Recent developments in methanol toxicity.


:The disposition of methanol and its putative toxic metabolite formate has been studied in humans, non-human primates, and rodents after exposure to high, neurotoxic doses. The rate at which rodents detoxify formate is more rapid than that of primates. Formate, an endogenous biological substrate, is detoxified by metabolism to CO2 via a tetrahydrofolate-(THF) dependent pathway. Species with high hepatic THF levels, such as rodents, are less sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of large methanol doses compared with species with low THF levels, such as primates. Data on the capacity of primates to detoxify formate derived from inhalation of low levels of methanol are critical for assessing human risk from methanol fuels. Female cynomolgus monkeys exposed to low concentrations of [14C]methanol (10-200 ppm) for 2 h have blood levels of methanol-derived formate that are 100- to 1000-fold lower than endogenous levels of formate. Healthy human volunteers exposed at rest or during exercise to 200 ppm methanol for 6 h or exposed to 20 mg/kg orally have elevated blood levels of methanol, but blood formate concentrations are not significantly increased above endogenous concentrations. Deficiencies in THF may prolong blood levels of formate and increase the likelihood of toxic effects. Limited studies in non-human primates with low THF levels exposed to 900 ppm methanol for 2 h have shown that concentrations of methanol-derived formate in blood remain below endogenous levels. Thus human populations may not be at added risk of neurotoxic effects resulting from exposure to low levels of methanol.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Medinsky MA,Dorman DC




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::An in vivo micronucleus assay using Balb/C male mice was used to examine antigenotoxic effects of cimetidine (CM) on benzene (BZN) induced genotoxic effects. CM not only has therapeutic and immunomudolatory role, but it has also been shown to protect bone marrow stem cells from radiation induced clastogenic effects. T...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mozdarani H,Kamali S

    更新日期:1998-09-30 00:00:00

  • N-Methylenvaline in a group of subjects occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    abstract::Aim of this pilot study was to correlate the human exposure to formaldehyde (F) with N-methylenvaline, a molecular adduct formed by addiction of F to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin. A group of 21 subjects employed in a plywood factory and a laminate factory, and occupationally exposed to F, together with a group ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bono R,Vincenti M,Schiliro' T,Scursatone E,Pignata C,Gilli G

    更新日期:2006-02-08 00:00:00

  • In vivo effect of 7,8-benzoflavone on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of mouse liver microsomes.

    abstract::In vivo administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produced much higher hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction than 7,8-benzoflavone (7,8-BF) in both aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive and nonresponsive strains of mice. Simultaneous treatment o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiyohara C,Hirohata T

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of the cephalosporin cefepime on hepatic drug metabolising enzyme activity in rats.

    abstract::Oral doses of the new cephalosporin cefepime administered to rats for 14 days (40 mg/kg/day) did not affect the activities of the hepatic drug metabolising enzymes measured. By contrast there were highly statistically significant increases in all measured parameters in rats treated with phenobarbitone (80 mg/kg/day), ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jordan MC,Waller AR,Chasseaud LF,Barbhaiya RH

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  • Interactions of excitatory neurotransmitters and xenobiotics in excitotoxicity and oxidative stress: glutamate and lead.

    abstract::Increased glutamate release is associated with serious neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and other brain injuries. Excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce oxidative st...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Savolainen KM,Loikkanen J,Eerikäinen S,Naarala J

    更新日期:1998-12-28 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalvi RR,McGowan C,Ademoyero A

    更新日期:1980-06-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Trichothecenes are mycotoxins which produce lethal toxicosis in humans and animals, yet no adequate therapeutic regimen has been developed. This study provides evidence that the selective platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist, BN 52021 (5-15 mg/kg i.v.) can prolong the survival of conscious rats exposed to a hig...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feuerstein G,Leader P,Siren AL,Braquet P

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  • Repeated topical treatment, in contrast to single oral doses, with Vitamin A-containing preparations does not affect plasma concentrations of retinol, retinyl esters or retinoic acids in female subjects of child-bearing age.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Nohynek GJ,Meuling WJ,Vaes WH,Lawrence RS,Shapiro S,Schulte S,Steiling W,Bausch J,Gerber E,Sasa H,Nau H

    更新日期:2006-05-05 00:00:00

  • In vivo and in vitro effects of 42-hydroxy-palytoxin on mouse skeletal muscle: structural and functional impairment.

    abstract::Palytoxins (PLTXs) are known seafood contaminants and their entrance into the food chain raises concern about possible effects on human health. The increasing number of analogs being identified in edible marine organisms complicates the estimation of the real hazard associated with the presence of PLTX-like compounds....

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Del Favero G,Sosa S,Poli M,Tubaro A,Sbaizero O,Lorenzon P

    更新日期:2014-03-03 00:00:00

  • Effects of zinc toxicity on thyroid function and histology in broiler chicks.

    abstract::Mechanisms of zinc (Zn) toxicity are incompletely understood and data regarding potential endocrine alterations in Zn toxicity are scarce. To examine mechanisms of Zn toxicity, day-old chicks were pair-fed diets containing 5280 ppm (Hz) or 73 ppm (CON) Zn. Impaired postnatal growth, independent of feed consumption, an...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dean CE,Hargis BM,Hargis PS

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    abstract::Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the presen...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clarke R,Connolly L,Frizzell C,Elliott CT

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Subchronic oral toxicity of turmeric and ethanolic turmeric extract in female mice and rats.

    abstract::Subchronic oral toxicity of turmeric and ethanolic turmeric extract was studied in female Swiss mice and Wistar rats fed turmeric (0, 1 and 5%) and ethanolic turmeric extract (0, 0.05 and 0.25%) through diet for 14 and/or 90 days. The administration of a high dose of turmeric (5%) for longer duration (90 days) showed ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deshpande SS,Lalitha VS,Ingle AD,Raste AS,Gadre SG,Maru GB

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Additive pro-oxidative effects of methylmercury and ebselen in liver from suckling rat pups.

    abstract::Oxidative stress has been pointed as an important molecular mechanism for liver injury in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning. Ebselen, a seleno-organic compound that possesses anti-oxidant properties, is a useful therapeutic agent used in clinical situations involving oxidative stress. Here, we examined the possible in vi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farina M,Soares FA,Zeni G,Souza DO,Rocha JB

    更新日期:2004-02-02 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toskulkao C,Glinsukon T

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu W,Zong Q,John-Baptiste A,Jessen B

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ruiter N,Ottenwälder H,Muliawan H,Kappus H

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Camacho L,Kelly KP,Beland FA,Gamboa da Costa G

    更新日期:2011-10-10 00:00:00

  • Yohimbine attenuates the delayed lethality induced in mice by amitraz, a formamidine pesticide.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moser VC,MacPhail RC

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  • Adductomics: characterizing exposures to reactive electrophiles.

    abstract::To understand environmental causes of disease, unbiased methods are needed to characterize the human exposome, which represents all toxicants to which people are exposed from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Because they directly modify DNA and important proteins, reactive electrophiles are probably the most imp...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rappaport SM,Li H,Grigoryan H,Funk WE,Williams ER

    更新日期:2012-08-13 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the effects of pyridine and its metabolites on rat liver and kidney.

    abstract::In order to evaluate the possibility that the metabolism of pyridine may be important for its toxic actions, pyridine was compared with pyridine N-oxide, 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, 4-hydroxypyridine and pyridinium methyliodide in rats given equal molar doses of the chemicals i.p. Hepatoxicity was assessed b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carlson GP

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan WH

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kimber I

    更新日期:1998-12-28 00:00:00

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    abstract::The effect of paraquat on lung subcellular calcium transport was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. With a high dose of 30 mg/kg given i.p., a significant decrease in the lung mitochondrial and microsomal calcium uptake at 24, 48, and 72 h after paraquat was observed. Trend of recovery was evident at 96 h in the sur...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agarwal AK,Coleman JW

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kimber I,Holliday MR,Dearman RJ

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karlsson O,Jiang L,Andersson M,Ilag LL,Brittebo EB

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Manzo L,Castoldi AF,Coccini T,Rossi AD,Nicotera P,Costa LG

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Katz DP,Bhattacharya D,Bhattacharya S,Deruiter J,Clark CR,Suppiramaniam V,Dhanasekaran M

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohhira S,Matsui H,Watanabe K

    更新日期:2000-11-20 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakrabarti S

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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