Cytokine regulation of chemical sensitization.


:The skin is an immunologically active tissue. Epidermal cells, both keratinocytes and Langerhans cells (LC), produce constitutively or can be stimulated to produce a variety of cytokines, many of which play important roles in the induction and regulation of allergic responses to sensitizing chemicals. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) provides the signal for LC migration from the skin and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and other cytokines effect the functional maturation of LC and their acquisition of immunostimulatory potential. The initial stimulus for induced or increased epidermal cytokine production derives from chemical exposure, or some other form of skin trauma. However, some epidermal cytokines are regulated in paracrine or autocrine fashion by other cytokines produced locally. The availability of epidermal cytokines has a major impact on the induction of sensitization and on the characteristics of immune responses to chemical allergens.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Kimber I,Holliday MR,Dearman RJ




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Saikosaponin-d-mediated downregulation of neurogenesis results in cognitive dysfunction by inhibiting Akt/Foxg-1 pathway in mice.

    abstract::Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lixing X,Zhouye J,Liting G,Ruyi Z,Rong Q,Shiping M

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • A novel in vivo model for predicting myelotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents using IL-3/GM-CSF transgenic humanized mice.

    abstract::Evaluating myelotoxicity is essential for ensuring the safety of novel drugs before they are approved for clinical applications. Although in vivo prediction of the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of anticancer drugs is usually performed in rodents, the results are not always applicable to clinical treatment because dru...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ito R,Nagai D,Igo N,Okuda Y,Sekine K,Ichimura E,Katano I,Mizushima T,Goto M,Ohnishi Y,Ito M,Okamoto K

    更新日期:2017-11-05 00:00:00

  • The role of NF-κB signaling pathway in polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    abstract::Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) phosphate is a competitive disinfectant with strong antibacterial activity. However, epidemiologists revealed that inhaled PHMG-phosphate may increase the risk of pulmonary fibrosis associated with inflammation, resulting in the deaths of many people, including infants and pregnant w...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim HR,Shin DY,Chung KH

    更新日期:2015-03-04 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    abstract::Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have on...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wright LK,Lee RB,Vincelli NM,Whalley CE,Lumley LA

    更新日期:2016-01-22 00:00:00

  • The integration of data on physico-chemical properties, in vitro-derived toxicity data and physiologically based kinetic and dynamic as modelling a tool in hazard and risk assessment. A commentary.

    abstract::Toxicity of a compound for an organism is dependent on the route of exposure, the amount (or concentration), the way in which the compound is taken up, distributes and is eliminated from the organism (ADME, kinetics) and the intrinsic properties (reactivity; mode of action, dynamics) of the compound towards the organi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blaauboer BJ

    更新日期:2003-02-18 00:00:00

  • JUUL e-liquid exposure elicits cytoplasmic Ca2+ responses and leads to cytotoxicity in cultured airway epithelial cells.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The popularity of new and emerging tobacco products such as E-cigarettes (E-cigs) is rapidly expanding worldwide. However, uncertainties surrounding the potential health consequences due to the use of such products exist and warrant further study. METHODS:Cultured A549 and Calu-3 airway epithelia were expose...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang R,Jones MM,Dornsife RE,Wu T,Sivaraman V,Tarran R,Onyenwoke RU

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • alpha-Zearalanol attenuates oxLDL-induced ET-1 gene expression, ET-1 secretion and redox-sensitive intracellular signaling activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    abstract::alpha-Zearalanol (alpha-ZAL), a phytochemical with both antioxidant and estrogen-like properties, has been shown to retard progression of atherosclerosis and regulate cardiovascular function in part through suppression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion. However, the precise nature behind alpha-ZAL-elicited inhibition o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu H,Duan J,Dai S,Wu Y,Sun R,Ren J

    更新日期:2008-07-10 00:00:00

  • Oral cocaine produces dose-related hepatotoxicity in male mice.

    abstract::Cocaine remains a widely abused substance. While most addicts take cocaine intranasally, a considerable number abuse cocaine by mouth. It has been assumed that after oral exposure cocaine is hydrolyzed in the stomach rendering it ineffective. This study investigated the effect of orally administered cocaine on liver f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Labib R,Turkall R,Abdel-Rahman MS

    更新日期:2001-12-15 00:00:00

  • Generally recognized as safe (GRAS): history and description.

    abstract::Generally recognized as safe (GRAS), a system for review and approval of ingredients for addition to food, was conceived at a time when the need for a less doctrinaire review of food ingredients was critical. The GRAS approval process for a food ingredient relies on the judgment of "...experts qualified by scientific ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burdock GA,Carabin IG

    更新日期:2004-04-15 00:00:00

  • Palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction is attenuated by cyanidin-3-O-glucoside through modulation of Nrf2/Bach1 and NF-κB pathways.

    abstract::Free fatty acids (FFA), commonly elevated in diabetes and obesity, have been shown to impair endothelial functions and cause oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Anthocyanins represent one of the most important and interesting classes of flavonoids and seem to play a role in preventing cardiovascula...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fratantonio D,Speciale A,Ferrari D,Cristani M,Saija A,Cimino F

    更新日期:2015-12-15 00:00:00

  • Methodological approaches to the population analysis of toxicity data.

    abstract::Toxicokinetics is the assessment of systemic exposure in toxicity studies, in which pharmacokinetic data are generated, either as an integral component in the conduct of the nonclinical toxicity studies or in specially designed supportive studies, in order to assess systemic exposure. The data may be used in the inter...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aarons L,Graham G

    更新日期:2001-03-31 00:00:00

  • An in vitro cytotoxicities comparison of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells HPAEpiC.

    abstract::In present study, we compared for the first time the cytotoxicities of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells HPAEpiC. Moreover, we examined the effects of each PAH on oxidative stress (SOD, GSH, and ROS), cell viability, extracellular LDH, and apoptosis. T...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ke S,Liu Q,Yao Y,Zhang X,Sui G

    更新日期:2018-06-15 00:00:00

  • Currently available in vitro methods used in the regulatory toxicology.

    abstract::About two decades ago in vitro mutagenicity tests were adopted as the first in vitro methods in regulatory toxicology. For reasons of animal welfare and better science, many validation studies of various in vitro methods were performed between 1985 and 1995 for their potential to replace the Draize eye irritation test...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liebsch M,Spielmann H

    更新日期:2002-02-28 00:00:00

  • Importance of species differences in experimental pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled cadmium for extrapolation to humans.

    abstract::There is sufficient evidence for pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled cadmium (Cd) compounds in rats whereas no such evidence was found in mice and hamsters, indicating significant species differences in the pulmonary response to inhaled Cd. We hypothesized that expression of metallothionein (MT) protein in the lung a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oberdörster G,Cherian MG,Baggs RB

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Skin absorption of aniline from aqueous solutions in man.

    abstract::The skin absorption of aniline, aniline with 3% water content, and 1 and 2% aqueous aniline solutions was investigated in man. The time of exposure was 30 or 60 min. The absorbed amount of aniline was calculated on the basis of rho-aminophenol excretion in 24-h urine. The rate of aniline absorption from aqueous soluti...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baranowska-Dutkeiwicz B

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of natural antioxidants, NAO and apocynin, on oxidative stress in the rat heart following LPS challenge.

    abstract::Oxidative damage plays a key role in septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is known to enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress were tested in the rat heart following LPS challenge, with and without pretreatment with t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ben-Shaul V,Lomnitski L,Nyska A,Zurovsky Y,Bergman M,Grossman S

    更新日期:2001-08-06 00:00:00

  • Acute effects of 2-nitropropane on rat liver and brain.

    abstract::Intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) induced lipid accumulation, centrilobular necrosis, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial abnormalities in rat liver 24 h after exposure. These pathological changes were accompanied by ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zitting A,Savolainen H,Nickels J

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • Application of the kinetic of RNA synthesis on Hep 3B cells. Study of the medium-term cytotoxicity of atrazine.

    abstract::The test based on measuring the RNA synthesis rate, already described on Hela S3 in culture (Fauris et al., Les colloques de l'INSERM 106 (1981) 455-463), has been adapted to a human hepatoma cell line Hep 3B which retains a certain capacity towards metabolising. These modifications make it easier to point to the pres...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Descampiaux B,Herno V,Brice A,Erb F

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Methylmercury impairs motor function in early development and induces oxidative stress in cerebellar granule cells.

    abstract::Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Environmental exposure to methylmercury frequently occurs at low doses, most frequently through fish consumption. Although the general population is at risk for exposure, pregnant women and youn...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patel E,Reynolds M

    更新日期:2013-10-09 00:00:00

  • Influence of methylglyoxal on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage.

    abstract::The effect of different doses of methylglyoxal (50-400 mg/kg body wt.) were examined using enzymes involved in the antioxidant function, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation in the liver and spleen of Swiss albino mice (7-8 week old) after 6, 12 and 24 h. Significant changes were observed predominantly in ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choudhary D,Chandra D,Kale RK

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • GAPDH-knockdown reduce rotenone-induced H9C2 cells death via autophagy and anti-oxidative stress pathway.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:GAPDH, well known for its house-keeping functions, has also been shown to be involved in cell injury, apoptosis and death under conditions of stress such as starvation, chemical injury and oxidative stress. This study examines the effect of GAPDH knockdown on cell injury in response to Rotenone. METHODS:GAP...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liang S,Figtree G,Aiqun M,Ping Z

    更新日期:2015-05-05 00:00:00

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase as a key player in excitotoxicity and post-ischemic brain damage.

    abstract::Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a group of protein-modifying and nucleotide-polymerizing enzymes able to catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-ribose units from NAD to substrate proteins. In the human genome, 16 different genes encoding for members of this emerging family of enzymes have been identified. Know...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meli E,Pangallo M,Baronti R,Chiarugi A,Cozzi A,Pellegrini-Giampietro DE,Moroni F

    更新日期:2003-04-04 00:00:00

  • The tobacco carcinogen NNK disturbs mitotic chromosome alignment by interrupting p53 targeting to the centrosome.

    abstract::The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is the most potent risk factor among tobacco-related carcinogens in lung cancer progression and outcomes. Although genetic mutations and chromosome instability have been detected in NNK-induced lung tumors, the oncogenic mechanisms o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park JE,Jang YL,Jang CY

    更新日期:2017-11-05 00:00:00

  • A vasoactive serum component and reactivity of isolated rat aorta after chronic alcohol administration.

    abstract::Norepinephrine-induced contractility and relaxation to acetylcholine of isolated aortas taken from normal and chronic alcoholic rats were measured. Similar experiments were performed adding serum from normal (NS) or alcoholic rats (AS), with or without norepinephrine and acetylcholine. Responses of normal and alcoholi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baños G,Lopez-Zetina P,Franco M

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by low levels of menthol in tobacco products.

    abstract::Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by menthol or other tobacco additives can suppress natural defense reactions such as coughing that usually would become effective as involuntary resistance against the inhalation of fumes. In Europe menthol is only regulated as flavor, but can be used as additive as long as no cha...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paschke M,Tkachenko A,Ackermann K,Hutzler C,Henkler F,Luch A

    更新日期:2017-04-05 00:00:00

  • Urinary biomonitoring of subjects with different smoking habits. Part II: an untargeted metabolomic approach and the comparison with the targeted measurement of mercapturic acids.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frigerio G,Mercadante R,Campo L,Polledri E,Boniardi L,Olgiati L,Missineo P,Nash WJ,Dunn WB,Fustinoni S

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of pretreatment with SKF-525A on triphenyltin metabolism and toxicity in mice.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohhira S,Matsui H,Watanabe K

    更新日期:2000-11-20 00:00:00

  • d-galactose induces premature senescence of lens epithelial cells by disturbing autophagy flux and mitochondrial functions.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Y,Li Y,Ma L,Xin G,Wei Z,Zeng Z,Xing Z,Li S,Niu H,Huang W

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization issues in physiological toxicokinetic modeling: a case study with benzene.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woodruff TJ,Bois FY

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Protein association of the neurotoxin and non-protein amino acid BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in the liver and brain following neonatal administration in rats.

    abstract::The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is not an amino acid that is normally found in proteins. Our previous autoradiographic study of (3)H-labeled BMAA in adult mice unexpectedly revealed a tissue distribution similar to that of protein amino acids. The aim of this study was to characterize the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karlsson O,Jiang L,Andersson M,Ilag LL,Brittebo EB

    更新日期:2014-04-07 00:00:00