Promoter elements conferring neuron-specific expression of the beta 2-subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor studied in vitro and in transgenic mice.


:Several genes encoding subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been cloned and regulatory elements involved in the transcription of the alpha 2 and alpha 7-subunit genes have been described. Yet, the detailed mechanisms governing the neuron-specific transcription and the spatio-temporal expression pattern of these genes remain largely uninvestigated. The beta 2-subunit is the most widely expressed neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit in the nervous system. We have studied the structural and regulatory properties of the 5' sequence of this gene. A fragment of 1163 bp of upstream sequence is sufficient to drive the cell-specific transcription of a reporter gene in both transient transfection assays and in transgenic mice. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of this promoter reveal two negative elements and one positive element. The positively-acting sequence includes one functional E-box. One of the repressor elements is located in the transcribed region and is the NRSE/RE1 sequence already described in promoters of neuronal genes. In this paper, we describe the neuron-specific promoter of the gene encoding the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2-subunit.






Bessis A,Salmon AM,Zoli M,Le Novère N,Picciotto M,Changeux JP




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00














  • Short increase of BDNF messenger RNA triggers kainic acid-induced neuronal hypertrophy in adult mice.

    abstract::Neurotrophin gene expression in adult brain varies according to physiological activity and following brain injury, suggesting a role in neuronal maintenance and plasticity. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of action of neurotrophins in the adult brain are still poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guilhem D,Dreyfus PA,Makiura Y,Suzuki F,Onteniente B

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates calcium transients in enteric glia.

    abstract::The enteric nervous system plays an integral role in the gastrointestinal tract. Within this intricate network, enteric glia are crucial in the maintenance of normal bowel function, yet their signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Enteric glia, and not enteric neurons, selectively responded to lysophosphatidic ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Segura BJ,Zhang W,Cowles RA,Xiao L,Lin TR,Logsdon C,Mulholland MW

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Memantine Mitigates Oligodendrocyte Damage after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    abstract::Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; e.g., sports concussions) is common and results in significant cognitive impairment, white matter injury and increased risk of neurodegeneration. Targeted therapies for rmTBI are lacking, though evidence from other injury models indicates that targeting N-methyl-d-asparta...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma G,Liu C,Hashim J,Conley G,Morriss N,Meehan WP,Qiu J,Mannix R

    更新日期:2019-11-21 00:00:00

  • Regulation of c-fos expression by the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer.

    abstract::The dopamine D1 and D2 receptors form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer in a subset of neurons and couple to the Gq protein to regulate intracellular calcium signaling. In the present study the effect of D1-D2 heteromer activation and disruption on neuronal activation in the rat brain was mapped. This was accomplished usin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perreault ML,Shen MY,Fan T,George SR

    更新日期:2015-01-29 00:00:00

  • Rostroventral medulla-mediated biphasic modulation of the rat cardiosomatic motor reflex.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the rostroventral portion of the medulla oblongata (RVM) exerts descending modulation on the cardiosomatic motor reflex (CMR) in rats. Capsaicin (1 μg/ml, 0.2 ml) was injected into the pericardial sac as an algesic substance to induce the CMR, which was monitored...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun N,Liu XH,Du JQ,Zhu JX,Tang JS,Li Q

    更新日期:2011-06-30 00:00:00

  • Acute changes in the neuronal expression of GABA and glutamate decarboxylase isoforms in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus.

    abstract::The piriform cortex (PC) is the largest region of the mammalian olfactory cortex with strong connections to other limbic structures, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. In addition to its functional importance in the classification of olfactory stimuli, the PC has been implicated in the study o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Freichel C,Potschka H,Ebert U,Brandt C,Löscher W

    更新日期:2006-09-15 00:00:00

  • Gestational hypoxia alone or combined with restraint sensitizes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induces anxiety-like behavior in adult male rat offspring.

    abstract::We have reported that hypoxia affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and behavior by driving the expression of central corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptors in adult mammals, and this effect is modulated by other factors. Here, we address whether or not intermittent hypoxia (IH) or res...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fan JM,Chen XQ,Jin H,Du JZ

    更新日期:2009-04-10 00:00:00

  • Pathologic changes in the CNS of dystonia musculorum mutant mouse: an animal model for human spinocerebellar ataxia.

    abstract::This paper examines the topography of neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mutant mouse, revealed by selective silver impregnation, specific histochemical staining and electron microscopy. Neuronal lesions have been observed exclusively in the spinal cord, the medulla and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sotelo C,Guenet JL

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of local cholinesterase inhibition on acetylcholine release assessed simultaneously in prefrontal and frontoparietal cortex.

    abstract::To investigate whether acetylcholine is released in a similar fashion in different regions of the cortex, in vivo microdialysis was used to measure acetylcholine efflux simultaneously in the medial prefrontal and the frontoparietal cortex, under both basal conditions and following tactile stimulation. Additionally, th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Himmelheber AM,Fadel J,Sarter M,Bruno JP

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of spinal nitric oxide synthase-dependent processes in the initiation of the micturition hyperreflexia associated with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine the participation of nitrergic neurotransmission in the initiation of micturition hyperreflexia associated to cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced cystitis in rats. Micturition threshold volume was significantly reduced 4 h after CP administration (100 mg/kg, i.p.); this reduction was att...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lagos P,Ballejo G

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cholinergic neurons of the pontomesencephalic tegmentum release acetylcholine in the basal nuclear complex of freely moving rats.

    abstract::Two major systems of cholinergic projection neurons are found within the centrum of the mammalian brain: the basal nuclear complex, projecting predominantly to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and the pontomesencephalotegmental network, innervating primarily the thalamus. Neurons comprising the latter n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Consolo S,Bertorelli R,Forloni GL,Butcher LL

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mu but not delta and kappa opioid receptor involvement in ventrolateral orbital cortex opioid-evoked antinociception in formalin test rats.

    abstract::The present study was designed to investigate the roles of different subtypes of opioid receptors in ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) opioid-evoked antinociception in formalin test by using an automatic detection system for recording the nociceptive behavior (agitation) and a manual method for detecting the duration...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie YF,Wang J,Huo FQ,Jia H,Tang JS

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Survival and morphology of auditory neurons in dissociated cultures of newborn mouse spiral ganglion.

    abstract::We have systematically characterized neuronal survival and growth in cultures derived from newborn/postnatal day 1 mouse cochlea. Dissociated cultures of the cochlear spiral ganglion provide an experimental environment in which to examine molecular mechanisms of survival, development and physiology of auditory neurons...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitlon DS,Ketels KV,Coulson MT,Williams T,Grover M,Edpao W,Richter CP

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Simvastatin increases excitability in the hippocampus via a PI3 kinase-dependent mechanism.

    abstract::Simvastatin is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor commonly used in the clinic to treat hypercholesterolemia. In addition, simvastatin has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and pleiotropic effects of simvastatin have been reported including anti-inflammatory properties, enhancement of neurite outgrowth, and memor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Métais C,Hughes B,Herron CE

    更新日期:2015-04-16 00:00:00

  • Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure Susceptibility in the Tau58/4 Transgenic Mouse Model of Tauopathy.

    abstract::In several tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), an increased incidence of seizures is observed. Tau, one of the major proteins implicated in AD pathology, is an important regulator of neural network excitability and might participate in the underlying epileptic cascade. However, the mechanisms underlying this...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Erum J,Valkenburg F,Van Dam D,De Deyn PP

    更新日期:2020-01-15 00:00:00

  • Role of central cholinergic receptor sub-types in spatial working memory: a five-arm maze task in mice provides evidence for a functional role of nicotinic receptors in mediating trace access processes.

    abstract::A delayed-matching spatial working memory protocol in a 5-arm maze was used to test the hypothesis of differential roles for central nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in mediating task performance. In experiment 1, using a within subjects-repeated design, groups of C57Bl/6 mice, previously trained to crit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maviel T,Durkin TP

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bile duct ligation plus hyperammonemia in rats reproduces the alterations in the modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide in brain of cirrhotic patients.

    abstract::Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by nitric oxide (NO) is altered in brain from cirrhotic patients. The aim of this work was to assess whether an animal model of cirrhosis, bile duct ligation, alone or combined with diet-induced hyperammonemia for 7-10 days reproduces the alterations in NO modulation of sG...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodrigo R,Jover R,Candela A,Compañ A,Sáez-Valero J,Erceg S,Felipo V

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Abnormal proprioceptive-motor integration contributes to hypometric postural responses of subjects with Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Subjects with Parkinson's disease exhibit abnormally short compensatory steps in response to external postural perturbations. We examined whether: (1) Parkinson's disease subjects exhibit short compensatory steps due to abnormal central proprioceptive-motor integration, (2) this proprioceptive-motor deficit can be ove...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobs JV,Horak FB

    更新日期:2006-08-25 00:00:00

  • Neurokinin-1 receptors in cholinergic neurons of the rat ventral pallidum have a predominantly dendritic distribution that is affected by apomorphine when combined with startle-evoking auditory stimulation.

    abstract::Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are implicated in startle reflex inhibition by a prior weak stimulus often referred to as prepulse inhibition (PPI) and used as an index of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Gating deficits can be produced in rodent models by acute systemic administration of apom...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mengual E,Chan J,Lane D,San Luciano Palenzuela M,Hara Y,Lessard A,Pickel VM

    更新日期:2008-02-06 00:00:00

  • Introducing a mammalian nerve-muscle preparation ideal for physiology and microscopy, the transverse auricular muscle in the ear of the mouse.

    abstract::A new mammalian neuromuscular preparation is introduced for physiology and microscopy of all sorts: the intrinsic muscle of the mouse ear. The great utility of this preparation is demonstrated by illustrating how it has permitted us to develop a wholly new technique for staining muscle T-tubules, the critical conducti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heuser JE,Tenkova TI

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Homotransplant of pelvic ganglion into bladder wall in adult rats.

    abstract::In these experiments a large portion of the pelvic ganglion of adult female rats was transplanted into the wall of the urinary bladder of the same animals. The morphology and fine structure of the transplants were studied in whole-mounts and in sections for light and electron microscopy, from two days up to four month...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gabella G,Uvelius B

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced expression and desensitization of adenosine A1 receptor/adenylyl cyclase pathway after chronic (-)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine intake during pregnancy.

    abstract::Little is known about the G protein-coupled receptor desensitization process during pregnancy. Wistar pregnant rats were treated with (-)N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), an adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R) agonist, in their drinking water during pregnancy, and the effect on A(1)R/adenylyl cyclase system was studi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: León DA,Castillo CA,Albasanz JL,Martín M

    更新日期:2009-10-06 00:00:00

  • The organization of the ipsi- and contralateral claustrocortical system in rat with notes on the bilateral claustrocortical projections in cat.

    abstract::The organization of the claustrocortical system was investigated in rat by means of cortical injections of either lectin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase or retrograde fluorescent tracers. The latter were also employed in cat. Evans Blue, Fast Blue, True Blue, Nuclear Yellow and Diamidino Yellow were used in differen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minciacchi D,Molinari M,Bentivoglio M,Macchi G

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Intrathalamic striatal grafts survive and affect circling behaviour in adult rats with excitotoxically lesioned striatum.

    abstract::Current models of basal ganglia disorders suggest that choreoathetosis is the end result of reduced GABAergic inhibition of the motor thalamus. Graft-derived release of GABA from intrastriatal striatal grafts has also been reported. In the present work, cell suspension grafts from embryonic day 14-15 rat striatal prim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Labandeira-Garcia JL,Liste I,Tobio JP,Rozas G,Lopez-Martin E,Guerra MJ

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory Intelligence for Extraction of an Abstract Auditory Rule: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    abstract::In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so-called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract audito...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo XT,Wang XD,Liang XY,Wang M,Chen L

    更新日期:2018-02-21 00:00:00

  • Dendritic spines disappear with chilling but proliferate excessively upon rewarming of mature hippocampus.

    abstract::More dendritic spine synapses occur on mature neurons in hippocampal slices by 2 h of incubation in vitro, than in perfusion-fixed hippocampus. What conditions initiate this spinogenesis and how rapidly do the spines begin to proliferate on mature neurons? To address these questions, CA1 field of the hippocampus neuro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirov SA,Petrak LJ,Fiala JC,Harris KM

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential Activation and Functional Plasticity of Multimodal Areas Associated with Acquired Musical Skill.

    abstract::Training of a musical skill is known to produce a distributed neural representation of the ability to perceive music and perform musical tasks. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the audiovisual perception of music involves a wider activation of multimodal sensory and sensorimotor structures in the bra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Srinivasan N,Bishop J,Yekovich R,Rosenfield DB,Helekar SA

    更新日期:2020-10-15 00:00:00

  • Neuropeptide Y protects retinal neural cells against cell death induced by ecstasy.

    abstract::Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) has potent CNS stimulant effects. Besides the acute effects of MDMA, such as psychomotor activation, euphoria, decreased appetite, and hyperthermia, long-term damage of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve terminals in multiple brain areas have also been reported. Altho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alvaro AR,Martins J,Costa AC,Fernandes E,Carvalho F,Ambrósio AF,Cavadas C

    更新日期:2008-03-03 00:00:00

  • The mirror neuron system and motor dexterity: what happens?

    abstract::The mirror neuron system (MNS) is currently one of the most prominent areas of research in neuroscience. Some of the work has focused on the identification of factors that modulate its activity, but until now, no one has tried to identify the effect of motor ability on the MNS regions. The aim of the present work is t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plata Bello J,Modroño C,Marcano F,González-Mora JL

    更新日期:2014-09-05 00:00:00

  • Functional differences between D(1) and D(5) revealed by high resolution imaging on live neurons.

    abstract::The interaction between the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems governs normal behavior and is perturbed in many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Hypofunction of the D1 family of receptors, to which the D(1) and D(5) subtypes belong, is a typical feature of schizophrenia. Here we have used confocal li...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kruusmägi M,Kumar S,Zelenin S,Brismar H,Aperia A,Scott L

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00