Cytokine regulation of chemical sensitization.


:The skin is an immunologically active tissue. Epidermal cells, both keratinocytes and Langerhans cells (LC), produce constitutively or can be stimulated to produce a variety of cytokines, many of which play important roles in the induction and regulation of allergic responses to sensitizing chemicals. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) provides the signal for LC migration from the skin and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and other cytokines effect the functional maturation of LC and their acquisition of immunostimulatory potential. The initial stimulus for induced or increased epidermal cytokine production derives from chemical exposure, or some other form of skin trauma. However, some epidermal cytokines are regulated in paracrine or autocrine fashion by other cytokines produced locally. The availability of epidermal cytokines has a major impact on the induction of sensitization and on the characteristics of immune responses to chemical allergens.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Kimber I,Holliday MR,Dearman RJ




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • The enemy at the gates? DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents.

    abstract::Genomic DNA is under continuous assault by various chemical species produced by normal cellular metabolism. In addition, exposure to exogenous agents adds further insult. Modification of DNA by chemical carcinogens has long been recognized as an early event in carcinogenesis and many DNA adducts have been characterize...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shuker DE

    更新日期:2002-08-05 00:00:00

  • Determinants of occupational exposure to metals by gas metal arc welding and risk management measures: a biomonitoring study.

    abstract::Welding fumes contain various toxic metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn). An assessment of the risk to health of local and systemic exposure to welding fumes requires the assessment of both external and internal doses. The aims of this study were to test the relevance in small and medium size...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Persoons R,Arnoux D,Monssu T,Culié O,Roche G,Duffaud B,Chalaye D,Maitre A

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tellurium-induced cognitive deficits in rats are related to neuropathological changes in the central nervous system.

    abstract::The effects of sodium tellurite 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg were assessed in the Morris water maze. Two days after treatment rats were tested for acquisition (posttreatment days 3-6) and on seventh day on a spatial retention task. Tellurium treatment was found to cause significant impairment in retention of the spatial learning...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Widy-Tyszkiewicz E,Piechal A,Gajkowska B,Smiałek M

    更新日期:2002-05-28 00:00:00

  • No change in serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in workers exposed to trichloroethylene.

    abstract::To determine whether occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) influences sympathetic nerve activity, serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activities were analyzed in 84 male workers exposed to TCE and 83 male age-matched controls. The workers were exposed to about 22 ppm TCE in air. There were no significant ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagaya T,Ishikawa N,Hata H

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cadmium and calcium-dependent c-fos expression in mesangial cells.

    abstract::Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal known to increase the expression of several protooncogenes in a variety of cells. although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Renal mesangial cells are smooth muscle cells in which Ca2+ signaling pathways regulate the induction of c-fos through both cAMP-dependent and mitogen-activa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Templeton DM,Wang Z,Miralem T

    更新日期:1998-03-16 00:00:00

  • Effect of argemone oil and argemone alkaloid, sanguinarine on Sertoli-germ cell coculture.

    abstract::Several incidences of reduction in the fertility (sperm count) have been reported in India and worldwide as well. Adulteration of food and consumption of adulterated mustard oil with argemone oil (AO) are presumed to be the factors for reduction in sperm count. In the present study we have studied the exfoliation of g...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mishra V,Saxena DK,Das M

    更新日期:2009-04-25 00:00:00

  • Role of inflammation in chemical-induced lung cancer.

    abstract::Chemical-induced carcinogenesis has been in the focus of toxicological research for many decades. However, the mechanisms leading to tumor formation are only understood with certain substances. The intake of potential carcinogens by inhalation is a major route of exposure. Chemical-induced lung tumors are the final ma...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Emmendoerffer A,Hecht M,Boeker T,Mueller M,Heinrich U

    更新日期:2000-03-15 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of in vitro absorption, decontamination and desorption of organophosphorous compounds from skin and synthetic membranes.

    abstract::Chemical warfare agents, such as soman, and pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos or malathion, are toxic organophosphorous compounds (OPCs) that are readily absorbed by the skin. Decontamination using solvents or surfactants may modify the cornified layer - the skin's main barrier against xenobiotic penetratio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mircioiu C,Voicu VA,Ionescu M,Miron DS,Radulescu FS,Nicolescu AC

    更新日期:2013-05-23 00:00:00

  • Pleural plaques in asbestosis: effect of Candida albicans.

    abstract::Effect of chrysotile dust alone or together with Candida albicans administered intratracheally in guinea pigs was studied in the genesis of pleural plaques over a period of 12 months. A significant increase of mucopolysaccharides, phosphorus, calcium and -SH content was detected in pleural fluid of animals treated wit...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saxena KC,Srivastava L,Ali S,Dogra RK

    更新日期:1982-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pneumotoxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene applied dermally to CD-1 mice.

    abstract::Pneumotoxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) applied to the skin of CD-1 mice was investigated and compared with that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). To 6 groups of 10 male mice and 10 female mice 0.1 ml of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 mg of BHT or 30 mg of BHA were topicall...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyakawa Y,Takahashi M,Furukawa F,Toyoda K,Sato H,Hayashi Y

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00

  • Binding interactions of halogenated bisphenol A with mouse PPARα: In vitro investigation and molecular dynamics simulation.

    abstract::The binding of bisphenol A (BPA) and its halogenated derivatives (halogenated BPAs) to mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand binding domain (mPPARα-LBD) was examined by a combination of in vitro investigation and in silico simulation. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay showed that halogenated BPA...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang J,Li T,Wang T,Guan T,Yu H,Li Z,Wang Y,Wang Y,Zhang T

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of zinc on cadmium, copper and zinc contents in cadmium exposed rats.

    abstract::The effect of zinc (Zn) administration on the uptake and retention of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and Zn in liver, kidneys and testes of cadmium exposed rats was investigated. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in the uptake of these metals in the 3 organs. The administration of Zn after the Cd exposure had li...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behari JR,Tandon SK

    更新日期:1980-02-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting NHANES biomonitoring data, cadmium.

    abstract::Cadmium (Cd) occurs naturally in the environment and the general population's exposure to it is predominantly through diet. Chronic Cd exposure is a public health concern because Cd is a known carcinogen; it accumulates in the body and causes kidney damage. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANE...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruiz P,Mumtaz M,Osterloh J,Fisher J,Fowler BA

    更新日期:2010-09-15 00:00:00

  • Urinary trehalase activity and renal brush-border damage in inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area (Jinzu River basin).

    abstract::Elevated urinary trehalase activity was observed in the inhabitants of the Jinzu River basin. Urinary trehalase activity was correlated with other urinalysis components, such as beta 2-microglobulin, glucose, amino nitrogen, and cadmium, of which a high level was observed in cadmium-polluted areas as compared with the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakano M,Aoshima K,Katoh T,Teranishi H,Kasuya M

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate manganese in exhaled breath condensate (Mn-EBC) as an indicator of exposure to fumes from metal inert gas welding process. METHODS:We collected EBC and urine from 17 welders and 16 unexposed control subjects after 5 days exposure. Concentrations of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and chrom...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hulo S,Chérot-Kornobis N,Howsam M,Crucq S,de Broucker V,Sobaszek A,Edme JL

    更新日期:2014-04-07 00:00:00

  • XPF plays an indispensable role in relieving silver nanoparticle induced DNA damage stress in human cells.

    abstract::Due to the specific antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), they are widely used in wound dressings, coatings in medical devices and household products. In spite of the well-documented genotoxicity of AgNPs, the molecular mechanisms of relieving AgNP-induced DNA damage stress remain poorly understood. ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang D,Yang H,Zhou Z,Zhao M,Chen R,Reed SH

    更新日期:2018-05-15 00:00:00

  • Effects of low level lead exposure on associative learning and memory in the rat: Influences of sex and developmental timing of exposure.

    abstract::Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocam...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson DW,Mettil W,Schneider JS

    更新日期:2016-03-30 00:00:00

  • Sulfur dioxide exposure enhances Th2 inflammatory responses via activating STAT6 pathway in asthmatic mice.

    abstract::Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of potential risk factors for induction and/or exacerbation of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the role of SO2 in asthma using a classical asthmatic model with allergic airway inflammation by treating C57BL/6 mice with ovalbumin (...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li X,Huang L,Wang N,Yi H,Wang H

    更新日期:2018-03-15 00:00:00

  • Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

    abstract::New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter LHJ,Beck A,Flockerzi V,Maurer HH,Meyer MR

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis in C57BL6 mouse via activating Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    abstract::2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental pollutant that could induce serious toxic effects in both humans and rodents. Some studies suggested that TCDD exposure may facilitate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanism b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han M,Liu X,Liu S,Su G,Fan X,Chen J,Yuan Q,Xu G

    更新日期:2017-05-05 00:00:00

  • In vitro prenatal developmental toxicity induced by some petroleum substances is mediated by their 3- to 7-ring PAH constituent with a potential role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    abstract::To test the hypothesis that 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are responsible for the prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS), the present study evaluates the PDT potency of DMSO-extracts of 7 heavy fuel oils (HFO), varying in their PAH content, and 1 highly...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamelia L,de Haan L,Ketelslegers HB,Rietjens IMCM,Boogaard PJ

    更新日期:2019-10-15 00:00:00

  • New psychoactive substances: Studies on the metabolism of XLR-11, AB-PINACA, FUB-PB-22, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, 25-I-NBOMe, and meclonazepam using human liver preparations in comparison to primary human hepatocytes, and human urine.

    abstract::New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter LHJ,Maurer HH,Meyer MR

    更新日期:2017-10-05 00:00:00

  • Sister-chromatid exchanges in the lymphocytes of people exposed to environmental cadmium.

    abstract::Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were analyzed from peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 8 men and 16 women who had been exposed to environmental cadmium (Cd), and 6 controls. Average Cd concentrations in blood of the Cd-polluted group were 8.9 micrograms/l for men and 10.0 micrograms/l for women. These were no signific...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nogawa K,Tsuritani I,Yamada Y,Kido T,Honda R,Ishizaki M,Kurihara T

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Alpha-tocopheryl succinate protects hepatocytes from chemical-induced toxicity under physiological calcium conditions.

    abstract::Rat and canine hepatocyte suspensions were exposed to toxic concentrations of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and ionophore A-23187 in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TS). The exogenous administration of alpha-TS (25 microM) completely protected hepatocytes f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fariss MW,Merson MH,O'Hara TM

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone-induced signaling transition from autophagy to apoptosis is regulated by HMGB1 and p53 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    abstract::Autophagy, which works to remove stress and maintain cellular homeostasis, is usually considered a "pro-survival" signal. Contrarily, apoptosis is programmed "pro-death" machinery. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of ubiquitous industrial pollutants. Our previous studies illustrated that a PCB quinone meta...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shi Q,Wang Y,Dong W,Song E,Song Y

    更新日期:2019-05-15 00:00:00

  • Promoting effect of testosterone propionate on experimental exocrine pancreatic tumors by 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in rats.

    abstract::A single intravenous injection of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in a dose of 9 mg/kg induced exocrine adenomas of the pancreas in a significantly higher rate in male than in female rats. Castration following HAQO administration diminished the incidence of the pancreatic tumors in male rats. A combined treatment with...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Katayama H

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Epicatechin protects the auditory organ by attenuating cisplatin-induced ototoxicity through inhibition of ERK.

    abstract::Cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, causes ototoxicity in a large percentage of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of epicatechin (EC) as an otoprotective agent to prevent cisplatin toxicity and to investigate the molecular mechanism of EC. The effects of EC on cisplatin-indu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JS,Kang SU,Hwang HS,Pyun JH,Choung YH,Kim CH

    更新日期:2010-12-15 00:00:00

  • ROS generation and MAPKs activation contribute to the Ni-induced testosterone synthesis disturbance in rat Leydig cells.

    abstract::Nickel (Ni) can disorder testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells, whereas the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Ni-induced disturbance of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. The testo...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han A,Zou L,Gan X,Li Y,Liu F,Chang X,Zhang X,Tian M,Li S,Su L,Sun Y

    更新日期:2018-06-15 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of metallothionein inducing metals on lethal toxicity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in mice.

    abstract::A protective effect of preadministration of the metals Cu, Bi, Zn, Hg, Cd, Ni or Co, against lethal toxicity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (Cisplatin; CDDP) was observed in mice. However, the protective effect seems not always to correlate with metallothionein (MT) levels in the liver and kidney of mice treated with...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naganuma A,Satoh M,Koyama Y,Imura N

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Individual and combined toxicological effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on human hepatocytes in in vitro chronic exposure conditions.

    abstract::While numerous surveys highlighted the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in food, data about their toxicological combined effects is still limited. This is especially the case for chronic exposure conditions, although the latter are more representative of the mycotoxin risk associated with food consumption than acut...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith MC,Madec S,Pawtowski A,Coton E,Hymery N

    更新日期:2017-10-05 00:00:00