Deprivation indices: their interpretation and use in relation to health.


STUDY OBJECTIVE:To examine the use of deprivation indices in relation to health. DESIGN:This paper reviews selected publications which illustrate the diversity of use of deprivation indices in the past decade. Most of this work is based in the major routine databases which exist in this country: the census, population, mortality, cancer register, and health service records all now incorporate a postcode identifier which permits the derivation of data at small area level, and thus the examination of health events in relation to the characteristics of that area - usually ward or postcode sector. The small area approach provides a valuable tool both in deprivation and in other epidemiological studies which examine the influence of the environment on health. SETTING:The setting is various journals and official publications. MAIN RESULTS:The link between deprivation and health has been clearly demonstrated in a number of studies, with populations living in deprived areas exhibiting levels of mortality, particularly below the age of 65, which vastly exceed those in affluent areas. In the decade 1981-91, these differentials increased in Scotland and the Northern Health Region and inequalities in health are shown to have widened. Analysis shows that particular causes of death and sites of cancer are more likely to reflect the influence of socio-economic factors. The work so far mostly shows the associations between these factors and health measures and more investigation is required into the determinants of health, which are likely to reside as much in past as in current circumstances. A measure of deprivation has proved of value in excluding the likely variation in the incidence of disease in studies directed towards determining the influence of the physical environment on populations living in the vicinity of possible harmful industrial processes. A deprivation measure has been adopted by the Department of Health as a basis for making enhanced payments to general practitioners for patients living in these areas, but the resource allocation formula for allocating funds to regional authorities has failed to incorporate such a measure in the formula. CONCLUSIONS:An area measure of deprivation has proved a valuable tool in examining differentials in health and death and is likely to prove of continuing value to health authorities in planning the delivery of health care. Future work should strive to examine the determinants of health as well as the associations, although this is unlikely to be possible through the routine databases which have provided the main basis for analysis so far.


Carstairs V




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00








49 Suppl 2


  • Differences on the effect of heat waves on mortality by sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mortality increases during heat waves have been reported worldwide. The magnitude of these increases can vary within regions according to sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics. The objectives of this study were to explore this variation and its determinants, and to identify the most heat-vulne...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Y,Dadvand P,Barrera-Gómez J,Sartini C,Marí-Dell'Olmo M,Borrell C,Medina-Ramón M,Sunyer J,Basagaña X

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • How complete and accurate are cancer registrations notified by the National Health Service Central Register for England and Wales?

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To assess the completeness and accuracy of notification of cancers by the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) for England and Wales. DESIGN:Comparison of 720 cancer registrations ascertained from NHSCR up to May 1999 with those ascertained for the same cohort from six other sources and a p...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dickinson HO,Salotti JA,Birch PJ,Reid MM,Malcolm A,Parker L

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in East and West German children in the decade after reunification: population-based series of cross-sectional studies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyse time trends in overweight and obesity from 1991 to 2000 in samples of German children and to test the hypothesis of a trend difference between the samples from East and West Germany during this time period. DESIGN:Repeated cross-sectional studies using data of 35,434 five to seven-year-old childre...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Apfelbacher CJ,Cairns J,Bruckner T,Möhrenschlager M,Behrendt H,Ring J,Krämer U

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of chronic pain on health care seeking, self care, and medication. Results from a population-based Swedish study.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To explore individual and social factors that could predict health care utilisation and medication among people with chronic pain in an unselected population. DESIGN:A mailed survey with questions about pain and mental symptoms, disability, self care action, visits to health care providers, and medicat...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersson HI,Ejlertsson G,Leden I,Scherstén B

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient management of low back pain: a feasibility study. Report of a working group.

    abstract::This is the report of a feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial of chiropractic and hospital outpatient management for low back pain of mechanical origin. Preparations for the study included an approach to the General Medical Council for guidance about the intended collaboration between medically qualified ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验



    更新日期:1986-03-01 00:00:00

  • The COVID-19 pandemic and health inequalities.

    abstract::This essay examines the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for health inequalities. It outlines historical and contemporary evidence of inequalities in pandemics-drawing on international research into the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918, the H1N1 outbreak of 2009 and the emerging international estimates of socio...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bambra C,Riordan R,Ford J,Matthews F

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Who benefits from social investment? The gendered effects of family and employment policies on cardiovascular disease in Europe.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the context of fiscal austerity in many European welfare states, policy innovation often takes the form of 'social investment', a contested set of policies aimed at strengthening labour markets. Social investment policies include employment subsidies, skills training and job-finding services, early childh...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris KA,Beckfield J,Bambra C

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Leukaemia and childhood cancer in twins.

    abstract::Data from the United Kingdom on childhood leukaemia and childhood cancer in twins and from the United States on leukaemia in twins are analysed by a new method. The method distinguishes determinants occurring before the stage of pregnancy corresponding with the cleavage of MZ pairs, from determinants occurring after t...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knox EG,Marshall T,Barling R

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in coronary mortality and community services, associated with occupational structure in New York State, 1980-96.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:Examine the association between county occupational structure, services availability, prevalence of risk factors, and coronary mortality rates by sex, for 1980-96, in New York state. DESIGN:New York's 62 counties were classified into three occupational structure categories; counties with the lowest per...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Armstrong DL,Strogatz D,Wang R

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Which literacy skills are associated with smoking?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Research has demonstrated associations between smoking and reading skills, but other literacy skills such as speaking, listening and numeracy are less studied despite our dependence on the use of numbers and the oral exchange to deliver information on the risks of smoking. METHODS:The authors used multivari...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin LT,Haas A,Schonlau M,Derose KP,Rosenfeld L,Rudd R,Buka SL

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Long term breast cancer screening in Nijmegen, The Netherlands: the nine rounds from 1975-92.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To assess the performance of breast cancer screening in different age categories over two decades. DESIGN:Important determinants of reduced breast cancer mortality such as attendance, mammography performance, cancer detection, and disease stage were recorded. SETTING:Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1975-92...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Otten JD,van Dijck JA,Peer PG,Straatman H,Verbeek AL,Mravunac M,Hendriks JH,Holland R

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental influences on children's physical activity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds' physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. METHODS:We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with re...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pouliou T,Sera F,Griffiths L,Joshi H,Geraci M,Cortina-Borja M,Law C

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN:Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality were evaluated throug...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leinsalu M,Vågerö D,Kunst AE

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mental health benefits of interactions with nature in children and teenagers: a systematic review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It is commonly believed that nature has positive impacts on children's health, including physical, mental and social dimensions. This review focuses on how accessibility to, exposure to and engagement with nature affects the mental health of children and teenagers. METHODS:Ten academic databases were used t...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tillmann S,Tobin D,Avison W,Gilliland J

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Reported incidence of occupational asthma in the United Kingdom, 1989-90.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To estimate the incidence of occupational asthma seen by respiratory and occupational physicians in the UK in 1989 and 1990. DESIGN:New cases of occupational asthma were taken from a national reporting scheme, the Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease Project (SWORD). Estima...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meredith S

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Validation in London of a physical activity questionnaire for use in a study of postmenopausal osteopaenia.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To determine the validity of a self administered physical activity questionnaire to be used as part of a screening device for postmenopausal osteopaenia (with additional questions on medical history and calcium intake). DESIGN:A questionnaire was posted to 86 perimenopausal women to enquire about weekl...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suleiman S,Nelson M

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Road safety in the political agenda: the impact on road traffic injuries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This paper aims at assessing the effectiveness of the package of road safety measures implemented after road safety was included in the political agenda in the year 2004 on the number of road traffic-injured people in Spain. METHODS:An evaluation study was performed using an interrupted time-series design. ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Novoa AM,Pérez K,Santamariña-Rubio E,Marí-Dell'Olmo M,Cozar R,Ferrando J,Peiró R,Tobías A,Zori P,Borrell C

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Social influences on trajectories of self-rated health: evidence from Britain, Germany, Denmark and the USA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study investigates social inequalities in self-rated health dynamics for working-aged adults in four nations, representing distinct welfare regime types. The aims are to describe average national trajectories of self-rated health over a 7-year period, identify social determinants of cross-sectional and ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sacker A,Worts D,McDonough P

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • The importance of community education for individual mortality: a fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal multilevel data on 1.7 million Norwegian women and men.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear, and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kravdal O

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Racial, gender and geographic disparities of antiretroviral treatment among US Medicaid enrolees in 1998.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 1998, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was widespread, but the diffusion of these life-saving treatments was not uniform. As half of all AIDS patients in the USA have Medicaid coverage, this study of a multistate Medicaid claims dataset was undertaken to assess disparities in the rates of HAAR...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: King WD,Minor P,Ramirez Kitchen C,Oré LE,Shoptaw S,Victorianne GD,Rust G

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Building on "The concept of prevention: a good idea gone astray?".

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the article by Starfield and colleagues, it was suggested that the concept of prevention has gone astray. This article aims to extend their ideas. METHODS:Our methods are to take the Starfield et al article and argue that it is possible and useful to see prevention in a wider context, going beyond preven...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Ataguba JE,Mooney G

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Health and demographic characteristics of respondents in an Australian national sexuality survey: comparison with population norms.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To assess the representativeness of survey participants by systematically comparing volunteers in a national health and sexuality survey with the Australian population in terms of self reported health status (including the SF-36) and a wide range of demographic characteristics. DESIGN:A cross sectional...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Purdie DM,Dunne MP,Boyle FM,Cook MD,Najman JM

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Poorer self assessed health in a prospective study of men with screen detected abdominal aortic aneurysm: a predictor or a consequence of screening outcome?

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To assess the extent to which poorer self assessed health in men in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is detected at screening is a consequence or a predictor of screening outcome. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Community based screening. PARTICIPANTS:23 654 men who attended for AAA screeni...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Marteau TM,Kim LG,Upton J,Thompson SG,Scott AP

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Referral to a new psychological therapy service is associated with reduced utilisation of healthcare and sickness absence by people with common mental health problems: a before and after comparison.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) is a new programme designed to reduce disease burden to the individual and economic burden to the society of common mental health problems (CMHP). This is the first study to look at the impact of IAPT on health service utilisation and sickness absence using ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Lusignan S,Chan T,Parry G,Dent-Brown K,Kendrick T

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Persisting inequalities in birth outcomes related to neighbourhood deprivation.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Health inequalities can be observed in early life as unfavourable birth outcomes. Evidence indicates that neighbourhood socioeconomic circumstances influence health. However, studies looking into temporal trends in inequalities in birth outcomes including neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions are scarce. ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bertens LCM,Burgos Ochoa L,Van Ourti T,Steegers EAP,Been JV

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein E polymorphism, life stress and self-reported health among older adults.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of self-reported health (SRH) with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, life stress, and sociobehavioural factors in adults aged 55 and over. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of data from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan in 2000, comprising 1023 individu...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Zhang F,Lewis M,Yang G,Iriondo-Perez J,Zeng Y,Liu J

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Educational inequalities in blood pressure and cholesterol screening in nine European countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To perform the first European overview of educational inequalities in the use of blood pressure and cholesterol screening. METHODS:Data were obtained on the use of screening services according to educational level from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Es...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodin D,Stirbu I,Ekholm O,Dzurova D,Costa G,Mackenbach JP,Kunst AE

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of changes in green spaces on mental health in older adults: a fixed effects analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Urban green spaces have been linked to different health benefits, but longitudinal studies on the effect of green spaces on mental health are sparse and evidence often inconclusive. Our objective was to study the effect of changes in green spaces in the residential environment on changes in mental health usi...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Noordzij JM,Beenackers MA,Oude Groeniger J,Van Lenthe FJ

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Income inequality and self rated health in Britain.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:Several studies have reported an association between income inequality and increased mortality, but few have used net income data, controlled for individual income, or evaluated sensitivity to the choice of inequality measure. The study tested the hypotheses that people in regions of Britain with the gr...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weich S,Lewis G,Jenkins SP

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Economic evaluation of cholesterol-related interventions in general practice. An appraisal of the evidence.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To investigate and evaluate published data on cost effectiveness of cholesterol lowering interventions, and how this information could be interpreted in a rational approach of cholesterol management in general practice. DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature. SETTING:No restriction on setting. ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van der Weijden T,Knottnerus JA,Ament AJ,Stoffers HE,Grol RP

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00