Chemical structure--teratogenicity relationships, toxicokinetics and metabolism in risk assessment of retinoids.


:Retinoic acid, an oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is involved in the control of many biological processes including embryonic development and excess as well as deficiency of retinoids has been found to be teratogenic. The effects of retinoids in normal as well as abnormal development may be mediated by two members of retinoid receptors, the RARs and RXRs, which exhibit specific temporal and spatial expression during development. Evidence accumulates that any alteration of this complex retinoid system may be related to teratogenic effects. Here we investigate the influence of toxicokinetic parameters, including aspects of metabolism and placental transfer, on the teratogenic potency of retinoids. It is demonstrated that activation (oxidation of retinoic acids; hydrolysis of glycoconjugates) and deactivation reactions (isomerization from trans- into cis-configuration; beta-glucuronidation) relate to teratogenesis. The beta-glucuronides of retinoic acids show poor placental transfer and prolonged presence in the maternal organism. Non-retinoid compounds such as antiepileptic agents may exert some of their teratogenicity via alteration of endogenous retinoid levels.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Nau H




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Experimental exposure to 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a): uptake, disposition and acute effects in male volunteers.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to determine the toxicokinetics and some effects of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) in humans. Nine male volunteers were experimentally exposed to 500ppm HFC-143a for 2h during light physical exercise (50W) in an exposure chamber. Blood, urine and exhaled air were sampled before, during and ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Gunnare S,Ernstgård L,Sjögren B,Johanson G

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Teratogenicity of di-n-butyltin dichloride in rats.

    abstract::Pregnant rats were given di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBT) by gastric intubation at a dose of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 mg/kg on days 7-15 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity occurred in the 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg groups as evidenced by a significant increase in maternal death and decrease in food consumption and body weight gain...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ema M,Itami T,Kawasaki H

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of anthocyanins on the AhR-CYP1A1 signaling pathway in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines.

    abstract::Anthocyanins are plant pigments occurring in flowers and berry fruits. Since a phenomenon of food-drug interactions is increasingly emerging, we examined the effects of 21 major anthocyanins and the extracts from 3 food supplements containing anthocyanins on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamenickova A,Anzenbacherova E,Pavek P,Soshilov AA,Denison MS,Zapletalova M,Anzenbacher P,Dvorak Z

    更新日期:2013-07-31 00:00:00

  • Repeated exposure of C57Bl mice to inhaled benzene at 10 ppm markedly depressed erythropoietic colony formation.

    abstract::Exposure of C57Bl mice to 10 ppm benzene (the current occupational exposure limit) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week causes a progressive depression in the in vitro colony forming ability of one of the erythroid progenitor cells, the colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E). Colony growth of cells from exposed mice was only 5% of...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baarson KA,Snyder CA,Albert RE

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cytokine regulation of chemical sensitization.

    abstract::The skin is an immunologically active tissue. Epidermal cells, both keratinocytes and Langerhans cells (LC), produce constitutively or can be stimulated to produce a variety of cytokines, many of which play important roles in the induction and regulation of allergic responses to sensitizing chemicals. Tumor necrosis f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kimber I,Holliday MR,Dearman RJ

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Differential expression of the phthalate syndrome in male Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats after in utero DEHP exposure.

    abstract::Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone and insulin-like three hormones resulting in malformations of androgen- and insulin-like three-dependent tissues. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that gubernacular lesions would be more prevalent in the DEHP-treated ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson VS,Howdeshell KL,Lambright CS,Furr J,Earl Gray L Jr

    更新日期:2007-05-15 00:00:00

  • Long-term neurological and neuropsychological complications of sulfur mustard and Lewisite mixture poisoning in Chinese victims exposed to chemical warfare agents abandoned at the end of WWII.

    abstract::In August 2003, 44 victims were poisoned by chemical warfare agents (CWAs) leaked from five drums that were excavated at a construction site in Qiqihar, Northeast China. The drums were abandoned by the former Japanese imperial army during World War II and contained a mixture of Sulfur mustard (SM) and Lewisite. We car...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Isono O,Kituda A,Fujii M,Yoshinaka T,Nakagawa G,Suzuki Y

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae against metal ion toxicity and glutathione depletion.

    abstract::Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 (Ahp1p) is a thioredoxin peroxidase of the peroxiredoxin family expressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, disruption of the AHP1 gene has shown that the gene is not essential for yeast growth on glucose medium but revealed a high sensitivity of null mutants to organic peroxides, ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyên-nhu NT,Knoops B

    更新日期:2002-10-05 00:00:00

  • Hepatotoxicity of dimethylnitrosamine in cats and lizards.

    abstract::The hepatotoxic effects of the oral administration of a single dose of 50 mg dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)/kg and daily doses of 5 mg and 1 mg/kg, respectively, to cats and lizards were studied by light microscopy. Centrilobular necrosis was the main alteration detected in the liver of cats as in other animal species stud...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maduagwu EN,Anosa VO

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Metal environmental contamination within different human exposure context- specific and non-specific biomarkers.

    abstract::Exposure to high levels of persistent pollutants, such as metal mixtures, is commonly encountered by the general population especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate how metal pollution in contaminated areas is reflected in terms of biomarkers (BMs) of exposure and effect in human su...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Andrade VL,Cota M,Serrazina D,Mateus ML,Aschner M,Dos Santos APM

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Impairments induced by sublethal doses of two pesticides in the ovaries of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus Bloch.

    abstract::Impairments induced by sublethal doses of two pesticides Carbaryl and Endosulfan have been studied on the ovaries of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus by exposing the fish for a period of 2 to 30 days during the spawning season. The pesticide exposure produced reduction in the number of oocytes, reduction in size a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kulshrestha SK,Arora N

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of nitromusks in early lifestages of South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    abstract::Musk xylene (MX), musk ketone (MK) and musk moskene (MM) are synthetic nitro-containing fragrances. Due to their inherent lipophilicity and environmental persistence, they are frequently detected in environmental samples and especially in aquatic ecosystems. Despite this, the current environmental toxicity database of...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chou YJ,Dietrich DR

    更新日期:1999-12-20 00:00:00

  • Effect of chronic herbicide intoxication on in vivo activities of certain enzymes in the liver of freshwater fish Nemachelius denisonii (day).

    abstract::Effect of 120 days of continuous exposure of three sublethal concentrations (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 fractions of 96 h LC50) of Basalin on alkaline phosphatase (Alk P), acid phosphatase (Acid P), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transamina...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rashatwar SS,Ilyas R

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the organs of a suspected case of cannabis poisoning.

    abstract::An unusual case of fatal poisoning by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)--a physiologically active constituent of cannabis--is reported. Methods of isolation and detection of delta-9-THC was estimated quantitatively by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and photoelectric densitometry. ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tewari SN,Sharma JD

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ga(III) complexes--the effect of metal coordination on potential systemic absorption after topical exposure.

    abstract::The handling of elemental gallium is not thought to be harmful, but this assumption does not consider metal coordination which readily occurs in physiological fluids. The aim of this work was to determine Ga(III) coordination behaviour in simple solutions and assess the effects of complex formation upon skin permeatio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staff K,Brown MB,Chilcott RP,Hider RC,Jones SA,Kong XL

    更新日期:2011-05-10 00:00:00

  • Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    abstract::The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) in parental...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Ven LT,van de Kuil T,Leonards PE,Slob W,Lilienthal H,Litens S,Herlin M,Håkansson H,Cantón RF,van den Berg M,Visser TJ,van Loveren H,Vos JG,Piersma AH

    更新日期:2009-02-25 00:00:00

  • Mutagenic effects of fluphenazine hydrochloride in Drosophila melanogaster.

    abstract::The mutagenic potential of fluphenazine hydrochloride was tested on male germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The criterion used was sex-linked recessive lethal mutations. Oregon-K males of D. melanogaster, reared on a medium containing 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/ml of the drug, were screened for sex-linked recessive le...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao KP,Rao MS

    更新日期:1980-12-01 00:00:00

  • Initiation/promotion assay for chemical carcinogens in rat liver.

    abstract::A short-term initiation/promotion bioassay has been developed in rat liver using putative preneoplastic foci as the endpoint for the detection of chemical carcinogens. The two protocols of the bioassay used in this study were varied according to the time 2/3 partial hepatectomy was performed in relation to when the in...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herren SL,Pereira MA,Britt AL,Khoury MK

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of cisplatin and cobalt chloride on antioxidant enzymes in the livers of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice: protective role of heme oxygenase.

    abstract::Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase (HO) and changes in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the livers of control and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice 24 h after a single injection o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christova TY,Gorneva GA,Taxirov SI,Duridanova DB,Setchenska MS

    更新日期:2003-03-03 00:00:00

  • Alcohol exposure induces chick craniofacial bone defects by negatively affecting cranial neural crest development.

    abstract::Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs expose...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang P,Wang G,Lin Z,Wu Y,Zhang J,Liu M,Lee KKH,Chuai M,Yang X

    更新日期:2017-11-05 00:00:00

  • Promoting effect of testosterone propionate on experimental exocrine pancreatic tumors by 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in rats.

    abstract::A single intravenous injection of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in a dose of 9 mg/kg induced exocrine adenomas of the pancreas in a significantly higher rate in male than in female rats. Castration following HAQO administration diminished the incidence of the pancreatic tumors in male rats. A combined treatment with...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Katayama H

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Biotransformation of the insecticide parathion by mouse brain.

    abstract::The acute toxicity of organothiophosphate insecticides like parathion results from their metabolic activation by cytochromes P450. The present study is directed towards the characterization of cytochrome-P450-dependent metabolism of parathion by various mouse brain regions. Intraperitoneal administration of [35S]parat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soranno TM,Sultatos LG

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increase of adrenal weight in rats by the repeated administration of fenitrothion.

    abstract::Adrenal weight and the concentration of corticosterone and glucose in plasma of male Wistar rats, dosed orally with fenitrothion (7.25 or 14.5 mg/kg/day) for 28 days were investigated. A significant increase in the relative weight of adrenals was observed 2 weeks after treatment commenced, but was preceded by an incre...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto T,Egashira T,Yoshida T,Kuroiwa Y

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • The enemy at the gates? DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents.

    abstract::Genomic DNA is under continuous assault by various chemical species produced by normal cellular metabolism. In addition, exposure to exogenous agents adds further insult. Modification of DNA by chemical carcinogens has long been recognized as an early event in carcinogenesis and many DNA adducts have been characterize...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shuker DE

    更新日期:2002-08-05 00:00:00

  • 3,4,3',4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl given to mice prenatally produces long-term decreases in striatal dopamine and receptor binding sites in the caudate nucleus.

    abstract::Pregnant CD-1 mice were given 32 mg/kg of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) or corn oil vehicle, by gavage, on days 10--16 of gestation. At 1 year of age, the offspring were tested for spontaneous motor activity; the mice were then killed and dopamine (DA) levels and specific DA receptor binding were measured in the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agrawal AK,Tilson HA,Bondy SC

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Urinary mutagenicity after controlled exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

    abstract::20 non-smokers on a defined diet low in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in an unventilated room for 8 h. The urinary mutagenicity in the 24-h urine samples as tested with the Salmonella (TA98) microsome assay did not significantly increase after exposure to eith...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scherer G,Westphal K,Biber A,Hoepfner I,Adlkofer F

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Manganese-induced oxidative DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells: attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine.

    abstract::Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal function and development. However, exposure to this metal at elevated levels may cause manganism, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with neurological symptoms similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Elevated body burdens of Mn from exposu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stephenson AP,Schneider JA,Nelson BC,Atha DH,Jain A,Soliman KF,Aschner M,Mazzio E,Renee Reams R

    更新日期:2013-04-26 00:00:00

  • Ethane formation of isolated rat hepatocytes due to carbon tetrachloride.

    abstract::Isolated rat hepatocytes incubated aerobically formed measurable amounts of ethane, a parameter for lipid peroxidation. This ethane formation increased several-fold due to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) depending on its concentration. Cell damage as measured by trypan blue uptake and lactate dehydrogenase release poorly ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ruiter N,Ottenwälder H,Muliawan H,Kappus H

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

  • Acute effects of 2-nitropropane on rat liver and brain.

    abstract::Intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) induced lipid accumulation, centrilobular necrosis, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial abnormalities in rat liver 24 h after exposure. These pathological changes were accompanied by ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zitting A,Savolainen H,Nickels J

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes from starved rats.

    abstract::Isolated hepatocytes form thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactants, a parameter of lipid peroxidation (LPO), when exposed to cadmium (Cd). Paracetamol (Para) inhibits this response, dependent on time and concentration. Cd-induced SH-group decline, however, and enhanced plasma membrane permeability to Trypan Blue (TB) were ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller L

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00