G,D'Souza RN

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nanowear of salivary films vs. substratum wettability.

    abstract::The pellicle serves as a multifunctional protective layer, providing, e.g., lubrication and remineralization and also acting as a diffusion barrier. In addition, since the formation of the pellicle precedes the adhesion of micro-organisms, it is also important as a conditioning film. We present a novel approach to stu...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sotres J,Pettersson T,Lindh L,Arnebrant T

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite by low-molecular-weight chitosans.

    abstract::The role of Streptococcus mutans in the initiation of dental caries has been recognized and attributed, at least in part, to its ability to colonize the tooth surface. Therefore, factors which prevent S. mutans attachment to hydroxyapatite (HA) are of considerable interest for the prophylaxis of this infectious diseas...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarsi R,Muzzarelli RA,Guzmán CA,Pruzzo C

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Adherence controlling elements in ceramic-metal systems. I. Precious alloys.

    abstract::Elemental analysis of two precious alloyceramic systems revealed the accumulation of Sn atoms within the interaction zone of couples subjected to a range of metal oxidation time; and varying total firing times. The source of Sn atoms which accumulated within the interaction zone was the opaque porcelain layer which co...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anusavice KJ,Horner JA,Fairhurst CW

    更新日期:1977-09-01 00:00:00

  • Studies on microstructure of gold soldered joints.

    abstract::Solder microstructures were found to be influenced by those of the castings. A tendency of solder to match the microstructures contacted during its solidification was demonstrated. Several different types of defects were identified in the soldered joints. Tentative correlations of the observed microstructures and defe...

    journal_title:Journal of dental research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saito T,Fortunato Santos J

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00