Molecular biology of insecticide resistance.


:The widespread use of insecticides has amounted to a large scale 'experiment' in natural selection of insects by chemicals of toxicological importance to humans. Specific examples in which the molecular basis of insecticide resistance has been studied in detail are presented here. The biochemical/physiological mechanisms of resistance can be categorized as target site insensitivity, increased metabolic detoxification and sequestration or lowered availability of the toxicant. These are achieved at the molecular level by: point mutations in the ion channel portion of a GABA receptor subunit (cyclodiene insecticides); point mutations in the vicinity of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) active site (organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide resistance); amplification of esterase genes (organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides); mutations linked genetically to a sodium channel gene (DDT and pyrethroid insecticides); and yet uncharacterized mutations leading to the up-regulation of detoxification enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases (many classes of insecticides). In several cases, the selection of a precisely homologous mutation has been observed in different insect species.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Feyereisen R




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • PM2.5 exposure and cold stress exacerbates asthma in mice by increasing histone acetylation in IL-4 gene promoter in CD4+ T cells.

    abstract::Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease which severely reduces the quality of life in patients. Studies have demonstrated that both PM2.5 and cold stress contribute to the development of asthma. However, the combined effects of these two risking factors are unknown. In this study, we investigated the combined ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou J,Geng F,Xu J,Peng L,Ye X,Yang D,Zhao J,Sun Q

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • JUUL e-liquid exposure elicits cytoplasmic Ca2+ responses and leads to cytotoxicity in cultured airway epithelial cells.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The popularity of new and emerging tobacco products such as E-cigarettes (E-cigs) is rapidly expanding worldwide. However, uncertainties surrounding the potential health consequences due to the use of such products exist and warrant further study. METHODS:Cultured A549 and Calu-3 airway epithelia were expose...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang R,Jones MM,Dornsife RE,Wu T,Sivaraman V,Tarran R,Onyenwoke RU

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and beta-lyase in the nephrotoxicity of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene and methyl mercury in mice.

    abstract::Male Swiss OF1 mice received a single oral dose of either 80 mg/kg hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD) or 80 mg/kg methyl mercury (MeHg). Examination of cryostat kidney sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (APP) revealed damage to about 50% of the proximal tubules after 8 h. Pretreatment with the gamma-glutamyltransp...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ceaurriz J,Ban M

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Investigations on benzyltoluenes. I. Induction of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by tetrachlorobenzyltoluenes and by the condensate.

    abstract::Tetrachlorobenzyltoluene (TCBT) (Ugilec 141) was investigated in induction experiments in male and female Wistar rats with long-term (50, 100 and 300 mg/kg p.o. daily for 28 days) and short-term administration (300 mg/kg once and 100 mg/kg daily for 4 days). The increase in total cytochrome P-450 did not exceed the fa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: von Meyerinck L,Hufnagel B,Schmoldt A,Benthe HF

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Constitutive expression of the AHR signaling pathway in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line and modulation by dioxin-like PCB and other AHR ligands.

    abstract::Environmental pollutants, such as dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, benzo(a) pyrene (B[a]P), and flavonoids are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and may be excreted in dairy milk. The expression of AHR-target genes, particularly those involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, and their modulation by two DL-PCBs, B[a]P, an...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Girolami F,Spalenza V,Manzini L,Carletti M,Nebbia C

    更新日期:2015-01-05 00:00:00

  • Cytogenetic and teratogenic evaluation of letimide.

    abstract::Letimide is a new efficient analgesic salicylate derivative. In this study we evaluated its cytogenetic and teratogenic potential. For chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange analysis we tested 250, 375, 500 and 625 micrograms/ml of letimide in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro, and for the in vivo cyto...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Díaz Barriga-Arceo S,Madrigal-Bujaidar E,Salazar M,Chamorro G

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment.

    abstract::In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites/mechanisms of action and the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andersen ME

    更新日期:2003-02-18 00:00:00

  • Excessive apoptosis and disordered autophagy flux contribute to the neurotoxicity induced by high iodine in Sprague-Dawley rat.

    abstract::In recent years, the detrimental effects of high iodine on intelligence are gaining tons of attention, but the relationship between high iodine and neurotoxicity is controversial. This study aimed to explore whether high iodine intake may impair intelligence and the roles of apoptosis and autophagy in high iodine-indu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cui Y,Zhang Z,Zhang B,Zhao L,Hou C,Zeng Q,Nie J,Yu J,Zhao Y,Gao T,Wang A,Liu H

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Correlative morphological and biochemical studies on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary alterations in rats.

    abstract::A single s.c. injection of 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline to rats induced pulmonary alterations characterized by hyaline thrombi of capillaries and arterioles, focal necrosis of alveolar walls, and medial thickening and intimal hyalinosis of arteries. Such pathological alterations became apparent 7 days after injection and...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Kokubo T,Takahashi M,Furukawa F,Otsuka H,Hashimoto K

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Subchronic administration of sublethal doses of thallium to rats: effects on distribution and lipid peroxidation in brain regions.

    abstract::Occupational exposure to thallium (Tl+) is known to be responsible for severe neurological manifestations in humans, including ataxia and paralysis; however, little is known yet about the precise mechanism of toxicity elicited by this heavy metal at sublethal doses and its brain distribution after chronic or subchroni...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galván-Arzate S,Martínez A,Medina E,Santamaría A,Ríos C

    更新日期:2000-07-27 00:00:00

  • A keratin 18 transgenic zebrafish Tg(k18(2.9):RFP) treated with inorganic arsenite reveals visible overproliferation of epithelial cells.

    abstract::Inorganic arsenic has strong human carcinogenic potential, but the availability of an animal model to study toxicity is extremely limited. Here, we used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(k18(2.9):RFP) as an animal model to study arsenite toxicity. This line was chosen because the red fluorescent protein (RFP) is expres...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang YH,Chen YH,Wu TN,Lin YJ,Tsai HJ

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • MiR-34a/sirtuin-1/foxo3a is involved in genistein protecting against ox-LDL-induced oxidative damage in HUVECs.

    abstract::The antioxidant activity of genistein is associated with preventing atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein at different concentrations (10nM, 100nM and 1000nM) for 6h and then exposed to...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang H,Zhao Z,Pang X,Yang J,Yu H,Zhang Y,Zhou H,Zhao J

    更新日期:2017-08-05 00:00:00

  • Cilastatin attenuates vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity via P-glycoprotein.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Oxidative stress is one of the main pathogenic mechanisms in vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity (VIN). Some studies suggest proximal renal tubular cell necrosis by vancomycin accumulation as a mechanism of nephrotoxicity, and other studies demonstrate that cilastatin has protective effects against drug-induce...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Im DS,Shin HJ,Yang KJ,Jung SY,Song HY,Hwang HS,Gil HW

    更新日期:2017-08-05 00:00:00

  • Chronic inhalation effects of tetrachloroethylene on hepatic and renal microsomal electron transport components and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in rats.

    abstract::Hepatic and renal microsomal electron transport components and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase were investigated in adult male rats exposed to 0, 50, 200 and 600 ppm tetrachloroethylene for 4 weeks. Body weight and liver weight showed a significant decrease only in the 600 ppm group. A dose-dependent dec...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soni M,Nomiyama H,Nomiyama K

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis in C57BL6 mouse via activating Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    abstract::2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental pollutant that could induce serious toxic effects in both humans and rodents. Some studies suggested that TCDD exposure may facilitate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanism b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han M,Liu X,Liu S,Su G,Fan X,Chen J,Yuan Q,Xu G

    更新日期:2017-05-05 00:00:00

  • Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of estrogen homeostasis: elevation of estrogenquinones as a risk factor for developing breast cancer in Taiwanese women.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived adducts, including 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q), in human hemoglobin (Hb). The methodology was then used to measure the levels of these adducts in Hb derived from female breast canc...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin C,Hsieh WC,Chen DR,Kuo SJ,Yu WF,Hu SW,Sue HJ,Ko MH,Juan CH,Chung KS,Lin PH

    更新日期:2014-03-21 00:00:00

  • Expression of pulmonary cytochrome P4501A1 and carcinogen DNA adduct formation in high risk subjects for tobacco-related lung cancer.

    abstract::Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for lung cancer (LC), but genetically determined variations in pulmonary metabolism of tobacco-derived carcinogens may affect individual risk. Results from a case-control study on LC patients demonstrated the pronounced effect of tobacco smoke on pulmonary xenobiotic meta...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bartsch H,Castegnaro M,Rojas M,Camus AM,Alexandrov K,Lang M

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    abstract::The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Worek F,Thiermann H,Wille T

    更新日期:2016-02-26 00:00:00

  • Protein adduct binding properties of tabun-subtype nerve agents after exposure in vitro and in vivo.

    abstract::Upon entering the body, nerve agents can bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. Tabun derivatives (O-alkyl-N,N-dialkyl phosphoroamidocyanidates) have strikingly different structural features from other G-series nerve agents, such as sarin and soman. Here, we investigate the binding mechanism f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu F,Liu H,Gao R,Zhao P,Lu X,Zhang R,Wang L,Wang H,Pei C

    更新日期:2020-03-15 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of DNA synthesis after a single administration of cadmium nitrate.

    abstract::The effect of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of cadmium nitrate was investigated in livers of male Wistar rats. A significant increase in liver weight, accompanied by an elevation of total hepatic DNA content was observed. DNA synthesis as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine, was found to be 6 times ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ledda-Columbano GM,Columbano A,Coni PP,Vargiu M,Liguori C,Pani P

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dose dependent molecular effects of acrylamide and glycidamide in human cancer cell lines and human primary hepatocytes.

    abstract::Recently published studies suggest a weak positive correlation between increased dietary acrylamide intake and the increased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. However, risk assessment of acrylamide remains difficult because the carcinogenic mechanisms are still unknown and in particular the molecular effects of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ehlers A,Lenze D,Broll H,Zagon J,Hummel M,Lampen A

    更新日期:2013-02-27 00:00:00

  • Importance of species selection in drug toxicity testing.

    abstract::The development of efficacious and safe new human pharmaceuticals continues to be highly dependent on well-designed and carefully executed animal toxicology studies. Although the protocols of most toxicology studies now conform to a standard format, careful selection of the most appropriate and relevant laboratory spe...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morton DM

    更新日期:1998-12-28 00:00:00

  • Influence of hOGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genotypes on biomarkers of genotoxicity in workers exposed to cobalt or hard metal dusts.

    abstract::Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity may allow better cancer prevention. We examined whether variations in genes involved in base-excision (hOGG1, XRCC1) and double strand break (XRCC3) DNA repair contribute to inter-individual differences in genotoxic effects induced in ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mateuca R,Aka PV,De Boeck M,Hauspie R,Kirsch-Volders M,Lison D

    更新日期:2005-04-10 00:00:00

  • Antigenotoxic effects of cimetidine against benzene induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes.

    abstract::An in vivo micronucleus assay using Balb/C male mice was used to examine antigenotoxic effects of cimetidine (CM) on benzene (BZN) induced genotoxic effects. CM not only has therapeutic and immunomudolatory role, but it has also been shown to protect bone marrow stem cells from radiation induced clastogenic effects. T...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mozdarani H,Kamali S

    更新日期:1998-09-30 00:00:00

  • Effects of ceftaroline on the innate immune and on the inflammatory responses of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    abstract::The tobacco smoking habit interferes with the innate host defence system against infections. Recurrent infections accelerated the functional respiratory decline. The present study assessed the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 and on pro-inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells (16HBE cell line and prim...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pace E,Ferraro M,Di Vincenzo S,Siena L,Gjomarkaj M

    更新日期:2016-09-06 00:00:00

  • Mineral fiber-induced leukocyte activation: the role of intra- and extracellular calcium.

    abstract::The role of intra- and extracellular calcium in the activation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to produce reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were studied by using soluble, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or particulate stimuli, quartz or chrysotile. A calciu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruotsalainen M,Naarala J,Savolainen KM

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Testicular toxicity following short-term exposure to tri- and hexavalent chromium: an experimental study in the rat.

    abstract::The effect of tri- and hexavalent chromium after intraperitoneal administration for 5 consecutive days on testicular histopathology and epididymal sperm number was assessed. Treatment with hexavalent chromium induced testicular atrophy and a reduction in epididymal sperm number after 60 days. No effect was seen after ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ernst E

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Health surveillance and biological monitoring of pesticide formulators in India.

    abstract::Results of health survey and biological monitoring in pesticide formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide (phorate) and a persistent chlorinated insecticide (technical hexachlorocyclohexane; HCH; BHC) are reported. Exposure of 160 workers to a combination of pesticides (m...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kashyap SK

    更新日期:1986-10-01 00:00:00

  • TRPA1 and CGRP antagonists counteract vesicant-induced skin injury and inflammation.

    abstract::The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antid...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Achanta S,Chintagari NR,Brackmann M,Balakrishna S,Jordt SE

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    abstract::Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and ori...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gminski R,Tang T,Mersch-Sundermann V

    更新日期:2010-06-16 00:00:00