Tumor necrosis factor alpha: posttranscriptional stabilization of WAF1 mRNA in p53-deficient human leukemic cells.


:The p53 protein directly regulates the expression of the WAF1 (wild-type p53-activated fragment 1) protein which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDK1). DNA damaging agents such as ionizing or UV radiation, and some chemical agents induce WAF1 in wild-type p53 containing cells, thereby halting cell cycle progression. WAF1 expression is also induced through a p53-independent pathway. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a cytotoxic/cytostatic compound for some human cancer cells. We examined a series of myeloid leukemic cell lines that expressed either no p53 (HL-60, K562) or mutant inactive p53 (KG-1, KCL22,THP-1, U937). The KG-1, HL-60, K562, and KCL22 myeloid leukemic cells increased their levels of WAF1 mRNA in the presence of TNF alpha. We focused on KG-1 cells to determine how TNF alpha modulated WAF1 expression. WAF1 mRNA increased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells after exposure to increasing concentrations of TNF alpha, and this increase occurred in the absence of new protein synthesis. An increase of WAF1 protein and a concominant decrease of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity also was found in KG-1 cells. Flow cytometry using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine showed an increase in the proportion of TNF alpha- treated KG-1 cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. TNF alpha enhanced the rate of WAF1 transcription only 1.4 fold in TNF alpha-treated KG-1 cells as compared to untreated cells. Notably, however, the half-life (t 1/2) of WAF1 mRNA in TNF alpha-treated cells was 2.5 hours as compared to 0.5 hours in untreated cells. These results indicate that TNF alpha increases WAF1 levels at least in part via a postttranscriptional stabilization of the mRNA; and TNF alpha may mediate its cytostatic effects through WAF1 in some cell types.


J Cell Physiol


Shiohara M,Akashi M,Gombart AF,Yang R,Koeffler HP




Has Abstract


1996-03-01 00:00:00














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