Molecular epidemiology and human risk monitoring.


:Molecular epidemiologic research involves the identification of relations between previous exposure to some putative causative agent and subsequent biological effects in a cluster of individuals in populations. There is intensive current research in the field of molecular epidemiology, and this research has a direct impact on risk assessment processes. Many of the challenges facing risk assessors today can be addressed by research focused on developing a better understanding of (a) exposure characteristics or assessment, (b) the relationship between exposure and dose, and (c) the ultimate exposure/dose effect response relationship. Results from this research can be used to design and implement preventive interventions in at risk populations. Thus, the application of research in exposure assessment and molecular epidemiology to risk assessment and preventive interventions makes this a core program for public health.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Groopman JD,Kensler TW,Links JM




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    abstract::Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction be...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silva LR,Girard D

    更新日期:2016-09-30 00:00:00

  • Asymmetric synthesis and enantioselective teratogenicity of 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-en-VPA), an active metabolite of the anticonvulsant drug, valproic acid.

    abstract::Previous studies indicated that the enantiomers of thalidomide and its analogue EM12 exhibit differing teratogenic potencies. Unfortunately, these substances proved to be unstable and racemised considerably, so that the intrinsic teratogenic potencies of the pure enantiomers were difficult to elucidate. We have theref...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hauck RS,Nau H

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Current guidelines for the preclinical safety assessment of therapeutic proteins.

    abstract::Guidelines concerning the preclinical safety assessment of therapeutic proteins are available, e.g. in the European Community (EC Notes for Guidance). Unlike rather rigidly prescribing test systems such as those known for chemical substances, it is agreed that for biotechnologically-produced products, testing may be q...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bass R,Kleeberg U,Schröder H,Scheibner E

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Health surveillance and biological monitoring of pesticide formulators in India.

    abstract::Results of health survey and biological monitoring in pesticide formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide (phorate) and a persistent chlorinated insecticide (technical hexachlorocyclohexane; HCH; BHC) are reported. Exposure of 160 workers to a combination of pesticides (m...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kashyap SK

    更新日期:1986-10-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of protein kinase A activity and induced terminal differentiation of human skin fibroblasts in culture by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    abstract::In the present study experiments are described, which indicate that the exposure of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) to a low-frequency electromagnetic field of 20 Hz and 7-8 mT does induce terminal differentiation within 14 days of daily exposure of 12 h. As demonstrated by the analysis of the expression level of...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Löschinger M,Thumm S,Hämmerle H,Rodemann HP

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Predictive testing for respiratory sensitisation.

    abstract::A rat bioassay has been developed to provide an objective approach for the identification and classification of upper and lower respiratory tract irritants, with particular emphasis on the concentration-dependent induction and regression of lesions characteristic of asthma, such as persisting non-specific airway hyper...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pauluhn J

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic association of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms with dioxin blood concentrations among pregnant Japanese women.

    abstract::Dioxins are metabolized by cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1) via the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We determined whether different blood dioxin concentrations are associated with polymorphisms in AHR (dbSNP ID: rs2066853), AHR repressor (AHRR; rs2292596), CYP1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1; rs4646903 and rs1...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kobayashi S,Sata F,Sasaki S,Ban S,Miyashita C,Okada E,Limpar M,Yoshioka E,Kajiwara J,Todaka T,Saijo Y,Kishi R

    更新日期:2013-06-07 00:00:00

  • The detection of S-glutathionation of hepatic carbonic anhydrase III in rats treated with paraquat or diquat.

    abstract::Protein S-glutathionation has been demonstrated to be one of the cellular responses under oxidative stress and may be involved in many cellular metabolisms. In this study, the effect of redox cycling bipyridylium compounds, paraquat and diquat, on this protein modification was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats we...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lii CK,Wang ST,Chen HW

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Protective activity of cedron (Aloysia triphylla) infusion over genetic damage induced by cisplatin evaluated by the comet assay technique.

    abstract::Using the comet assay technique, this paper examines the protection from the cisplatin-induced genetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells provided by cedron-leaf infusion. Animals were separated into six groups: (I) untreated, (II) negative control, (III) treated with cedron-leaf infusion (5%), (IV) treated with cispla...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zamorano-Ponce E,Fernández J,Vargas G,Rivera P,Carballo MA

    更新日期:2004-08-30 00:00:00

  • Chromosome damage induced by carboplatin (CBDCA).

    abstract::The chromosome damage induced by carboplatin (CBDCA) was evaluated in vitro. In human lymphocytes 5 micrograms/ml CBDCA produced a 7-fold increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a 3-fold increase in the number of cells with structural abnormalities compared with the control. Likewise, at this...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González Cid M,Mudry M,Larripa I

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoxygenase-mediated biotransformation of p-aminophenol in the presence of glutathione: possible conjugate formation.

    abstract::This study tested a hypothesis that soybean lipoxygenase (SLO), a model enzyme, may be capable of generating a glutathione (GSH) conjugate(s) from p-aminophenol (PAP). Horseradish peroxidase was employed as a positive control. GSH depletion or an increase in the absorption at 327 nm with time due to GS-PAP formation w...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang X,Kulkarni AP

    更新日期:2000-01-05 00:00:00

  • In vivo and in vitro effect of chelating agents on drug metabolizing enzymes of the rat.

    abstract::Rats given calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaprol, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), or d-penicillamine (penicillamine) i.p. for 7 successive days showed a significant decrease in the activity of hepatic microsomal benzphetamine N-demethylase. Th...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalvi RR,McGowan C,Ademoyero A

    更新日期:1980-06-01 00:00:00

  • Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) synthesis in rat tubular suspension as a system for evaluating gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity.

    abstract::Since guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine, is synthesized mainly in the proximal tubule of the kidney where gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity often occurs, GM-induced renal cell damage was investigated using GAA synthesis in tubular suspension as an indicator. Results obtained were as follows: (1) GAA syn...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takeda M,Jung KY,Sekine T,Endou H,Koide H

    更新日期:1995-11-15 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepines medazepam and midazolam are activators of pregnane X receptor and weak inducers of CYP3A4: investigation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

    abstract::Benzodiazepines have wide-spread used in pharmacotherapy for their anxiolytic, myorelaxant, hypnotic, amnesic and anticonvulsive properties. Despite benzodiazepines are used in clinics over 50 years, they have not been surprisingly tested for capability to induce major drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. In the curren...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vrzal R,Kubesova K,Pavek P,Dvorak Z

    更新日期:2010-03-15 00:00:00

  • Repression of Smad7 mediated by DNMT1 determines hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis in rats.

    abstract::Conversion of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into hepatic myofibroblasts is a necessary event during the development of liver fibrosis. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which catalyzes DNA methylation and subsequently leads to the transcriptional repression of profibrotic genes, is selectively induced in myofibroblasts...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bian EB,Huang C,Wang H,Chen XX,Zhang L,Lv XW,Li J

    更新日期:2014-01-13 00:00:00

  • Genotoxicity of the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and equol in V79 cells.

    abstract::Hormonally active chemicals in the human diet, such as man-made estrogenic chemicals or plant-derived compounds (phytoestrogens), have become a matter of public concern. A significant part of human exposure to phytoestrogens is attributable to soy isoflavones. Besides their estrogenic properties, soy isoflavones also ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Di Virgilio AL,Iwami K,Wätjen W,Kahl R,Degen GH

    更新日期:2004-06-15 00:00:00

  • Role of glutathione in metabolic degradation of dichloromethane in rats.

    abstract::Dichloromethane (DCM) elimination and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) generation were examined in adult female SD rats pretreated with a glutathione (GSH) depletor(s). Rats were treated with either buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; 2 mmol/kg, i.p.), diethylmaleate (DEM; 3 mmol/kg, i.p.), phorone (PHO; 1 mmol/kg, i.p.) or BSO plus...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oh SJ,Kim SK,Kim YC

    更新日期:2002-03-24 00:00:00

  • Isolated airway exposure to toluene diisocyanate results in skin sensitization.

    abstract::Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a highly reactive industrial chemical is a leading cause of occupational asthma in westernized countries. It has also been reported to be a skin sensitizer in mice and guinea pigs although instances of skin sensitivity in humans are rare. It is uncertain if skin-contact is necessary to init...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ebino K,Ueda H,Kawakatsu H,Shutoh Y,Kosaka T,Nagayoshi E,Lemus R,Karol MH

    更新日期:2001-04-08 00:00:00

  • Susceptibility to the cytogenetic effects of dichloromethane is related to the glutathione S-transferase theta phenotype.

    abstract::The carcinogenicity of dichloromethane (DCM) has been demonstrated by mutagenicity studies using bacteria and yeasts and using animal bioassays. Epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to DCM increases the incidences of liver and pancreas cancers. In the present study, we determine whether DCM generates DNA dam...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olvera-Bello AE,Estrada-Muñiz E,Elizondo G,Vega L

    更新日期:2010-12-15 00:00:00

  • Developmental levels and androgen responsiveness of hepatic mono-oxygenases of male rats perinatally exposed to maternally administered cimetidine.

    abstract::Cimetidine, a widely prescribed, potent histamine H2-receptor antagonist, is unrelatedly a mild antiandrogen. Since perinatal androgens are essential for normal masculine imprinting, we wanted to determine if maternally administered cimetidine interfered with the development of the male offspring's sex-dependent, hepa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shapiro BH,Bitar MS

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nontoxic and toxic chromium: Protein indicators of cytotoxicity conversion.

    abstract::Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is an environmental human carcinogen which primarily targets lungs. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of biological pathways via translational and post-translational modifications represents a key mechanism through which Cr (VI) induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To id...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruno M,Ross J,Ge Y

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Absence of tumor promoting activity of Euphorbia milii latex on the mouse back skin.

    abstract::Euphorbia milii (Euphorbiaceae) is a decorative plant used in gardens and living fences. In China, it has also been employed in herbal remedies for hepatitis and abdominal edema. Since E. milii latex--lyophilized or in natura--proved to be a potent plant molluscicide, its toxicity to non-target organisms has been comp...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delgado IF,De-Carvalho RR,De-Oliveira AC,Kuriyama SN,Oliveira-Filho EC,Souza CA,Paumgartten FJ

    更新日期:2003-11-30 00:00:00

  • Adduct levels from benzo[a]pyrenediol epoxide: Relative formation to histidine in serum albumin and to deoxyguanosine in DNA in vitro and in vivo in mice measured by LC/MS-MS methods.

    abstract::Stable and specific biomacromolecular adducts can be used to measure in vivo doses of reactive compounds. An LC/MS-MS method to measure adducts from the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolite (±)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((±)-anti-BPDE) to His(146) in serum albumin (SA), earlier evaluated on in vitro alkylated human SA, ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Westberg EA,Singh R,Hedebrant U,Koukouves G,Souliotis VL,Farmer PB,Segerbäck D,Kyrtopoulos S,Törnqvist MÅ

    更新日期:2015-01-05 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    abstract::Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Winder C

    更新日期:2002-03-10 00:00:00

  • A compact multichamber gas inhalation exposure system for mice.

    abstract::A multi-unit, dynamic flow, inhalation exposure system which is capable of accommodating 12 mice per unit has been described. Components of the system include a mixing board, one or more glass distributing tubes, and detachable glass chamber tubes. The flow of a specified concentration of test gas exits from the mixin...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kapeghian JC,Waters IW,Jones AB

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • An in vitro cytotoxicities comparison of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells HPAEpiC.

    abstract::In present study, we compared for the first time the cytotoxicities of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells HPAEpiC. Moreover, we examined the effects of each PAH on oxidative stress (SOD, GSH, and ROS), cell viability, extracellular LDH, and apoptosis. T...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ke S,Liu Q,Yao Y,Zhang X,Sui G

    更新日期:2018-06-15 00:00:00

  • Correlative morphological and biochemical studies on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary alterations in rats.

    abstract::A single s.c. injection of 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline to rats induced pulmonary alterations characterized by hyaline thrombi of capillaries and arterioles, focal necrosis of alveolar walls, and medial thickening and intimal hyalinosis of arteries. Such pathological alterations became apparent 7 days after injection and...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Kokubo T,Takahashi M,Furukawa F,Otsuka H,Hashimoto K

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Vinylphenylmercapturic acids in human urine as biomarkers of styrene ring oxidation.

    abstract::New metabolites of styrene, three isomeric vinylphenylmercapturic acids (2-, 3-, and 4-VPMA), were recently identified by LC-ESI-MS in the urine of mice. In this study, 4-VPMA together with traces of 2- and 3-VPMA were found also in the urine of hand-lamination workers, which were exposed to styrene vapours at concent...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Linhart I,Mráz J,Dabrowská L,Mališ M,Krouželka J,Kořínek M

    更新日期:2012-09-03 00:00:00

  • Comparative acute lung inflammation induced by atmospheric PM and size-fractionated tire particles.

    abstract::A comparison of the effects produced by size-fractionated tire particles (TP10 and TP2.5) and similar-sized urban particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), collected in Milan in 2007, on the lungs of mice has been performed. The focus is on early acute lung responses following intratracheal instillation of aerosolized part...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mantecca P,Farina F,Moschini E,Gallinotti D,Gualtieri M,Rohr A,Sancini G,Palestini P,Camatini M

    更新日期:2010-10-05 00:00:00

  • The role of corticosterone in cadmium-induced thymic atrophy in mice.

    abstract::Serum corticosterone levels were determined at intervals after i.p. injection of 1.8 mg cadmium (Cd)/kg body weight. Thymus weight decreased significantly 3 days after injection. The effect of Cd injection on serum corticosterone levels was almost indistinguishable from that of saline injection. Further, Cd-induced th...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamada YK,Murakami N,Shimizu F,Kubota K

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00