Deprivation indices: their interpretation and use in relation to health.


STUDY OBJECTIVE:To examine the use of deprivation indices in relation to health. DESIGN:This paper reviews selected publications which illustrate the diversity of use of deprivation indices in the past decade. Most of this work is based in the major routine databases which exist in this country: the census, population, mortality, cancer register, and health service records all now incorporate a postcode identifier which permits the derivation of data at small area level, and thus the examination of health events in relation to the characteristics of that area - usually ward or postcode sector. The small area approach provides a valuable tool both in deprivation and in other epidemiological studies which examine the influence of the environment on health. SETTING:The setting is various journals and official publications. MAIN RESULTS:The link between deprivation and health has been clearly demonstrated in a number of studies, with populations living in deprived areas exhibiting levels of mortality, particularly below the age of 65, which vastly exceed those in affluent areas. In the decade 1981-91, these differentials increased in Scotland and the Northern Health Region and inequalities in health are shown to have widened. Analysis shows that particular causes of death and sites of cancer are more likely to reflect the influence of socio-economic factors. The work so far mostly shows the associations between these factors and health measures and more investigation is required into the determinants of health, which are likely to reside as much in past as in current circumstances. A measure of deprivation has proved of value in excluding the likely variation in the incidence of disease in studies directed towards determining the influence of the physical environment on populations living in the vicinity of possible harmful industrial processes. A deprivation measure has been adopted by the Department of Health as a basis for making enhanced payments to general practitioners for patients living in these areas, but the resource allocation formula for allocating funds to regional authorities has failed to incorporate such a measure in the formula. CONCLUSIONS:An area measure of deprivation has proved a valuable tool in examining differentials in health and death and is likely to prove of continuing value to health authorities in planning the delivery of health care. Future work should strive to examine the determinants of health as well as the associations, although this is unlikely to be possible through the routine databases which have provided the main basis for analysis so far.


Carstairs V




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00








49 Suppl 2


  • Randomised controlled trial of anti-smoking advice in pregnancy. 1977.

    abstract::In a randomised controlled trial intensive individual anti-smoking advice given in parallel with hospital antenatal care did not influence the outcome of pregnancy. The belief that retardation of fetal growth caused by maternal smoking occurs in late pregnancy is not well based, and the advice may not have been given ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 传,古典文章,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Donovan JW

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Research in epidemiology and community health in the medical curriculum: students' opinions of the Nottingham experience.

    abstract::Medical students in Nottingham all complete an honours Bachelor of Medical Sciences course in one department including a research project. The honours programme in community health is described, with results from a survey of the 122 graduates since the medical school started. The 98 (80%) responses showed high levels ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elwood JM,Pearson JC,Madeley RJ,Logan RF,Beaver MW,Gillies PA,Little J,Langham A

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Early and late growth and blood pressure in adolescence.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of growth during infancy and childhood on blood pressure in adolescence. DESIGN:Birth cohort study. SETTING:Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS:749 adolescents with complete information on birth weight and gestational age, as well as on anthropometric data at all three follow up vis...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horta BL,Barros FC,Victora CG,Cole TJ

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Are self-reported neighbourhood characteristics associated with onset of functional limitations in older adults with or without memory impairment?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Neighbourhood resources may preserve functional independence in older adults, but little is known about whether benefits differ for individuals with normal and impaired memory. We evaluated the extent to which neighbourhood context was related to onset of instrumental and basic activities of daily living (I/...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen TT,Rist PM,Glymour MM

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Marked socioeconomic inequalities in hip fracture incidence rates during the Bone and Joint Decade (2000-2010) in Portugal: age and sex temporal trends in a population based study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Socioeconomic factors may influence changes in hip fracture (HF) incidence over time. We analysed HF temporal trends during the Bone and Joint Decade in Portugal (BJD-Portugal), 2000-2010, by regional socioeconomic status (SES), sex and age. METHODS:We selected registers of patients aged 50+ years with HF (...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliveira CM,Alves SM,Pina MF

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Short term effects of air pollution on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease: results of the APHEA project in two major cities in The Netherlands, 1977-89.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To assess the short term relationship between air pollution and the daily number of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease. DESIGN:Data were analysed using autoregressive Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion and controlling for possible confounding factors such as seasonal and ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schouten JP,Vonk JM,de Graaf A

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Gender differences in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence episodes due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is wide evidence that women present longer duration of sickness absence (SA) than men. Musculoskeletal disorders are influenced by gender due to the sexual division of work. METHODS:354 432 episodes of non-work-related SA due to musculoskeletal disorders, which were registered in Catalonia between 200...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arcas MM,Delclos GL,Torá-Rocamora I,Martínez JM,Benavides FG

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation?

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To investigate the strength of the relation between the amount of green space in people's living environment and their perceived general health. This relation is analysed for different age and socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, it is analysed separately for urban and more rural areas, because the stren...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maas J,Verheij RA,Groenewegen PP,de Vries S,Spreeuwenberg P

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Neighbourhood level versus individual level correlates of women's body dissatisfaction: toward a multilevel understanding of the role of affluence.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:This study examined the prevalence of body dissatisfaction as a function of individual level and neighbourhood level indicators of affluence. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:A subset of data from a larger random digit dialling telephone survey was used to obtain individual level data on body dissatisfaction, ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLaren L,Gauvin L

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Space-time interactions in childhood cancers.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to examine a cohort of cases of childhood cancer occurring in a defined geographical area to try to identify clustering and possible causative factors. DESIGN:Data were analysed using the close pair method developed by Knox for signs of clustering in relation to date and place ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris V

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • The changing contribution of smoking to educational differences in life expectancy: indirect estimates for Finnish men and women from 1971 to 2010.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We estimated the contribution of smoking to educational differences in mortality and life expectancy between 1971 and 2010 in Finland. METHODS:Eight prospective datasets with baseline in 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 and each linked to a 5-year mortality follow-up were used. We calculate...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martikainen P,Ho JY,Preston S,Elo IT

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Breast cancer hypothesis: a single cause for the majority of cases.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The main cause of breast cancer remains unknown. Numerous causal factors or predisposing conditions have been proposed, but account for only a small percentage of the total disease. The current search for multiple causes is unavailing. This report explores whether any single aetiological agent may be re...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wiseman RA

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • A cancer survival model that takes sociodemographic variations in "normal" mortality into account: comparison with other models.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Sociodemographic differentials in cancer survival have occasionally been studied by using a relative survival approach, where all cause mortality among persons with a cancer diagnosis is compared with that among similar persons without such a diagnosis ("normal" mortality). One should ideally take into...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kravdal Ø

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Health related lifestyle in adolescence predicts adult educational level: a longitudinal study from Finland.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the relative importance of perceived health and health related lifestyle in adolescence in the production of educational differences. DESIGN:A longitudinal study: survey data from 1981 and 1985 linked with Educational Registry data from 1993. SETTING:The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS:A represent...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koivusilta L,Rimpelä A,Rimpelä M

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ascertainment of congenital malformations: a comparative study of two systems.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The aim was to compare the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) notification system for congenital malformation surveillance and the Liverpool Congenital Malformations Registry (LCMR) with respect to efficiency and uniformity of ascertainment, diagnostic accuracy, and overreporting of minor ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dutton SJ,Owens JR,Harris F

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in a Norwegian population: the HUNT Study.

    abstract::Vitamin D deficiency occurs worldwide. Winter season and high Body Mass Index (BMI) are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We estimated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a Norwegian adult population and examined factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. A cohort of 25, 616 a...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larose TL,Chen Y,Camargo CA Jr,Langhammer A,Romundstad P,Mai XM

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Extreme obesity: sociodemographic, familial and behavioural correlates in The Netherlands.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between sociodemographic, behavioural, and family characteristics and the body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m2)) of extremely obese people. DESIGN:Self reported sociodemographic, behavioural, and familial characteristics and weight and height were obtained by po...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merkus MP,Mathus-Vliegen LM,Broekhoff C,Heijnen AM

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in preschool asthma symptoms: the Generation R Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The authors assessed whether socioeconomic inequalities in asthma symptoms were already present in preschool children and to what extent prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for asthma symptoms mediate the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS:The study included 3136 Dutch children partici...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hafkamp-de Groen E,van Rossem L,de Jongste JC,Mohangoo AD,Moll HA,Jaddoe VW,Hofman A,Mackenbach JP,Raat H

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study of 2.6 million women and men in Sweden.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To examine whether neighbourhood deprivation predicts incidence rates of coronary heart disease, beyond age and individual income. DESIGN:Follow up study from 31 December 1995 to 31 December 1999. Women and men were analysed separately with respect to incidence rates of coronary heart disease. Multilev...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sundquist K,Malmström M,Johansson SE

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of methodologies for small area life expectancy estimation.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To evaluate methods for calculating life expectancy in small areas, for example, English electoral wards. DESIGN:The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the distribution of life expectancy (and its standard error) estimates for 10 alternative life table models. The models were combinations of Chian...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eayres D,Williams ES

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Fair, and still a sun lover: risk of gallstone formation.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The aim was to evaluate the hypothesis that sunlight exposure leads to the development of gallstones in people with a sun sensitive skin. DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a case-control study among 206 white patients referred for an ultrasound examination of the gallbladder. Sunlight exposure and skin sensi...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pavel S,Thijs CT,Potocky V,Knipschild PG

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of indices of gun availability in the community.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the degree to which the proportion of homicides and suicides committed with a gun is associated with reported availability of firearms across Chicago neighbourhoods. METHODS:Data were collected as part of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), a combined neighbourhood ...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shenassa ED,Daskalakis C,Buka SL

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Can we reduce health inequalities? An analysis of the English strategy (1997-2010).

    abstract::England was the first European country to pursue a systematic policy to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This paper assesses whether this strategy has worked, and what lessons can be learnt. A review of documents was conducted, as well as an analysis of entry-points chosen, specific policies chosen, imple...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Mackenbach JP

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intrauterine growth and intelligence within sibling pairs: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the association between intrauterine growth and intelligence. DESIGN:Population based birth cohort study of sibling pairs born within a maximum of three years of each other. SETTING:Mater-University women and children's hospital, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:235 (470 children) sibling pairs...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lawlor DA,Bor W,O'Callaghan MJ,Williams GM,Najman JM

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing the measurement properties of a Frailty Index across the age spectrum in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Frailty is a way to appreciate the variable vulnerability to declining health status of people as they age. No consensus for measuring frailty has been established. This study aimed to adapt a Frailty Index (FI) to the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) and evaluate its applicability in both younger...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanters DM,Griffith LE,Hogan DB,Richardson J,Patterson C,Raina P

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Acceptability of domestic violence against women in the European Union: a multilevel analysis.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The acceptability of domestic violence against women (DVAW) plays an important part in shaping the social environment in which the victims are embedded, which in turn may contribute either to perpetuate or to reduce the levels of DVAW in our societies. This study analyses correlates of the acceptability...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gracia E,Herrero J

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • How complete and accurate are cancer registrations notified by the National Health Service Central Register for England and Wales?

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To assess the completeness and accuracy of notification of cancers by the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) for England and Wales. DESIGN:Comparison of 720 cancer registrations ascertained from NHSCR up to May 1999 with those ascertained for the same cohort from six other sources and a p...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dickinson HO,Salotti JA,Birch PJ,Reid MM,Malcolm A,Parker L

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Offering a prognosis in lung cancer: when is a team of experts an expert team?

    abstract::The outlook for patients with lung cancer is poor, so an accurate estimation of prognosis will underpin treatment decisions and allow patients to make personal plans for the future. However, evidence suggests that there is a variation between doctors in their predictions of outcomes and also they tend to be over-optim...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kee F,Owen T,Leathem R

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Education, material condition and physical functioning trajectories in middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: a cross-country comparison.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Two competing hypotheses, cumulative advantage/disadvantage and age-as-leveller, have been proposed to explain the contradictory findings on socioeconomic differences in health over the lifespan. To test these hypotheses, this investigation examined the influence of educational attainment and material condit...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu Y,Pikhart H,Pająk A,Kubínová R,Malyutina S,Besala A,Peasey A,Marmot M,Bobak M

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence of cancer in schizophrenic patients.

    abstract::A cohort of 6168 schizophrenic patients was followed from 1957 to 1984 to determine the incidence of cancer in these patients. In the male schizophrenic patients the incidence of cancer was found to be significantly reduced in comparison with the general Danish population. This reduction was especially marked for canc...

    journal_title:Journal of epidemiology and community health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mortensen PB

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00